To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A range of endophenotypes characterise psychosis, however there has been limited work understanding if and how they are inter-related.
This multi-centre study includes 8754 participants: 2212 people with a psychotic disorder, 1487 unaffected relatives of probands, and 5055 healthy controls. We investigated cognition [digit span (N = 3127), block design (N = 5491), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (N = 3543)], electrophysiology [P300 amplitude and latency (N = 1102)], and neuroanatomy [lateral ventricular volume (N = 1721)]. We used linear regression to assess the interrelationships between endophenotypes.
The P300 amplitude and latency were not associated (regression coef. −0.06, 95% CI −0.12 to 0.01, p = 0.060), and P300 amplitude was positively associated with block design (coef. 0.19, 95% CI 0.10–0.28, p < 0.001). There was no evidence of associations between lateral ventricular volume and the other measures (all p > 0.38). All the cognitive endophenotypes were associated with each other in the expected directions (all p < 0.001). Lastly, the relationships between pairs of endophenotypes were consistent in all three participant groups, differing for some of the cognitive pairings only in the strengths of the relationships.
The P300 amplitude and latency are independent endophenotypes; the former indexing spatial visualisation and working memory, and the latter is hypothesised to index basic processing speed. Individuals with psychotic illnesses, their unaffected relatives, and healthy controls all show similar patterns of associations between endophenotypes, endorsing the theory of a continuum of psychosis liability across the population.
A 2,4-D-resistant tall waterhemp population (FS) from Nebraska was evaluated for resistance to other TIR1 auxin receptor herbicides and to herbicides having alternative mechanisms of action using greenhouse bioassays and genetic markers. Atrazine, imazethapyr, lactofen, mesotrione, glufosinate, and glyphosate were applied in a single-dose bioassay, and tissue was collected from marked plants for genetic analysis. The FS population was not injured by atrazine or by imazethapyr. Approximately 50% of the plants survived lactofen and were actively growing 28 d after treatment. The population was susceptible to mesotrione, glufosinate, and glyphosate. Ametryn, chlorimuron-ethyl, 2,4-D, aminocyclopyraclor, aminopyralid, and picloram were applied in dose–response studies. The FS population was sensitive to ametryn, and the Ser-264-Gly substitution in the D1 protein was not detected, suggesting the lack of response to atrazine is not due to a target-site mutation. The FS population exhibited less than 50% injury to chlorimuron-ethyl at application rates 20 times the labeled use rate. The Ser-653-Asn acetolactate synthase (ALS) substitution, which confers resistance to imidazolinone herbicides, was present in the FS population. However, this does not explain the lack of response to the sulfonylurea herbicide, chlorimuron-ethyl. Sequencing of a portion of the PPX2L gene did not show the ΔG210 mutation that confers resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase–inhibiting herbicides, suggesting that other factors were responsible for waterhemp survival after lactofen application. The FS population was confirmed to be at least 30-fold resistant to 2,4-D relative to the susceptible populations. In addition, it was at least 3-fold less sensitive to aminopyralid and picloram, two other TIR1 auxin receptor herbicides, than the 2,4-D-susceptible populations were. These data indicated that the FS population contains both target and non–target site mechanisms conferring resistance to herbicides spanning at least three mechanisms of action: TIR1 auxin receptors, ALS inhibitors, and photosystem II inhibitors.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Using carbon and oxygen isotopic relationships from dental enamel, diet and habitat were inferred for both mesomammals and megamammals that lived in Cedral (San Luis Potosi, north-central México) during Late Pleistocene time. δ13C and δ18O values show that bison, some horses and mammoth were eating C4 plants and lived in open areas, while tapir, camel and some llamas ate C3 plants and inhabited closed areas. All other studied herbivores (pronghorn, glyptodont, mylodont ground sloth, javelina, mastodon, and other llamas, horses and mammoth) had a C3/C4 mixed diet, living in areas with some percentage of tree coverage. On the other hand, American lion and dire wolf ate either C4 or mixed-diet herbivores, and short-faced bear ate C3 herbivores. At Cedral, more humid conditions existed than presently, allowing the presence of a forested area near the grassland.
Lithium cannot be determined by electron microprobe, but it may be an essential component in tourmalinesupergroup minerals. Therefore, its estimation is important for structural formula calculation and nomenclature. In this paper, we present a method to estimate Li content in tourmaline from microprobe data based on a multiple linear-regression model, which is not reliant on a particular normalization scheme. The results derived from this model are reasonably accurate, particularly for low-Mg tourmalines (<2 wt.% MgO) with Li2O contents higher than ∼0.3 wt.%. Furthermore, it provides a better fitness compared with estimations of Li assuming that Li fills any cation deficiency at the Y site.
The results of the first molecular phylogenetic study of Pseudephebe are presented; a three-locus phylogeny. The genus is confirmed as monophyletic within the alectorioid clade of Parmeliaceae. Two major clades were recovered, which can be assigned to the two traditional taxa, P. minuscula and P. pubescens, with modifications of the species delimitation, especially the variable P. minuscula. These species are cryptic and cannot be confidently distinguished morphologically due to phenotypic convergence. Therefore, the use of P. pubescens aggr. is recommended for samples not molecularly analyzed. Contrary to previous studies, specimens of both species might have indistinct pseudocyphellae and also contain lichen substances; norstictic acid was detected in c. 60% of specimens tested. An SSU 1516 Group I intron is usually present in P. minuscula but always absent in P. pubescens. The species-level nomenclature is summarized and sequenced reference specimens (RefSpec) for both Pseudephebe species are selected. Sequences from Bryoria mariensis established that this name was a synonym of P. minuscula.
Lithium mineralization is common in the Central Iberian Zone and, to a lesser extent, in the Galizia-Trás-OsMontes Zone of Spain and Portugal, occurring along a ∼500 km-long NNW-SSE striking belt. There are different styles of Li mineralization along this belt; they are mainly associated with aplite-pegmatite bodies and, to a much lesser extent, with veins of quartz and phosphate. Lithium mineralization in the Central Iberian Zone may be classified into four types: aplite-pegmatite dykes occurring in pegmatitic fields, Li mineralization associated with leucogranitic cupolas, beryl-phosphate pegmatites and quartz-montebrasite veins. The main Li minerals of these bodies include Li-mica, spodumene and/or petalite in the pegmatitic fields and leucogranitic cupolas; triphylite–lithiophilite in the beryl-phosphate pegmatites, and amblygonite–montebrasite in the quartz-montebrasite veins. The origin of these different styles of mineralization is considered to be related to differentiation of peraluminous melts, which were generated by partial melting of metasedimentary rocks during the Variscan orogeny. On the basis of paragenesis and chemical composition, the pegmatitic fields and Li mineralization associated with granitic cupolas record the highest fractionation levels, whereas the beryl-phosphate pegmatites and quartz-montebrasite veins show lower degrees of fractionation. There are a number of textural and mineralogical indicators for Li exploration in the Central Iberian Zone and in the Galizia-Trás-Os-Montes Zone, with the highest economic potential for Li being in the pegmatite fields.
Few randomised clinical trials have examined the efficacy of an
intervention aimed at improving psychosocial functioning in bipolar
To examine changes in psychosocial functioning in a group that has been
enrolled in a functional remediation programme 1 year after baseline.
This was a multicentre, randomised, rater-masked clinical trial comparing
three patient groups: functional remediation, psychoeducation and
treatment as usual over 1-year follow-up. The primary outcome was change
in psychosocial functioning measured by means of the Functioning
Assessment Short Test (FAST). Group×time effects for overall psychosocial
functioning were examined using repeated-measures ANOVA (trial
There was a significant group×time interaction for overall psychosocial
functioning, favouring patients in the functional remediation group
(F = 3.071, d.f. = 2, P =
Improvement in psychosocial functioning is maintained after 1-year
follow-up in patients with bipolar disorder receiving functional
Functional remediation is a novel intervention with demonstrated efficacy at improving functional outcome in euthymic bipolar patients. However, in a previous trial no significant changes in neurocognitive measures were detected. The objective of the present analysis was to test the efficacy of this therapy in the enhancement of neuropsychological functions in a subgroup of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients.
A total of 188 out of 239 DSM-IV euthymic bipolar patients performing below two standard deviations from the mean of normative data in any neurocognitive test were included in this subanalysis. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted to assess the impact of the treatment arms [functional remediation, psychoeducation, or treatment as usual (TAU)] on participants’ neurocognitive and functional outcomes in the subgroup of neurocognitively impaired patients.
Patients receiving functional remediation (n = 56) showed an improvement on delayed free recall when compared with the TAU (n = 63) and psychoeducation (n = 69) groups as shown by the group × time interaction at 6-month follow-up [F2,158 = 3.37, degrees of freedom (df) = 2, p = 0.037]. However, Tukey post-hoc analyses revealed that functional remediation was only superior when compared with TAU (p = 0.04), but not with psychoeducation (p = 0.10). Finally, the patients in the functional remediation group also benefited from the treatment in terms of functional outcome (F2,158 = 4.26, df = 2, p = 0.016).
Functional remediation is effective at improving verbal memory and psychosocial functioning in a sample of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients at 6-month follow-up. Neurocognitive enhancement may be one of the active ingredients of this novel intervention, and, specifically, verbal memory appears to be the most sensitive function that improves with functional remediation.
In order to confirm and investigate the extent of reported mismatches between chemotypes and molecular sequence data in Bryoria fuscescens s. lat., we examined 15 morphologically similar thalli from each of three Pinus forest sites in the Sistema Central of central Spain. Three thalli were rejected due to infections by Phacopsis huuskonenii (not previously published from Spain). The remaining 42 thalli represented nine ITS rDNA haplotypes and four chemotypes (by TLC): fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids; norstictic and connorstictic acids; psoromic acid; and fumarprotocetraric, protocetraric and psoromic acids. The molecular phylogenetic tree was characterized by extremely short branch lengths, often only with a single mutational difference, and a single haplotype could have different chemical products. In some cases, adjacent specimens represented different chemotypes, and three thalli appeared to be mixed individuals. Consistency of both molecular and chemical data within individual specimens was demonstrated by examining four different parts of each thallus, which showed only a difference in the location of psoromic acid in some. This is the first population-level study of this taxon, and so it is premature to propose taxonomic changes at this time. Further populations in different parts of the geographical range of this widespread complex now need to be analyzed, and more sensitive chemical analyses conducted, in order to understand the basis of the variability and determine the appropriate taxonomic treatment.
Cortical thickness measurement offers an index of brain development processes. In healthy individuals, cortical thickness is reduced with increasing age and is related to cognitive decline. Cortical thinning has been reported in schizophrenia. Whether cortical thickness changes differently over time in patients and its impact on outcome remain unanswered.
Data were examined from 109 patients and 76 healthy controls drawn from the Santander Longitudinal Study of first-episode schizophrenia for whom adequate structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were available (n = 555 scans). Clinical and cognitive assessments and MRIs were acquired at three regular time points during a 3-year follow-up period. We investigated likely progressive cortical thickness changes in schizophrenia during the first 3 years after initiating antipsychotic treatment. The effects of cortical thickness changes on cognitive and clinical variables were also examined along with the impact of potential confounding factors.
There were significant diagnoses × scan time interaction main effects for total cortical thickness (F1,309.1 = 4.60, p = 0.033) and frontal cortical thickness (F1,310.6 = 5.30, p = 0.022), reflecting a lesser thinning over time in patients. Clinical and cognitive outcome was not associated with progressive cortical changes during the early years of the illness.
Cortical thickness abnormalities do not unswervingly progress, at least throughout the first years of the illness. Previous studies have suggested that modifiable factors may partly account for cortical thickness abnormalities. Therefore, the importance of implementing practical actions that may modify those factors and improve them over the course of the illness should be highlighted.
The Social Ecological Model (SEM) has been used to describe the aetiology of childhood obesity and to develop a framework for prevention. The current paper applies the SEM to data collected at multiple levels, representing different layers of the SEM, and examines the unique and relative contribution of each layer to children’s weight status.
Cross-sectional survey of randomly selected households with children living in low-income diverse communities.
A telephone survey conducted in 2009–2010 collected information on parental perceptions of their neighbourhoods, and household, parent and child demographic characteristics. Parents provided measured height and weight data for their children. Geocoded data were used to calculate proximity of a child’s residence to food and physical activity outlets.
Analysis based on 560 children whose parents participated in the survey and provided measured heights and weights.
Multiple logistic regression models were estimated to determine the joint contribution of elements within each layer of the SEM as well as the relative contribution of each layer. Layers of the SEM representing parental perceptions of their neighbourhoods, parent demographics and neighbourhood characteristics made the strongest contributions to predicting whether a child was overweight or obese. Layers of the SEM representing food and physical activity environments made smaller, but still significant, contributions to predicting children’s weight status.
The approach used herein supports using the SEM for predicting child weight status and uncovers some of the most promising domains and strategies for childhood obesity prevention that can be used for designing interventions.
Every year millions tons of steel are produced worldwide from recycled scrap loads.
Although the detection systems in the steelworks prevent most orphan radioactive sources
from entering the furnace, there is still the possibility of accidentally melting a
radioactive source. The MetroMetal project, carried out in the frame of the European
Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), addresses this problem by studying the existing
measurement systems, developing sets of reference sources in various matrices (cast steel,
slag, fume dust) and proposing new detection instruments. This paper presents the key
lines of the project and describes the preparation of radioactive sources as well as the
intercomparison exercises used to test the calibration and correction methods proposed
within the project.
We base our search for the right instrumentation for detecting biosignatures on Europa on the analogy suggested by the recent work on polar ecosystems in the Canadian Arctic at Ellesmere Island. In that location sulphur patches (analogous to the Europan patches) are accumulating on glacial ice lying over saline springs rich in sulphate and sulphide. Their work reinforces earlier analogies in Antarctic ecosystems that are appropriate models for possible habitats that will be explored by the European Space Agency JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission to the Jovian System. Its Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) will include orbits around Europa and Ganymede. The Galileo orbital mission discovered surficial patches of non-ice elements on Europa that were widespread and, in some cases possibly endogenous. This suggests the possibility that the observed chemical elements in the exoatmosphere may be from the subsurface ocean. Spatial resolution calculations of Cassidy and co-workers are available, suggesting that the atmospheric S content can be mapped by a neutral mass spectrometer, now included among the selected JUICE instruments. In some cases, large S-fractionations are due to microbial reduction and disproportionation (although sometimes providing a test for ecosystem fingerprints, even though with Sim – Bosak – Ono we maintain that microbial sulphate reduction large sulphur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation. We address the question of the possible role of oxygen in the Europan ocean. Instrument issues are discussed for measuring stable S-isotope fractionations up to the known limits in natural populations of δ34 ≈ −70‰. We state the hypothesis of a Europa anaerobic oceanic population of sulphate reducers and disproportionators that would have the effect of fractionating the sulphate that reaches the low-albedo surficial regions. This hypothesis is compatible with the time-honoured expectation of Kaplan and co-workers (going back to the 1960s) that the distribution range of 32S/34S in analysed extra-terrestrial material appears to be narrower than the isotopic ratio of H, C or N and may be the most reliable for estimating biological effects. In addition, we discuss the necessary instruments that can test our biogenic hypothesis. First of all we hasten to clarify that the last-generation miniaturized mass spectrometer we discuss in the present paper are capable of reaching the required accuracy of ‰ for the all-important measurements with JGO of the thin atmospheres of the icy satellites. To implement the measurements, we single out miniature laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometers that are ideal for the forthcoming JUICE probing of the exoatmospheres, ionospheres and, indirectly, surficial low-albedo regions. Ganymede's surface, besides having ancient dark terrains covering about one-third of the total surface, has bright terrains of more recent origin, possibly due to some internal processes, not excluding biological ones. The geochemical test could identify bioindicators on Europa and exclude them on its large neighbour by probing relatively recent bright terrains on Ganymede's Polar Regions.
Rocks are composed of minerals, bounding matrix, cracks and pores. The study of changes in the physical properties of rocks as a function of heat treatment is relevant to various engineering and industrial applications. The effect of thermal damage on the compression, strength, ultimate compression strain, color and loss of mass of two different limestones extracted from the Yucatan Peninsula is studied. Different thermal treatments are applied by heating the sample from room temperature up to 600°C, with steps of 100°C. The results show a high correlation between the heat transport characteristics, mechanical properties, content of organic matter and the presence of carbonates and iron oxides in each type of limestone rock.
Kochia is a troublesome weed in the western Great Plains and many accessions have evolved resistance to one or more herbicides. Dicamba-resistant soybean is being developed to provide an additional herbicide mechanism of action for POST weed control in soybean. The objective of this study was to evaluate variation in response to dicamba among kochia accessions collected from across Nebraska. Kochia plants were grown in a greenhouse and treated when they were 8 to 12 cm tall. A discriminating experiment with a single dose of 420 g ae ha−1 of dicamba was conducted on 67 accessions collected in Nebraska in 2010. Visual injury estimates were recorded at 21 d after treatment (DAT) and accessions were ranked from least to most susceptible. Four accessions representing two of the most and least susceptible accessions from this screening were subjected to dose-response experiments using dicamba. At 28 DAT, visible injury estimates were made and plants were harvested to determine dry weight. An 18-fold difference in dicamba dose was necessary to achieve 90% injury (I90) between the least (accession 11) and most susceptible accessions. Approximately 3,500 g ha−1 of dicamba was required in accession 11 to reach a 50% dry weight reduction (GR50). There was less than twofold variation among the three more susceptible accessions for both the I90 and GR90 parameters, suggesting that most kochia accessions will be similarly susceptible to dicamba. At 110 DAT, accession 11 had plants that survived doses of 35,840 g ha−1, and produced seed at doses of 17,420 g ha−1. The identification of one resistant accession among the 67 accessions screened, and the fact that dicamba doses greater than 560 g ha−1 were required to achieve GR80 for all accessions suggest that repeated use of dicamba for weed control in fields where kochia is present may quickly result in the evolution of dicamba-resistant kochia populations.
This paper presents a new behavioral model for power amplifiers that accomplishes the capture of nonlinear low-frequency memory effects with reduced complexity and superior precision. It has been extensively evaluated with a commercial amplifier using wideband code-division multiple-access (WCDMA)-like modulated data with symbol rates in the range of 2 ksym/s to 1 Msym/s, and it is shown that the first dynamic reduction of the proposed model is successfully compared with other highly efficient methods in terms of complexity and generalization capacity.
Trajectory patterns of positive, disorganized and negative dimension symptoms during antipsychotic treatment in drug-naive patients with first-episode psychosis have yet to be examined by using naturalistic data.
This pragmatic clinical trial randomized 161 drug-naive patients with a first episode of psychosis to olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol. Patients were assessed with the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Positive Symptoms (SAPS) at baseline and at the end of weeks 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 of antipsychotic treatment. Censored normal models of response trajectories were developed with three dimensions of the SAPS-SANS scores (positive, disorganized and negative) in order to identify the different response trajectories. Diagnosis, cannabis use, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), smoking and antipsychotic class were examined as possible predictive variables.
Patients were classified in five groups according to the positive dimension, three groups according to the disorganized dimension and five groups according to the negative dimension. Longer DUPs and cannabis use were associated with higher scores and poorer responses in the positive dimension. Cannabis use was associated with higher scores and poorer responses in the disorganized dimension. Only schizophrenia diagnosis was associated with higher scores and poorer responses in the negative dimension.
Our results illustrate the heterogeneity of short-term response to antipsychotics in patients with a first episode of psychosis and highlight markedly different patterns of response in the positive, disorganized and negative dimensions. DUP, cannabis use and diagnosis appeared to have a prognostic value in predicting treatment response with different implications for each dimension.
A comprehensive palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the last 219 ka has been carried out by determining the isotopic signatures (δ18O and δ13C) in 766 samples of a thermogene travertine formation in the Guadix-Baza Tertiary basin (Granada, SE Spain). This travertine formation was dated from ≈ 220 to ≈ 5 ka by means of the alpha-spectrometry technique. Initially, the study of the δ18O values of the travertine formation was carried out because they are excellent indicators of the overall palaeoclimatic condition of a particular site. Likewise, the evolution of δ13C values, which can be directly related to the biomass development of the site, has also been studied. Finally, an integrated study of both isotopic records has been performed, identifying a total of 12 climatic periods based on their palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental conditions. These periods are grouped into four climatic scenarios: scenario A, characterized by warm and dry periods; scenario B, characterized by cold and humid periods; scenario C, constituted by warm and humid periods; and scenario D, which is characterized by cold and dry periods. Palaeoclimatic scenarios A and B mainly characterized the palaeoclimatic evolution of the site, while in northern Europe the palaeoclimatic evolution is mainly characterized by scenarios C and D. Therefore, it is suggested that the palaeoenvironmental evolution at lower latitudes on the Iberian Peninsula is the opposite of that identified in northern Europe. However, the main climatic events identified at higher latitudes are also reflected in the studied area.