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There is a trend to reduce the space allowance per animal in cattle feedlot, despite its potential negative impact on animal welfare. Aiming to evaluate the effects of space allowance per animal in outdoor feedlots on beef cattle welfare, a total of 1350 Nellore bulls (450 pure and 900 crossbred) were confined for 12 weeks using three space allowances: 6 (SA6), 12 (SA12) and 24 (SA24) m2/animal (n = 450 per treatment). Bulls were housed in three pens per treatment (n = 150 per pen). The first 6 weeks in the feedlot were defined as ‘dry’ and the last as ‘rainy’ period, according to the accumulated precipitation. Animal-based (body cleanliness, health indicators and maintenance behaviour) and environmental-based indicators (mud depth and air dust concentration) were assessed weekly during the feedlot period. Most of the health indicators (nasal and ocular discharge, hoof and locomotion alterations, diarrhoea, bloated rumen and breathing difficulty) were assessed in a subset of 15 animals randomly selected from each pen. Coughs and sneezes were counted in each pen. Maintenance behaviours (number of animals lying and attending the feed bunk) were recorded with scan sampling and instantaneous recording at 20-min intervals. Postmortem assessments were carried out in all animals by recording the frequencies of macroscopic signs of bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, nephritis and urinary cyst and by measuring the weight and cortical and medullar areas of adrenal glands (n = 30 per pen). Compared with SA12 and SA24, SA6 showed a greater number of sneezes per minute during the dry period and a greater percentage of animals with locomotion alterations during the rainy period. Coughing, diarrhoea and nasal discharge affected a larger number of animals in the SA6 relative to the other two groups. During the rainy period, there was a lower percentage of animals with nasal and ocular discharge, and a greater percentage of animals with abnormal hoof and lying. A lower percentage of animals in SA6 and SA12 (but not SA24) attended the feed bunk during the rainy relative to the dry period. A mud depth score of 0 (no mud) was most frequent in SA24 pens, followed by SA12 and then SA6. Adrenal gland weight and cortical area were lower in SA24 animals compared with those in SA6 and SA12. The results show that decreasing the space allowance for beef cattle in outdoor feedlots degrades the feedlot environment and impoverishes animal welfare.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major health problem in many countries and its current treatment involves multiple parenteral injections with toxic drugs and requires intensive health services. Previously, the efficacy of a single subcutaneous injection with a slow-release formulation consisting of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles loaded with an antileishmanial 3-nitro-2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxychalcone (CH8) was demonstrated in mice model. In the search for more easily synthesized active chalcone derivatives, and improved microparticle loading, CH8 analogues were synthesized and tested for antileishmanial activity in vitro and in vivo. The 3-nitro-2′,4′,6′-trimethoxychalcone (NAT22) analogue was chosen for its higher selectivity against intracellular amastigotes (selectivity index = 1489, as compared with 317 for CH8) and more efficient synthesis (89% yield, as compared with 18% for CH8). NAT22 was loaded into PLGA / polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymeric blend microspheres (NAT22-PLGAk) with average diameter of 1.9 μm. Although NAT22-PLGAk showed similar activity to free NAT22 in killing intracellular parasites in vitro (IC50 ~ 0.2 μm), in vivo studies in Leishmania amazonensis – infected mice demonstrated the significant superior efficacy of NAT22-PLGAk to reduce the parasite load. A single intralesional injection with NAT22-PLGAk was more effective than eight injections with free NAT22. Together, these results show that NAT22-PLGAk is a promising alternative for single-dose localized treatment of CL.
The general medical model explains that there are genetic and environmental risks and protective factors in the aetiology of any complex disease. The main idea supported by this model is the existence of good and bad polymorphisms. We present a review of the literature and some examples of our own empirical studies about this issue in psychiatry; with special focus on the methodological problems of this medical model.
In relation with 5-HTTLPR we present the results of a longitudinal study of 1804 women. In this study the “LL” genotype seems to be a risk factor for post-partum depression, probably due to gene-hormone interaction after delivery. But the same genotype might be a protective factor of emotional disorder in other life-time and environmental condition.
In relation with COMT gene, we present a meta-analysis (including our own data) of 51 studies comprising 13,894 schizophrenic patients and 16,087. We found a small but significant protective effect for heterozygosis at rs4680 (pooled OR ¼ 0.947, P¼ 0.023; pooled OR ¼ 0.813, P¼ 0.0009). Thus, the COMT functional polymorphism rs4680 contributes to schizophrenia genetic susceptibility under an over-dominant model, indicating that both too high and too low levels of dopamine (DA) signalling maybe risk factors.
In summary, both examples suggested that there are no ‘bad’ or ‘good’ genotypes in relation to common variants. The controversial results of many genetics associations’ studies in psychiatry might become comprehensive under an evolutionary approach.
The possibility of detention for treatment of mental patients may be controversial since introduces the possibility of the judicial power to dominate one's private life.
It is made an analysis of the legal problems in compulsory internment and treatment in mental patients in Portugal.
Material and Methods
The diplomas mainly analysed were the Portuguese mental health law, Constitution and Penal Code. The study was based in four legal principles: necessity, proportionality, subsidiary and adequacy whenever a compulsory detention for mental treatment is imposed and the requisites for that decision.
Compulsory internment may only be determined when it is the only way to guarantee that patient is submitted to treatment, and when is deemed proportional to the danger of the legally protected value in question. Restrictions on patient’s fundamental rights shall be those strictly necessary and suitable to the effectiveness of treatment. Compulsory internment may be petitioned by the Public Attorney, patient's legal representative, public health authorities or any person.
In spite of the diversity of criteria for compulsory mental health care across several countries, Portuguese mental health law emphasizes the need for treatment as an essential condition for detaining patients with mental illness. The compulsory treatment is based on the judge decision supported in the psychiatric report. However, how can we be certain that a mental patient is going to practice a specific crime? Is it fair to punish without crime? Are there scientific criteria capable of ensuring that mental patients cause always violent behavior?
Although it is well know that the substance use during pregnancy has a negative impact on mother and child health, there are few data on pregnancy - related substance use as a risk factor for postpartum depression and child outcomes.
Aims: To determine maternal and child outcomes at 8 and 32 weeks postpartum of women who reported substance use during pregnancy.
This is a cohort study of 1804 Caucasian women in postpartum. Exclusion criteria: psychiatric disorders during pregnancy. Women were evaluated at 2-3 days, 8 and 32 weeks postpartum. Socio-demographic, obstetric, personal and family psychiatric history and substance use during pregnancy; the Edimburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) were assessed. All women with EPDS>9 at 8 and 32 weeks were evaluated by a structured interview (DIGS) for DSM-III major depression.
The mean (SD) age was 31.7 (4.6). Forty-six percent of them were primiparous. Thirty-one percent has a family and 16% a psychiatry history. Fifty percent of women reported substance use during pregnancy: 42% caffeine, 21.6% nicotine, 8% alcohol and 0.6% cannabis. Incidence of major postpartum depression was: 12.7%. Incidence of: Apgar scores < 7 at 5 min after birth:0.4%, gestational age at delivery < 37 weeks:7.3%, birth weigt < 2.5 Kg:7.3%, and congenital malformations:1.4%.
In the presentation, the maternal and child perinatal outcomes of women exposed to licit and ilicit drugs will be summarize and will include a discussion of the future clinical and research implications. This work has been done in part with Grants: GO3/184;FIS:PI04178;PI041635,PI041783,PI041779,PI041758,PI041761,PI041791,PI041766,PI041782,RD06/0001/1009; CIBER-SAM.
The Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity (ADDH) is now, a frequent diagnosis in Paediatrics Psychiatry. This real neurobiological syndrome has a variable incidence (3-12%), an early beginning (before 7 years) and an important permanency in adult age (15-20% keep diagnosis and 65% residual symptoms). It represents a risk factor for posterior psychiatric diseases, antisocial behaviour and relation problems. This makes the early diagnosis and treatment necessary. The 70-90% of the patients responds to simpatico mimetic treatment and the methylphenidate is the most used. Patients must carry out the clinical criteria and nowadays there is not any recognized helpful test for the diagnoses except the clinical one. The medium latency auditory evoked response (MLAER) appears 10-70 ms after the cochlear receptor activation and it has cortical and subcortical generators.
We studied MLAER in ADDH: their morphology, changes with treatment and relation between morphology changes and clinical response to treatment.
Patients (53) had ADDH clinical criteria, methylphenidate treatment chosed, not comorbidity neither hearing loss. First phase without treatment and second with it where we did MLAER and tronco-encephalic auditory evoked response during wakefulness and sleep.
Without treatment 76% responses were asymmetric (51% of them with a specific type). The rest 23% were normal. With treatment 63% changed the morphology and 70% had a good response to treatment. Only 11% of patients without alterations had a good clinical development.
An ADDH diagnosis has different physiopathologic mechanism. The MLAER in ADDH could predict the treatment response.
Poor insight is a distinctive feature of the psychotic spectrum disorders. One of the theories of the etiology of awareness is the neuropsychological view which suggests that there is an association of awareness, cognition and brain changes in psychosis. But the relationship of cognitive reserve, insight and drug use is still an unexplored field in the psychosis literature.
The aim of this research is to analyze the possible moderator effect of cannabis use in the relation between cognitive reserve and insight in psychosis.
A longitudinal study was held with 65 patients with FEP from 3 main hospitals in the Basque Country (Spain). All patients underwent clinical and functional evaluations at base line and longitudinally at one year follow up. Insight was measured using the insight and judgement item (G12) from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The cognitive reserve was measured using the Vocabulary sub-scale from WAIS-III and educational level. Drug use was assessed during the clinical interview.
One year follow-up data were available for 35 patients. Significant relation between the cognitive reserve and G12 item (β = −9.58; p < .05) was found as long as the cannabis use is included as a moderator (β = −9.34; p < .05).
As it is a complex multidimensional concept, a more complete explanatory model of the insight recognizing the functions of the cognitive reserve and others covariates as drug use, defines the role of each variable of the illness and facilitates the objects of treatment definitions.
Verbal fluency (VF) involves complex processes and has been a good marker of cognitive decline. However, the literature is inconsistent concerning to witch factors are associated with VF.
Our aims are to analyze the relationship between both phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) and sociodemographic and psychopathological variables, and explore which emerge as significant predictors.
A subsample of 429 of healthy institutionalized elderly from the Aging Trajectories at Coimbra Council Project were surveyed (60 to 100 years; mean age = 80.38 ± 7.24), the majority was women (76.9%), without a partner (82.2%), without education or with less than four years of education (85.7%), manual occupation (90.1%), and attending day care centers. We evaluated VF phonetically (letters P, M, R) and semantically (animals and food), anxiety symptoms through the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), depressive symptoms through Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and feelings of loneliness through Loneliness Scale (UCLA).
PVF was significantly related with education, occupation, GAI, and GDS. SVF was significantly associated with age, education, occupation, and GDS. Furthermore, SVF scores were worse in elderly men and in those living in night care center, and PVF scores were lower in those with high levels of anxiety symptomatology. In logistic regression analysis none of the variables accounted for the variance in PVF. The only predictor of SVF was sex. In conclusion, this study allowed us to elucidate the only key factor underlying verbal fluency. Being a man may affect SVF performance in institutionalized elderly.
In the last decades, psychiatric training has undergone a major transformation due to the contribution of recent scientific developments in psychiatry. Nowadays, the information acquired during the Psychiatric training seems considerably variable in content and quality between different countries. However, data concerning access to information and also about the educational resources available to the trainees in Europe is very limited.
Objectives and aims
The ATIIPT survey aimed to evaluate Psychiatric trainees’ access to published, online, senior's or industry's information in Europe.
A short paper questionnaire constituted of 7 questions (Appendix 1) was created by the members of the EFPT Research Working Group and passed to each delegate of the 32 countries represented at the 19th EFPT Forum in Prague, Czech Republic, on the 2nd of July 2011.
According to the ATIIPT results, access to information among Psychiatric trainees in Europe is heterogeneous. The most available resources are books and websites, and the most preferable resource is journals. Most of the trainees find their resources sufficient, with the main obstacles being related to low availability of journals and books, lack of time and help from seniors.
Better access to information and more evidence in practice is warranted, since the introduction of novel approaches to access to information may create better psychiatrists in the future, encourage medical students to consider psychiatry as a potential career, and help reduce negative attitudes towards mental illness.
Executive functions (EF) are associated to frontal lobes and cognitive decline (CD) with worse results on EF tests.
Analyze if the Frontal Assessment Battery/FAB assessing EF discriminates elders with CD (vs. with no CD; Montreal Cognitive Assessment/MoCA), and if the results obtained with the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure Test/ROCF (copy's quality, immediate, and delayed memory) are associated with the CD presence/absence. Moreover, we wanted to assess if copy's quality and 3 minutes memory test are associated with FAB results, since these two tests are supposedly associated with EF and with frontal lobes assessed by the FAB, contrarily to the 20 minutes memory (supposedly related to the temporal area).
556 institutionalized elders (age: M ± SD =80.2 ± 5.23; range=60-100) filled in voluntarily a sociodemographic questionnaire, ROCF, MoCA and FAB.
FAB and all ROCF tests were associated with the absence/presence of CD. Regarding variables stratified by age and education, FAB was associated with immediate memory but not with copy's quality nor with delayed memory. With no stratified ROCF and FAB, correlations confirmed the previous associations, but also between FAB and copy's quality.
Results follow the literature regarding the association between immediate memory and EF (associated to frontal lobes), in contrast to the long-term memory which is associated with the temporal area and that was not associated with FAB. Results concerning copy's quality (ROCF) are not consensual.
Poor adherence remains a problem in schizophrenic patients. Treatment guidelines for schizophrenia recommend depot medications for patients who are no adherent to oral regimens. This study aims to evaluate subjective experiences, adverse effects and adherence of depot medicated patients.
Was applied a questionnaire composed by the “Drug Attitude Inventory” (subjectively assesses the attitude and experiences of patients towards their depot medication) and by questions about adverse effects with medications. We took into account four different depot formulations: risperidone, haloperidol, fluphenazine and zuclopenthixol.
Participated 44 schizophrenic patients. The majority is male (77%). Clinically, the mean age of diagnosis is 28 years. About 50% of patients do the long acting risperidone, 31,8% the haloperidol decanoate and 9,1% the fluphenazine or zuclopenthixol. About 52,3% say they do not know the reason they take depot medication and 16% report previous therapeutic abandonment. There are not differences between mean results in “Drug attitude inventory” and all depot medications average in the positive range. Most frequent adverse affects are weight gain (29,5%) and sedation (15,9%). In rating discomfort of adverse affects 54,5% patients score zero (no discomfort) and 2,3% score ten (very uncomfortable) without significant differences between formulations.
Despite reporting adverse effects, patients attribute a low score in terms of discomfort. Although some of them report ignore the reason they are taking depot, patients have positive subjective experiences and attitudes with these medications. This fact may be predictive of good compliance.
Dr. Jules Cotard (1840–1889) was a Parisian neurologist who first described the délire des négations. Cotard's syndrome or Cotard's delusion comprises any one of a series of delusions ranging from the fixed and unshakable belief that one has lost organs, blood, or body parts to believing that one has lost one's soul or is dead. in its most profound form, the delusion takes the form of a professed belief that one does not exist. Nihilistic delusions were described by Cotard to refer to a special type of hypochondriacal delusion associated to melancholia. Although Cotard himself and other XIX and XX centuries' psychiatrists have considered it from different approaches a specific clinical entity, most of the authors estimate that nihilistic delusion is either a syndrome or a symptom which can appear in different psychiatric disorders.
To describe a case study of a patient diagnosed with Cotard's Syndrome and make a revision of the literature.
Search in the PubMed/MedLine and Medscape databases with the following key words: Cotard; depression; delusion; nihilism.
The same symptoms still persist and are shown the same way in our clinical practice as they were in the remote Cotard's times.
Different psychoeducational and family-based interventions have been shown to improve chronic physical diseases, such as asthma. There is an increasing consistency of therapeutic effects in these programmes, across the literature. However, scientific validation of the benefits of each programme and what is the best model/method are required.
To evaluate the effects of Multifamily/MG and Psychoeducational/PG interventions for asthma on psychological, biological and morbidity outcomes.
A sample with 299 outpatients with asthma diagnosis from a University Hospital was recruited consecutively. Patients with moderate/severe asthma were included in a five-month randomized controlled study with simple occultation. There was a balanced inclusion of 141 patients allocated to three groups: MG, PG and control group/CG. All patients continued usual pharmacological treatment. Anxiety (SAS/STAIY), depression (BDI), coping mechanisms (WCAEL), quality of life (MiniAQLQ), asthma control (ACQ), lung function (FEV1/PEF), airway inflammation (FeNO), asthma severity and morbidity were assessed at the beginning and the end of the study.
Both MG and PG improved asthma control. The overall quality of life score increased in MG (0.5 U) and PG (0.8 U), but not in the CG. A significant decrease was also found in the use of oral steroids in MG and in the hospitalization in PG. The behavioural changes improved psychological parameters (anxiety, depression, coping), and lung function.
Multidisciplinary group interventions seem to improve physical/psychological parameters in asthma, and assessment of efficacy is necessary after a longer follow-up period, as is identification of patients’ clusters which benefit the most from each intervention.
When cognitive decline (CD) is present, attention is one of the impaired mental functions. CD is also associated with anxious/depressive symptoms and with some demographic variables, particularly, age.
Investigate the associations between selective attention (Stroop Test: Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Difference between Stroop_Word and Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word, Stroop Ratio_Color and Difference between Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_ Color) and CD (Montreal Cognitive Assessment/MoCA) in institutionalized elders; explore the predictive value of Stroop variables for CD, controlling anxious/depressive symptoms and sociodemographic variables.
140 institutionalized elders (mean age, M = 78.4, SD = 7.48, range = 60-97) voluntarily answered to sociodemographic questions, the MoCA, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory/GAI, the Geriatric Depression Scale/GDS and Stroop test.
73 elders (52, 1%) had CD. Dichotomized MoCA was associated with Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word, Stroop Ratio_Color, GDS and the sociodemographic variable schooling × profession. Age and education were not tested, since MoCA was stratified according to those variables. GDS, Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color showed to predict CD.
There was an association between Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color and CD, confirming that selective attention is smaller when the elderly reveal CD. GDS and CD were, also, associated. However, there was no association between MoCA dichotomized and differences between the correct answers (Stroop_Word and Stroop_Color) and Ratios (Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color). Selective attention and depressive symptoms predicted CD. It would be important to intervene through cognitive rehabilitation with the elders to improve their attention.
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the general population in Portugal is estimated to be 30%. It is already known that many patients who present a psychiatric disorder do not seek a medical doctor, in part because they do not recognise their illness but also because of stigma associated to these disorders. Mental health promotion programs for schools are believed to help overcome these difficulties.
To analyse the knowledge on mental health issues and psychiatric disorders of Portuguese school students from the 7th to the 12th grade, and to assess their contact and interactions with patients who have a psychiatric disorder.
Five students from each class at Pedro Alexandrino high school were selected and they were asked to answer to a questionnaire. Data collected from the questionnaires was then statistically analysed.
The sample collected for this study included a total of 145 students, 60% male and 40% female, with a mean age of 15years-old. Global knowledge about mental health and psychiatric disorders among students was poor and it was primarily acquired through the media. A comparatively high percentage of students in our sample (46%) knew at least one patient with a psychiatric disorder, and in most cases those patients were from their family group or circle of friends.
Education on mental health and psychiatric disorders should be implemented at schools and within the context of health education, in order to promote mental health and also to help reduce stigma usually associated to psychiatric disorders.
The authors intend to review clinical features, epidemiology and management of bipolar disorder in elderly patients, and discuss the possibility of a sub-classification as late-onset bipolar disorder, concerning a clinical case.
Relevant literature was collected from PubMed database under keywords “bipolar disorder”, “late-onset”; “old age” and “age of onset”; the authors reviewed selected articles, publishing dates ranging from 1994 to 2011. Report of a clinical case of a 72 y.o. female patient without previous psychiatric history, admitted for the first time on psychiatric wards, for affective symptoms.
The clinical presentation initially led to the diagnosis of psychotic depression. After treated with antidepressant and atypical antipsychotic, the patient developed mania symptoms and is currently on mood stabilizer.
Although peak incidence of bipolar disorder is around 30 y.o., several studies have suggested a second peak of elderly-presenting cases. Data shows that the later have a greater proportion of medical comorbidities, especially neurological, and of cases with no familial history, which may suggest that these patients belong to a different aetiological sub-group.
Patients with bipolar disorder with onset at older age differ clinically from younger patients, probably due to different aetiological factors. When an elderly patient without previous history of psychiatric disease is admitted for first episode, late-onset bipolar disorder diagnosis must be considered, concerning therapeutic and prognostic implications.
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.) is an important crop for rainfed production systems and can play a significant role as a feed source for ruminants owing to its high yield and drought tolerance. It is well-established that the maturity stage can influence the chemical composition as well as the nutritional value of crops traditionally used for silage production, although quantitative evidence that this occurs with pearl millet under rainfed conditions is lacking. The current research assessed the agronomic characteristics, ensilability, intake and digestibility of a Brazilian pearl millet cultivar (IPA BULK1-BF) harvested at four different growth stages. Forage was harvested at 35, 50, 65 and 80 days after sowing and ensiled under laboratory and farm conditions. Apparent digestibility of the silages was determined using 24 male lambs. The results showed that dry matter (DM) and panicle and stem proportions increased with the advancement maturity. The silage evaluations showed that DM, total and non-fibrous carbohydrates and lignin concentrations increased, while crude protein, ADF and in vitro DM digestibility decreased with the increase in plant maturity. Additionally, the fermentation characteristics were improved with the increasing maturity. The digestion study showed that intake of DM and N as well as digestibility of DM and fibre fractions decreased, while lignin intake increased. The results obtained for the production of dry and digestible DM, the ratio of plant fractions and fermentation parameters indicate the possibility of harvesting pearl millet forage after 50 days after sowing for silage production in the Brazilian semi-arid region.
It is known that the level of dietary protein modulates the enzymatic activity of the digestive tract of fish; however, its effect at the molecular level on these enzymes and the hormones regulating appetite has not been well characterised. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CP on the activity of proteases and the expression of genes related to the ingestion and protein digestion of juveniles of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.), as well as the effects on performance, protein retention and body composition of tilapia. A total of 240 juveniles (29.32 ± 5.19 g) were used, distributed across 20 tanks of 100 l in a closed recirculation system. The fish were fed to apparent satiety for 42 days using four isoenergetic diets with different CP levels (24%, 30%, 36% and 42%). The results indicate that fish fed the 30% CP diet exhibited a higher growth performance compared to those on the 42% CP diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake in fish fed 24% and 30% CP diets was significantly higher than that in fish fed 36% and 42% CP diets (P < 0.05). A significant elevation of protein retention was observed in fish fed with 24% and 30% CP diets. Fish fed with 24% CP exhibited a significant increase in lipid deposition in the whole body. The diet with 42% CP was associated with the highest expression of pepsinogen and the lowest activity of acid protease (P < 0.05). The expression of hepatopancreatic trypsinogen increased as CP levels in the diet increased (P < 0.05) up to 36%, whereas trypsin activity showed a significant reduction with 42% CP (P < 0.05). The diet with 42% CP was associated with the lowest intestinal chymotrypsinogen expression and the lowest chymotrypsin activity (P < 0.05). α-amylase expression decreased with increasing (P < 0.05) CP levels up to 36%. No significant differences were observed in the expression of procarboxypeptidase, lipase or leptin among all the groups (P > 0.05). In addition, the diet with 42% CP resulted in a decrease (P < 0.05) in the expression of ghrelin and insulin and an increase (P < 0.05) in the expression of cholecystokinin and peptide yy. It is concluded that variation in dietary protein promoted changes in the metabolism of the red tilapia, which was reflected in proteolytic activity and expression of digestion and appetite-regulating genes.
The liaison psychiatry (LP) is a feature used by the psychiatrist in order to improve the management of patients with mental suffering and/or mental disorder admitted to general hospital.
To characterize the epidemiological profile of hospitalized patients at the university hospital of the federal university of Sergipe (HU-UFS) submitted to LP.
retrospective and observational study, through analysis of medical records of patients admitted in the wards of clinical medicine and surgery from the HU-UFS, in the period from January to December 2015, submitted to LP. The information collected fed a specific questionnaire developed by the authors, intended for research of socio-demographic data and clinical profile.
the frequency of request for IP was of 3.5%, with the majority of applications was performed by clinical medicine (71.2%), while the surgical clinic was responsible for 28.8%. The main reason for the request of LP was the presence of depressive symptoms (49.1%). There was a predominance of females (52.5%) and the mean age was 45.9 ± 14.6 years.
The frequency of request for LP was very low, suggesting a difficulty in the early detection of mental disorders by physicians. This finding points to an underreporting of cases, since the prevalence of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients is over 50% in this institution.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.