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We present observations of cometary parent molecules at the IRAM radio telescope which led to the first detections of H2S and CH3OH in comets, and confirmed the presence of H2CO and HCN. Production rates and abundances relative to H2O are given.
The small-scale structure of galactic neutral hydrogen may be statistically described by the spatial power spectrum of the 21-cm line. This latter may be readily observed by interferometer arrays since it is the squared modulus of the visibility function. We have observed the , region with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (Crovisier and Dickey, 1983). Brightness fluctuations of the 21-cm line were detected in this region on scales as small as 1.7 arcmin (corresponding to less than 5 pc). The Westerbork observations, combined with single-dish observations made at Nançay and Arecibo, allow determination of the spatial power spectrum over a dynamic range of about 106 in intensity. The spectrum follows roughly a power law with indices ~ −3 to −2. An interpretation in terms of the turbulence spectrum is proposed by Dickey (1985).
We report here the detection of the J 1-0 rotational line at 88.6 GHz of hydrogen cyanide in comet Halley. Six observational runs were made in the Nov. 19-Dec. 3 1985 period with the IRAM 30-m millimetre radio telescope at Pico Veleta (Spain), when the comet was at rh ~ 1.56 AU from the Sun and Δ ~ 0.63 AU from the Earth.
The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) offered us the opportunity to observe celestial bodies from 2.4 to 196 μm, which is of particular interest for comets. We present here spectroscopic observations with ISO of comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and 103P/Hartley 2. Fluorescence emissions of H2O, CO2 and (for comet Hale-Bopp only) CO and CH4 are observed, yielding the production rates of these species. High-resolution spectra of water permit the study of the rotational and spin temperatures of this molecule. In comet Hale-Bopp, the thermal infrared region of the spectra shows specifically, in addition to continuum-like emission, the signatures of crystalline, Mg-rich olivine (forsterite), and signs of crystalline pyroxenes, amorphous silicates and water ice. The presence of crystalline silicates is also suggested in the Jupiter-family comet P/Hartley 2.
The main lines of OH at 18 cm wavelength were observed in Comet Kohoutek (1973f) from December 1973 through February 1974 with the Nancay radio telescope. They were detected in absorption in early December and reappeared in emission around mid-January. In a preliminary approach these results are interpreted in terms of U. V. pumping by the sum when the Fraunhofer spectrum is taken into account.
By observing the difference in optical depths between absorption spectra toward the two components of double sources we have measured the variations in opacity over lengths of less than 0.1 up to 10 pc inside diffuse interstellar clouds. Significant variations are detected on scales larger than about 0.2 pc, but not less. This may represent the minimum size for diffuse cloud structure. By comparing the variations of Gaussian fitted line parameters we find that variations in the internal velocity field of diffuse clouds explain the data rather better than tiny independent “cloudlets.”
Radio observations of comets complement studies at other wavelengths as well as providing certain kinds of unique information. Studies of continuum emission may probe the thermal emission of the nucleus and large-size dust particles. Spectroscopic observations of gas in the coma allow searches for parent molecular species that have no signatures in the optical spectral range. The 18-cm wavelength spectral lines of the OH radical now are relatively easy to detect, and observations of them permit long-term and short-term monitoring of the cometary gaseous output. Moreover, with the unique spectral resolution of radio techniques, aspects of the kinematics of the coma may be also studied, such as the gas expansion velocity and the anisotropy of gas production from the nucleus. In this review, we present recent results of cometary radio observations, and discuss what may be learned from such studies in the future.
The relationship between dense molecular clouds and diffuse clouds, as well as the mechanisms connected with the formation of molecules in diffuse clouds, may be studied using HI 21-cm line observations and molecular line observations in the same directions. For this purpose we previously studied the OH 18-cm main lines (Kazès et al., 1977) and the 2.6-mm CO lines (Crovisier and Kazès, 1977) in directions where strong 21-cm absorption features had been detected in the Nancay survey (Crovisier et al., 1978). Liszt and Burton (1979) also measured CO lines toward 19 directions observed in the Arecibo 21-cm emission/absorption survey (Dickey et al., 1978). This paper presents preliminary results of a more comprehensive search for 12CO in directions previously studied in the Nancay survey.
The survey of 21-cm galactic absorption towards 819 extragalactic sources, recently carried out with the Nancay radio telescope (Crovisier et al. 1978) provides a sample of absorbing neutral hydrogen clouds which is an order of magnitude larger than those resulting from other available surveys (Hughes et al. 1971, Radhakrishnan et al. 1972, Lazareff 1975, and Dickey et al. 1978). A statistical study of this sample offers insight into the properties of local interstellar matter.
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) was used to obtain measurements of spatially and spectrally resolved CH3OH emission from comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) on 28-29 June 2014. Detection of 12-14 emission lines of CH3OH on each day permitted the derivation of spatially-resolved rotational temperature profiles (averaged along the line of sight), for the innermost 5000 km of the coma. On each day, the CH3OH distribution was centrally peaked and approximately consistent with spherically symmetric, uniform outflow. The azimuthally-averaged CH3OH rotational temperature (Trot) as a function of sky-projected nucleocentric distance (ρ), fell by about 40 K between ρ= 0 and 2500 km on 28 June, whereas on 29 June, Trot fell by about 50 K between ρ =0 km and 1500 km. A remarkable (~50 K) rise in Trot at ρ = 1500-2500 km on 29 June was not present on 28 June. The observed variations in CH3OH rotational temperature are interpreted primarily as a result of variations in the coma kinetic temperature due to adiabatic cooling, and heating through Solar irradiation, but collisional and radiative non-LTE excitation processes also play a role.
Conditions are provided under which lack of domination of a homoclinic class yields robust heterodimensional cycles. Moreover, so-called viral homoclinic classes are studied. Viral classes have the property of generating copies of themselves producing wild dynamics (systems with infinitely many homoclinic classes with some persistence). Such wild dynamics also exhibits uncountably many aperiodic chain recurrence classes. A scenario (related with non-dominated dynamics) is presented where viral homoclinic classes occur. A key ingredient are adapted perturbations of a diffeomorphism along a periodic orbit. Such perturbations preserve certain homoclinic relations and prescribed dynamical properties of a homoclinic class.
R7T7 nuclear waste glass dissolution in highly dilute aqueous media under static conditions at 90°C occurs according to two different mechanisms depending on the solution acidity. In acid media (pH 4.8 and 5.5), preferential extraction of glass network modifiers results in the formation of an alkali metal-depleted surface region on which amorphous and crystallized (phosphate) compounds rich in transition elements precipitate. Steady-state dissolution conditions are not reached, as attested by variable normalized SI, B and Na mass losses. Glass dissolution is stoichiometric in basic media (pH 7 to 10): the strong bonds of the silicated network are broken at a rate that increases with the pH: the glass dissolution rate increases by a factor of 15 between pH 7 and 10. Under these conditions, alteration products at the glass/solution interface do not constitute a short-term kinetic barrier against the release of the major glass components.
Subglacial basaltic glasses from Iceland have been studied in order to investigate REE behaviour during low-temperature weathering. As heavy elements accumulate in the hydrated superficial corrosion layer of borosilicate glasses, REE are found to be enriched in the natural corrosion layer of basaltic glasses (palagonite). However, mass balance calculations performed for our natural samples evidenced that this enrichment is only relative: the corrosion process leads to absolute losses of elements including REE.
Four glasses were tested as enamel seals between osseous and mucous media on alumina implants. It was found that a perfect enamel adherence on the aluminous substrate is obtained at 1400° C. During enameling the surface of the implant is dissolved in the glass, which leads to the formation of aluminosilicate crystals in the implant/enamel interface. A rapid cooling from 200 to 1°C in water does not provoke fissuring of the enamel for the four glasses tested, which illustrates the good mechanical resistance of the implant/enamel bond. The preliminary in vitro results indicate that hydroxyapatite forms directly within the leached layer developed in plasma (except for KG.X glass).
The long term geochemical consequences of basaltic glass dissolution in fresh water at 0°C have been calculated with the computer code DISSOL. The clay minerals were represented by an ideal solid solution model (CISSFIT) able to describe variations in chemical composition of a clay phase in response to variations of the solution chemistry. The predicted mineral phases were iron hydroxides followed by kaolinite, TOT clays, chabazite and cli-noptilolite. These results are in reasonably good agreement with experimental results and observations of altered subglacial hyaloclastites from Iceland. The formation of secondary products are mainly controlled by thermodynamic constraints. Kinetic effects, such as diffusion in the near glass surface are not important.