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We present direct terrestrial evidence of ice volume change of the Darwin and Hatherton glaciers which channel ice from the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Ice Shelf. Combining glacial geomorphology with cosmogenic exposure ages from 25 erratics indicates a pre-LGM ice volume at least 600 m thicker than current Hatherton ice elevation was established at least 2.2 million years ago. In particular, five erratics spread across a drift deposit at intermediate elevations located below a prominent moraine feature mapped previously as demarcating the LGM ice advance limits, give a well-constrained single population with mean 10Be age of 37.0 ± 5.5 ka (1σ). At lower elevations of 50–100 m above the surface of Lake Wellman, a further five samples from within a younger drift deposit range in exposure age from 1 to 19 ka. Our preferred age model interpretation, which is partly dependent on the selection of a minimum or maximum age-elevation model, suggests that LGM ice volume was not as large as previously estimated and constrains LGM ice elevation to be within ± 50 m of the modern Hatherton Glacier ice surface, effectively little different from what is observed today.
Early worsening of anxiety, agitation and irritability are thought to be
common among people commencing antidepressants, especially for anxiety
disorders. This phenomenon, which may be termed jitteriness/anxiety
syndrome, is cited as an explanation for early treatment failure and
caution in using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
However, we believe that it is inconsistently defined and that robust
evidence to support the phenomenon is lacking.
To review systematically all evidence relating to jitteriness/ anxiety
syndrome to identify: constituent symptoms; medications implicated;
disorders in which it was reported; incidence; time course; management
strategies; relationship of this syndrome to therapeutic response;
distinction between syndrome and akathisia; relationship between syndrome
and suicide; and genetic predispositions.
A systematic search identified articles and these were included in the
review if they addressed one of the above aspects of jitteriness/anxiety
Of 245 articles identified, 107 articles were included for review. No
validated rating scales for jitteriness/anxiety syndrome were identified.
There was no robust evidence that the incidence differed between SSRIs
and tricyclic antidepressants, or that there was a higher incidence in
anxiety disorders. Published incidence rates varied widely from 4 to 65%
of people commencing antidepressant treatment. Common treatment
strategies for this syndrome included a slower titration of
antidepressant and the addition of benzodiazepines. Conclusive evidence
for the efficacy of these strategies is lacking. There was conflicting
and inconclusive evidence as to whether the emergence of this syndrome
had a predictive value on the response to treatment. It appears to be a
separate syndrome from akathisia, but evidence for this assertion was
limited. The effect of jitteriness/anxiety syndrome on suicide rates has
not been evaluated. Three studies examined genetic variations and
side-effects from treatment, but none was specifically designed to assess
Jitteriness/anxiety syndrome remains poorly characterised. Despite this,
clinicians' perception of this syndrome influences prescribing and it is
cited to support postulated mechanisms of drug action. We recommend
systematised evaluation of side-effects at earlier time points in
antidepressant trials to further elucidate this clinically important
The concentration of viable cells in an aerosol of micro-organisms is reduced by physical loss and biological decay. To study biological decay it is necessary to distinguish between the two processes. The preferred way of doing this is to mix the test aerosol with a tracer which is subject only to physical loss: the tracer and test cells should be mixed before dissemination.
The recommended tracers for bacterial clouds are bacteria made radioactive by growing on a medium containing 32P, then killed with formaldehyde and washed. To ensure closest identity of physical behaviour it is necessary that the tracer should be of the same species as the cells under test.
We are grateful to Mr E. O. Powell for helpful comment during the preparation of this paper.
The importance of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the pathophysiology of anxiety is well known. A key role for postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors has recently been suggested in studies of genetic knockout mice.
To measure 5-HT1A receptor binding in patients with panic disorder in the untreated state and after recovery on treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
Nine symptomatic untreated patients with panic disorder, seven patients recovered on SSRI medication and nineteen healthy volunteers underwent a single positron emission tomography (PET) scan using the 5-HT1A tracer [11C]WAY-100635.
In comparison with controls, both presynaptic and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor binding was reduced in untreated patients, with the most significant reductions being in the raphe, orbitofrontal cortex, temporal cortex and amygdala. In recovered patients presynaptic binding was reduced, but there was no significant reduction in postsynaptic binding.
Panic disorder is associated with reduced 5-HT1A receptor availability, which is also known to have a key role in depression.
We discuss the nitridation of ALD-deposited hafnium silicate films by exposure to atomic nitrogen generated in a remote nitrogen plasma. Nitrogen concentration [N] as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is determined as a function of the nitridation temperature and other process conditions. Nitrogen concentrations up to 13.7 atomic % were achieved.
In this paper the methods of Parts 1 and 2 are extended to the case when the elliptic
cylinder is executing angular oscillations about its centreline. At large distances from
the cylinder the solution for a beam of waves tends to a similarity solution that
decays more rapidly with distance than does the similarity solution for rectilinear
oscillations described in Thomas & Stevenson (1972). Figure 4 shows in a remarkable
way how the predicted wave profiles change with distance from the inviscid solution
to the similarity one.
In the latter part of the paper the predictions of Parts 1 and 2 and other theories
are compared with recent experimental observations. The results of the experiments
are in good agreement with the predictions of Parts 1 and 2.
Pd and Zn - tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrins (PdTPTBP and ZnTPTBP), hexacyanin 3 (HITCI), and substituted phthalocyanines were incorporated in solid-state matrices (xerogels) using a sol-gel process. Nonlinear reverse saturable absorption was observed with those materials when they were illuminated with nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm, or other wavelengths in the visible spectrum (between 450 nm and 630 nm). PdTPTBP doped xerogels exhibit a nonlinear activation threshold of about 10 mJ/cm , which is much lower than the value of 80 mJ/cm2 obtained under similar conditions with classical Al phthalocyanine chloride, or HITCI molecules. Solid state “red active” reverse saturable absorbers can be obtained with substituted phthalocyanines doped xerogels. The different experimental results are discussed using classical 4- energy level diagrams.
Thin-film vanadium dioxide (VO2) and vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) undergo shear phase transformations at 340K and 120K, respectively. The electrical and infrared optical properties of these materials are dramatically impacted by this phase transformation. Below the phase transition temperature, both VO2 and V2O3 are “poor” electrical insulators and have minimal absorption in the infrared spectral region. Above the phase transition temperature, both VO2 and V2O3 are poor conductors and are opaque in the infrared. The infrared thermochromic properties of these materials make them interesting candidates for several optical applications.
Utilization of either VO2 or V2O3 necessitates an accurate knowledge of the optical properties both above and below the phase transition temperature. This paper reports on some recent infrared ellipsometric measurements on the optical properties of these materials above the transition temperature. These measurements found that both are strongly dispersive through the 3–12 micron spectral region. In addition, the temperature dependence of the optical properties of VO2 above the transition temperature can be related to the film morphology and stoichiometry.
Photoinduced intermolecular charge transfer (PICT) in donor/acceptor systems has been investigated as an approach to the design of new optical limiting (OL) materials. Solution of cyanines or porphyrins (as sensitizers) and viologen derivatives (as electron acceptors) were used in these studies. Picosecond time-resolved fluorescence measurements were carried out to estimate the charge-transfer rate in these donor/acceptor systems. The radical-ion absorption bands were identified using spectroelectrochemistry. Nonlinear transmission measurements with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses were utilized to determine the effective photo-induced to ground-state absorption cross-section ratio of the sensitizers alone and the sensitizer/acceptor systems. Our studies are consistent with optical limiting by PICT in solution and indicate a substantial radical-ion yield in the systems examined.
Two chitosan gel systems, chitosan/acetic anhydride and chitosan/glutaraldehyde, were studied as host materials for optical limiters. Both gels are transparent and have a very high laser damage threshold. The chitosan/acetic anhydride gel has a damage threshold > 540 J/cm2 while the chitosan/glutaraldehyde gel, which is slightly yellow in color, has a damage threshold > 600 J/cm2 (measurements made with 6.8 ns laser pulses at 532 nm). Different chromophore dopants, including porphyrin and CuPc, were tested. The optical limiting behavior of the guest/host gel systems was similar to their corresponding solution systems. The morphological structure of the gel systems was studied and the gelation process is discussed. Our current research explores the effect of gel morphology on the optical limiting properties of the chromophores and studies the relation between chromophores, cross-linking agents and the host materials. We have also investigated the relationship between optical properties and chemical structure of the gel/chromophore systems in order to optimize the optical behavior.
The molecular structure / nonlinear optical (NLO) property relationship is explored with seven recently synthesized chromophores. Two symmetrical compounds were made using electron withdrawing groups separated by an electron rich core while five asymmetrical molecules were developed using electron donating and withdrawing groups coupled by a it electron bridging group. Pendant chains were added to some of the chromophores to improve processibility. Their syntheses are described and their optical limiting properties discussed.
The first experimental investigation of an optical limiting device based on a suspension of spherical particles in a surrounding liquid is presented. The expected property is the non-linear light scattering based on a refractive index mismatch between the two components that appears at high intensity. Several experiments performed at 532 nm with nanosecond laser pulses provide good indication that such non-linear scattering is observed.
The effects of adding various chemical surfactants to the prepolymer syrup on the electro-optical switching properties of Bragg gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC's) have been studied. The gratings were holographically recorded in prepolymer recipes substituting hexanoic, heptanoic, propylpentanoic and octanoic acids as surfactants in the recipe. A small percentage of monomer containing an attached long chain alkyl group (vinyl neononanoate) was also used instead of a surfactant. The addition of surfactants resulted in lowering the required switching field from 17 V/μm with no surfactant to 1.5 to 8 V/μm at a concentration of about 6.7% by weight, depending on the surfactant. Field on response times for electrical switching decreased with the addition of surfactant, and off times increased.
Large values of the infrared nonlinearity make semiconductors important in many optical applications. Along with the two-photon absorption coefficient and free-carrier absorption cross-section, the values of the decay rates of the generated charge carriers control the nonlinear optical performance of semiconductors. In this paper, calculations of the limits of the charge carrier decay rates for five infrared materials are provided and some experimental results, performed in the long-wave and the mid-wave infrared wavelengths on three of these materials are presented. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first report of measurement of optical nonlinearity of Hg0.65Cd0.35Te in the 4 -5 jtm wavelength range. Comparisons of room temperature and low temperature nonlinear optical behavior of all the materials studied are presented.
Strong optical limiting and large two-photon absorptivities are reported for a class of bisdonor diphenylpolyene derivatives with varying polyene bridge lengths. These molecules exhibit strong optical limiting using nanosecond pulses over a broad spectral range. Bis(diphenylamino)stilbene exhibits a 90 nm red shift of its optical limiting band, and only a minimal shift of about 13 nm of its lowest one-photon electronic absorption band relative to bis(di-n-butylamino)stilbene. This suggests a potential for broadband optical limiting with high transparency using mixtures of such compounds. Pulse width dependent nonlinear transmission measurements suggest that two-photon pumped excited-state absorption contributes significantly to the limiting of nanosecond pulses.
Pulsed-laser shadowgraphs and images of scattered light are combined with limiting and scattering data to build a model of the response of silicon napthalocyanine (SiNc) at concentrations on the order of 10−3 M in toluene to 12–16 ns 532 nm laser pulses over an energy range from 10 nJ to 2 mJ. The inherent spherical aberration induced by the sample has a profound effect on the response. The scattering is extremely intense above pulse energies of 100 μJ. The data indicates the response at pulse energies below 300 mJ is due to reverse saturable absorption. Full absorbance is not observed until the agglomerates vaporize. At fluences approaching 1 J/cm2 a plasma begins to form and the liquid near the window starts to boil. Intense scatter from the boiling liquid combined with plasma absorption produces hard clamping.
Optical Limiters which operate by exploiting nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction are most effective towards an incoming laser beam when the active material is somewhat thicker than one Rayleigh length. A variety of thick optical limiter configurations are described and modeled by appropriately integrating the formulas for thin nonlinear media with gaussian-shaped beams. The attenuating effects of linear losses are allowed for, and the approach is exact to the first order in optical power or irradiance. Irradiance-dependent and fluence-dependent absorbers are considered. For a gaussian-shaped input beam, we find that the combined effects of diffraction and nonlinear absorption produce, in the thick-medium limit, a transmitted beam which retains a gaussian-shaped profile at the far field, but which is now uniformly attenuated according to the magnitudes of the nonlinear and linear absorption parameters. This implies that the normalized transmittance is independent of the size of the receiving aperture. As the optical beam power increases the limiting behaviour saturates. We have discovered a simple saturation formula which agrees well with numerically calculated transmittances for thick irradiance-dependent absorbers within the strongly nonlinear regime. Under certain conditions this formula also describes the behaviour of refractive limiters, providing a simple and accurate technique for modeling limiters over a broad parameter range.
We have investigated the potential for using photorefractive phenomena in optical limiting devices. The major obstacle preventing the photorefractive limiter from reaching this potential has been speed of response. In this paper we report on several techniques which are successful in enhancing the photorefractive beam fanning response time. In particular, we demonstrate and characterize the use of applied electric fields, gratings to seed the beam fan, and cylindrical focusing. We also report the first demonstration of a prototype beam fanning optical limiter encompassing many of the proposed improvements.
Optical limiting, degenerate four-wave mixing and transient absorption experiments have been performed on a neat liquid lead substituted phthalocyanine. The photophysical mechanisms responsible for the good optical limiting observed in other phthalocyanine solutions are maintained in this pure liquid despite its different peripheral substitution pattern. The liquid is shown to have excited state absorption cross sections that exceed those of the ground state through much of the visible spectrum. Hybrid absorptive/refractive nonlinear response is demonstrated to contribute to both the four-wave mixing and optical limiting response. The mechanism and states responsible are discussed.
The nonlinear optical effects of chlorophyll ‘a’ have been determined using an array of measurement techniques. Regions of spectral interest exhibiting induced excited state absorption were identified with transient absorption spectroscopy measurements. At specific wavelengths within these regions, the dye was characterised using the Z-scan technique. Additional measurements were made to complement the latter results including a focused aperture experiment in which thermal defocusing and scattering mechanisms were identified.