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Salmonella enterica serovar Wangata (S. Wangata) is an important cause of endemic salmonellosis in Australia, with human infections occurring from undefined sources. This investigation sought to examine possible environmental and zoonotic sources for human infections with S. Wangata in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The investigation adopted a One Health approach and was comprised of three complimentary components: a case–control study examining human risk factors; environmental and animal sampling; and genomic analysis of human, animal and environmental isolates. Forty-eight human S. Wangata cases were interviewed during a 6-month period from November 2016 to April 2017, together with 55 Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) controls and 130 neighbourhood controls. Indirect contact with bats/flying foxes (S. Typhimurium controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–6.48)) (neighbourhood controls (aOR 8.33, 95% CI 2.58–26.83)), wild frogs (aOR 3.65, 95% CI 1.32–10.07) and wild birds (aOR 6.93, 95% CI 2.29–21.00) were statistically associated with illness in multivariable analyses. S. Wangata was detected in dog faeces, wildlife scats and a compost specimen collected from the outdoor environments of cases’ residences. In addition, S. Wangata was detected in the faeces of wild birds and sea turtles in the investigation area. Genomic analysis revealed that S. Wangata isolates were relatively clonal. Our findings suggest that S. Wangata is present in the environment and may have a reservoir in wildlife populations in north-eastern NSW. Further investigation is required to better understand the occurrence of Salmonella in wildlife groups and to identify possible transmission pathways for human infections.
A total of 592 people reported gastrointestinal illness following attendance at Street Spice, a food festival held in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, North East England in February/March 2013. Epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations were undertaken to identify the source and prevent further cases. Several epidemiological analyses were conducted; a cohort study; a follow-up survey of cases and capture re-capture to estimate the true burden of cases. Indistinguishable isolates of Salmonella Agona phage type 40 were identified in cases and on fresh curry leaves used in one of the accompaniments served at the event. Molecular testing indicated entero-aggregative Escherichia coli and Shigella also contributed to the burden of illness. Analytical studies found strong associations between illness and eating food from a particular stall and with food items including coconut chutney which contained fresh curry leaves. Further investigation of the food supply chain and food preparation techniques identified a lack of clear instruction on the use of fresh uncooked curry leaves in finished dishes and uncertainty about their status as a ready-to-eat product. We describe the investigation of one of the largest outbreaks of food poisoning in England, involving several gastrointestinal pathogens including a strain of Salmonella Agona not previously seen in the UK.
An emerging recombinant norovirus GII.P16/GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain caused a gastroenteritis outbreak amongst attendees at a large health function in regional New South Wales, Australia. This was the third outbreak caused by the recombinant GII.P16/GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in this region in 2017, which appears to be emerging as a common strain in the Hunter New England region.
The aim of the present paper is to summarise current and future applications of dietary assessment technologies in nutrition surveys in developed countries. It includes the discussion of key points and highlights of subsequent developments from a panel discussion to address strengths and weaknesses of traditional dietary assessment methods (food records, FFQ, 24 h recalls, diet history with interviewer-assisted data collection) v. new technology-based dietary assessment methods (web-based and mobile device applications). The panel discussion ‘Traditional methods v. new technologies: dilemmas for dietary assessment in population surveys’, was held at the 9th International Conference on Diet and Activity Methods (ICDAM9), Brisbane, September 2015. Despite respondent and researcher burden, traditional methods have been most commonly used in nutrition surveys. However, dietary assessment technologies offer potential advantages including faster data processing and better data quality. This is a fast-moving field and there is evidence of increasing demand for the use of new technologies amongst the general public and researchers. There is a need for research and investment to support efforts being made to facilitate the inclusion of new technologies for rapid, accurate and representative data.
The moisture content of horse hoof horn is important as it affects its function, quality and mechanical properties. It is believed for horse hoof horn that there is an inverse relationship between the amount of water present and stiffness, or the ability of hoof horn to resist deformation. The majority of studies, until the work of Leach (1980) and Douglas et al. (1996) concentrated on quantitative values for moisture content for the full hoof wall depth (HWD) for horse hoof horn. Douglas et al. (1996) divided the hoof wall into inner and outer wall samples and showed a moisture content of 28% for the outer wall and 35% for the inner wall, confirming a dorsopalmar increase in moisture content. Whether a similar gradient exists for donkey hoof horn is not known. The existence of such a dorso-palmar moisture gradient may have a profound effect on the mechanical properties of the hoof horn and would further contribute towards the understanding of how moisture content affects the function of the hoof.
The moisture content of keratinous materials such as hoof horn is important as the presence of moisture has an inverse relationship on the mechanical properties of hoof horn and may have a subsequent effect on the function of the hoof. Methods previously used to dehydrate samples to calculate the moisture content of hoof horn vary considerably (Hopegood, 2002). Subsequent comparison of results is therefore unreliable. A comparison of different methods of dehydrating hoof horn was therefore carried out to establish a standardised protocol for dehydrating hoof horn to assess its moisture content. The moisture content of donkey hoof horn from normal animals and those with laminitis has not been reported. Maclean (1971) established that the moisture content of cattle suffering from laminitis was significantly higher than normal hooves. The resultant standardised protocol from the first part of this study was then used to compare the moisture content of hoof horn samples taken from horses, donkeys and those donkeys that had suffered from laminitis.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of this study is to develop an effective and efficient STI preventive intervention among college students following the principles and phases of MOST. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION As part of the preparation phase, an explicit conceptual model, drawing heavily on theory and prior research, was used to translate the existing science into 5 candidate intervention components (ie, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, expectancies, perceived benefits of protective behavioral strategies, and self-efficacy). For the optimization phase, in Fall 2016 all first-year students (n=3547) from 4 universities were recruited to participate. Students were randomized to 1 of 32 different experimental conditions that included a combination of the candidate intervention components. Component effectiveness was evaluated using data from an immediate post-intervention survey on respective component mediators (eg, alcohol and sex-related descriptive norms). After a second factorial experiment (Fall 2017), only those intervention components that meet the pre-specified criteria of day ≥0.15 will be included in the optimized intervention. The evaluation phase will evaluate the effectiveness of the optimized STI preventive intervention via a randomized-control trial (Fall 2018). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary results from the first factorial experiment suggest that descriptive norms and injunctive norms intervention components were significantly effective in reducing post-intervention perceived alcohol prevalence (β=−0.28, p<0.001) and approval of alcohol (β=−0.33, p<0.001), and sex-related norms (β=−0.23, p<.001). These results, in combination with process data, are being used to inform revisions of the intervention components to be included in a second factorial screening experiment. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study demonstrates how an iterative approach to engineering an STI preventive intervention using MOST can affect the behaviors of college students and serve as a foundation for other translational science.
We are working on an all-sky sample of radio-selected elliptical galaxies to provide a powerful probe of clustering & streaming velocities on 10–100 Mpc scales. Our eventual sample will have the limits (i) S>0.5 Jy at 1.4 GHz; (ii) 0.01<z<0.1; (iii) |b| >15°; about 400 galaxies satisfy these criteria. We are pursuing an optical programme to obtain (i) B & I CCD frames for all galaxies; (ii) spectra for the galaxies without accurate redshifts; this is now about 30% complete. Accurate optical luminosity indicators exist for radio galaxies, without needing to measure velocity dispersions (using the correlations with optical core radius and radio central-component luminosity: Hoessel 1980: Ap. J. 241, 493; Fabbiano et al. 1984: Ap. J. 277, 115). We therefore expect to provide an accurate test of the Rubin-Ford effect, and to extend such studies to higher redshift. We also have a preliminary result for the 3D two-point correlation function of radio galaxies (see Figure). This strong clustering signal is seen only from galaxies in the decade of radio power below the Fanaroff-Riley division. These objects are known a priori to lie in cluster environments of average Abell richness 0 (Longair & Seldner 1979: MNRAS 189, 433). This result therefore provides confirmation of a trend of clustering with richness independent of optical selection effects in choosing a cluster sample.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe cognitive, academic, and psychosocial outcomes after an incident demyelinating event (acquired demyelinating syndromes, ADS) in childhood and to investigate the contribution of brain lesions and confirmed MS diagnosis on outcome. Methods: Thirty-six patients with ADS (mean age=12.2 years, SD=2.7, range: 7–16 years) underwent brain MRI scans at presentation and at 6-months follow-up. T2-weighted lesions on MRI were assessed using a binary classification. At 6-months follow-up, patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation and were compared with 42 healthy controls. Results: Cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes did not differ between the patients with ADS and controls. Three of 36 patients (8.3%) were identified with cognitive impairment, as determined by performance falling ≤1.5 SD below normative values on more than four independent tests in the battery. Poor performance on a visuomotor integration task was most common, observed among 6/32 patients, but this did not differ significantly from controls. Twelve of 36 patients received a diagnosis of MS within 3 years post-ADS. Patients with MS did not differ from children with monophasic ADS in terms of cognitive performance at the 6-months follow-up. Fatigue symptoms were reported in 50% of patients, irrespective of MS diagnosis. Presence of brain lesions at onset and 6 months post-incident demyelinating event did not associate with cognitive outcome. Conclusions: Children with ADS experience a favorable short-term neurocognitive outcome, even those confirmed to have MS. Longitudinal evaluations of children with monophasic ADS and MS are required to determine the possibility of late-emerging sequelae and their time course. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1050–1060)
Altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and reduced hippocampal volume (HV) are established correlates of stress vulnerability. We have previously shown an attenuated cortisol awakening response (CAR) and associations with HV specifically in male first-episode psychosis patients. Findings in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis regarding these neurobiological markers are inconsistent, and assessment of their interplay, accounting for sex differences, could explain incongruent results.
Study participants were 42 antipsychotic-naive UHR subjects (24 men) and 46 healthy community controls (23 men). Saliva samples for the assessment of CAR were collected at 0, 30 and 60 min after awakening. HV was determined from high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans using a semi-automatic segmentation protocol.
Cortisol measures and HV were not significantly different between UHR subjects and controls in total, but repeated-measures multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced cortisol levels 60 min after awakening and smaller left HV in male UHR individuals. In UHR participants only, smaller left and right HV was significantly correlated with a smaller total CAR (ρ = 0.42, p = 0.036 and ρ = 0.44, p = 0.029, respectively), corresponding to 18% and 19% of shared variance (medium effect size).
Our findings suggest that HV reduction in individuals at UHR for psychosis is specific to men and linked to reduced post-awakening cortisol concentrations. Abnormalities in the neuroendocrine circuitry modulating stress vulnerability specifically in male UHR subjects might explain increased psychosis risk and disadvantageous illness outcomes in men compared to women.
Implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program bundle for urinary tract infections among 92 patients led to a higher rate of discontinuation of therapy for asymptomatic bacteriuria (52.4% vs 12.5%; P =.004), more appropriate durations of therapy (88.7% vs 63.6%; P =.001), and significantly higher overall bundle compliance (75% vs 38.2%; P < .001).
This study was conducted to examine the incidence trend of campylobacteriosis in Michigan over a 10-year period and to investigate risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with infection. Campylobacter case data from 2004 to 2013 was obtained from the Michigan Disease Surveillance System. We conducted statistical and spatial analyses to examine trends and identify factors linked to campylobacteriosis as well as ecological associations using animal density data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service. An increasing trend of Campylobacter incidence and hospitalization was observed, which was linked to specific age groups and rural residence. Cases reporting ruminant contact and well water as the primary drinking source had a higher risk of campylobacteriosis, while higher cattle density was associated with an increased risk at the county level. Additional studies are needed to identify age-specific risk factors and examine prevalence and transmission dynamics in ruminants and the environment to aid in the development of more effective preventive strategies.
To assess whether diet quality before or during pregnancy predicts adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes in a sample of Australian women.
The Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies was used to calculate diet quality using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) methodology modified for pregnancy.
A population-based cohort participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH).
A national sample of Australian women, aged 20–25 and 31–36 years, who were classified as preconception or pregnant when completing Survey 3 or Survey 5 of the ALSWH, respectively. The 1907 women with biologically plausible energy intake estimates were included in regression analyses of associations between preconception and pregnancy ARFS and subsequent pregnancy outcomes.
Preconception and pregnancy groups were combined as no significant differences were detected for total and component ARFS. Women with gestational hypertension, compared with those without, had lower scores for total ARFS, vegetable, fruit, grain and nuts/bean/soya components. Women with gestational diabetes had a higher score for the vegetable component only, and women who had a low-birth-weight infant had lower scores for total ARFS and the grain component, compared with those who did not report these outcomes. Women with the highest ARFS had the lowest odds of developing gestational hypertension (OR=0·4; 95 % CI 0·2, 0·7) or delivering a child of low birth weight (OR=0·4; 95 % CI 0·2, 0·9), which remained significant for gestational hypertension after adjustment for potential confounders.
A high-quality diet before and during pregnancy may reduce the risk of gestational hypertension for the mother.
In Part 1 of this study (Ireland et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 796, 2016, pp. 617–658), we analysed the motion of inertial particles in isotropic turbulence in the absence of gravity using direct numerical simulation (DNS). Here, in Part 2, we introduce gravity and study its effect on single-particle and particle-pair dynamics over a wide range of flow Reynolds numbers, Froude numbers and particle Stokes numbers. The overall goal of this study is to explore the mechanisms affecting particle collisions, and to thereby improve our understanding of droplet interactions in atmospheric clouds. We find that the dynamics of heavy particles falling under gravity can be artificially influenced by the finite domain size and the periodic boundary conditions, and we therefore perform our simulations on larger domains to reduce these effects. We first study single-particle statistics that influence the relative positions and velocities of inertial particles. We see that gravity causes particles to sample the flow more uniformly and reduces the time particles can spend interacting with the underlying turbulence. We also find that gravity tends to increase inertial particle accelerations, and we introduce a model to explain that effect. We then analyse the particle relative velocities and radial distribution functions (RDFs), which are generally seen to be independent of Reynolds number for low and moderate Kolmogorov-scale Stokes numbers
. We see that gravity causes particle relative velocities to decrease by reducing the degree of preferential sampling and the importance of path-history interactions, and that the relative velocities have higher scaling exponents with gravity. We observe that gravity has a non-trivial effect on clustering, acting to decrease clustering at low
and to increase clustering at high
. By considering the effect of gravity on the clustering mechanisms described in the theory of Zaichik & Alipchenkov (New J. Phys., vol. 11, 2009, 103018), we provide an explanation for this non-trivial effect of gravity. We also show that when the effects of gravity are accounted for in the theory of Zaichik & Alipchenkov (2009), the results compare favourably with DNS. The relative velocities and RDFs exhibit considerable anisotropy at small separations, and this anisotropy is quantified using spherical harmonic functions. We use the relative velocities and the RDFs to compute the particle collision kernels, and find that the collision kernel remains as it was for the case without gravity, namely nearly independent of Reynolds number for low and moderate
. We conclude by discussing practical implications of the results for the cloud physics and turbulence communities and by suggesting possible avenues for future research.
In this study, we analyse the statistics of both individual inertial particles and inertial particle pairs in direct numerical simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence in the absence of gravity. The effect of the Taylor microscale Reynolds number,
, on the particle statistics is examined over the largest range to date (from
to 597), at small, intermediate and large Kolmogorov-scale Stokes numbers
. We first explore the effect of preferential sampling on the single-particle statistics and find that low-
inertial particles are ejected from both vortex tubes and vortex sheets (the latter becoming increasingly prevalent at higher Reynolds numbers) and preferentially accumulate in regions of irrotational dissipation. We use this understanding of preferential sampling to provide a physical explanation for many of the trends in the particle velocity gradients, kinetic energies and accelerations at low
, which are well represented by the model of Chun et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 536, 2005, pp. 219–251). As
increases, inertial filtering effects become more important, causing the particle kinetic energies and accelerations to decrease. The effect of inertial filtering on the particle kinetic energies and accelerations diminishes with increasing Reynolds number and is well captured by the models of Abrahamson (Chem. Engng Sci., vol. 30, 1975, pp. 1371–1379) and Zaichik & Alipchenkov (Intl J. Multiphase Flow, vol. 34 (9), 2008, pp. 865–868), respectively. We then consider particle-pair statistics, and focus our attention on the relative velocities and radial distribution functions (RDFs) of the particles, with the aim of understanding the underlying physical mechanisms contributing to particle collisions. The relative velocity statistics indicate that preferential sampling effects are important for
and that path-history/non-local effects become increasingly important for
. While higher-order relative velocity statistics are influenced by the increased intermittency of the turbulence at high Reynolds numbers, the lower-order relative velocity statistics are only weakly sensitive to changes in Reynolds number at low
. The Reynolds-number trends in these quantities at intermediate and large
are explained based on the influence of the available flow scales on the path-history and inertial filtering effects. We find that the RDFs peak near
of order unity, that they exhibit power-law scaling for low and intermediate
and that they are largely independent of Reynolds number for low and intermediate
. We use the model of Zaichik & Alipchenkov (New J. Phys., vol. 11, 2009, 103018) to explain the physical mechanisms responsible for these trends, and find that this model is able to capture the quantitative behaviour of the RDFs extremely well when direct numerical simulation data for the structure functions are specified, in agreement with Bragg & Collins (New J. Phys., vol. 16, 2014a, 055013). We also observe that at large
, changes in the RDF are related to changes in the scaling exponents of the relative velocity variances. The particle collision kernel closely matches that computed by Rosa et al. (New J. Phys., vol. 15, 2013, 045032) and is found to be largely insensitive to the flow Reynolds number. This suggests that relatively low-Reynolds-number simulations may be able to capture much of the relevant physics of droplet collisions and growth in the adiabatic cores of atmospheric clouds.
Indigenous Australians have high rates of chronic diseases, the causes of which are complex and include social and environmental determinants. Early experiences in utero may also predispose to later-life disease development. The Gomeroi gaaynggal study was established to explore intrauterine origins of renal disease, diabetes and growth in order to inform the development of health programmes for Indigenous Australian women and children. Pregnant women are recruited from antenatal clinics in Tamworth, Newcastle and Walgett, New South Wales, Australia, by Indigenous research assistants. Measures are collected at three time points in pregnancy and from women and their children at up to eight time points in the child’s first 5 years. Measures of fetal renal development and function include ultrasound and biochemical biomarkers. Dietary intake, infant feeding and anthropometric measurements are collected. Standardized procedures and validated tools are used where available. Since 2010 the study has recruited over 230 women, and retained 66 postpartum. Recruitment is ongoing, and Gomeroi gaaynggal is currently the largest Indigenous pregnancy-through-early-childhood cohort internationally. Baseline median gestational age was 39.1 weeks (31.5–43.2, n=110), median birth weight was 3180 g (910–5430 g, n=110). Over one third (39.3%) of infants were admitted to special care or neonatal nursery. Nearly half of mothers (47.5%) reported tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Results of the study will contribute to knowledge about origins of chronic disease in Indigenous Australians and nutrition and growth of women and their offspring during pregnancy and postpartum. Study strengths include employment and capacity-building of Indigenous staff and the complementary ArtsHealth programme.