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San José 520 is a Classic period hamlet of single-family residences in the urban periphery of Teotihuacan, just beyond the southeast edge of the city. Three burial features were associated with one of the residences, AF2. One of the features contained the burial of a single adult, another the successive burials of eight adults and one neonate, and the third held a neonate. We analyzed 29 bone and enamel samples from the adults for bioapatite phosphate oxygen-isotope composition; we also considered isotopic data for another five bone samples analyzed in a separate project. The isotopic results suggest a pattern of birth in the Teotihuacan region and then movement in early childhood to a “relocation” region, the geographic location of which is unknown. Later, probably in adolescence, the individuals returned to live, and eventually die, in San José 520. Without knowing more about the occupation of the relocation region, it is difficult to say what concerns or beliefs underlay this unusual but long-established settlement system.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
Personality dimensions have been associated with symptoms dimensions in schizophrenic patients (SP). In this paper we study the relationships between symptoms of functional psychoses and personality dimensions in SP and their first-degree relatives (SR), in other psychotic patients (PP) and their first-degree relatives (PR), and in healthy controls in order to evaluate the possible clinical dimensionality of these disorders. Twenty-nine SP, 29 SR, 18 PP, 18 PR and 188 controls were assessed using the temperament and character inventory (TCI-R). Current symptoms were evaluated with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) using the five-factor model described previously (positive [PF], negative [NF], disorganized [DF], excitement [EF] and anxiety/depression [ADF]). Our TCI-R results showed that patients had different personality dimensions from the control group, but in relatives, these scores were not different from controls. With regard to symptomatology, we highlight the relations observed between harm avoidance (HA) and PANSS NF, and between self-transcendence (ST) and PANSS PF. From a personality traits-genetic factors point of view, schizophrenia and other psychosis may be initially differentiated by temperamental traits such as HA. The so-called characterial traits like ST would be associated with the appearance of psychotic symptoms.
The first descriptions of schizophrenia emphasized attention problems patients with schizophrenia have but recent results evidence that other psychotic disorders share them.
We compared the performance in sustained and selective attention between psychotic patients (P), their healthy first degree relatives (R) and healthy volunteers (C) to prove whether these alterations could be an endophenotype of vulnerability to psychosis. We also compared the performance of schizophrenic patients (SZP) and that of patients with other functional psychoses (OP) in order to prove whether these alterations are specific of any psychotic disorder.
Seventy-six P, 70 R and 39 C were included in the study. A selective attention index, comprising TMT A and B and Stroop Test, and a sustained attention index comprising the Continuous Performance Test were calculated. We conducted an univariant general linear model to compare three group performances in these indexes, with age, sex and years of education as a covariables.
We found significant differences between the indexes when we compared P, R and C. No differences in performance were found between SZP and OP. Our data showed that sustained and selective attention alterations could be a vulnerability factor to psychotic disorders in general, but they were not specific of schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder which involves chronic or recurrent psychosis and it is commonly associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning. Antipsychotic medications are a first-line treatment, however, most patients experience disabling impairment even after benefiting from antipsychotics, including positive and negative symptoms, cognitive deficits, poor social functioning and episodes of acute symptomatic relapse.
Systematic literature review in UpToDate and Pubmed.
To identify the most relevant intervention areas of systematic rehabilitation in schizophrenia.
45 years old schizophrenic male who admitted in a Medium Stay Psychiatry Unit with severe behavioural impairment and psychotic symptoms. At least 10 hospitalizations and pronounced disability in basic life skills despite optimal treatment. Poor insight and compliance, frequent relapses, co-morbid substance abuse and difficult family support. Clozapine was added to his treatment with improvement in psychotic symptoms. A multidisciplinary intervention was also done and he was discharged home with important improvement in social skills, better insight and familiar functioning
Despite following an adequate antipsychotic treatment, including Clozapine as the main medication in resistant schizophrenia, it is often partially effective with severe impairments in social and occupational functioning. Family-based interventions, cognitive behavioural therapy and social skills training, added to this medication seem to be essential in the systematic treatment of schizoprenia. It includes a multidisciplinary team and a specific length of time but it is based on the patient's status. Despite evidence of their efectiveness, the availability of these interventions varies widely, as does the availability of clinicians to provide them.
Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a strength-based and a social constructivist approach that assumes that individuals have the ability to develop creative solutions that enhance their lives to develop a new self, modify worldviews, and implement behaviour changes.
To develop a quantitative research to determine which clinical variables and process variables are measured using the technique of judges and determine its statistical association with the outcome at termination of therapy and follow-up, using the videos of SFBT psychotherapy sessions, and a follow-up call.
To identify variables associated with outcome at termination and follow-up and to evaluate the success applying SFBT.
Sample was composed by 74 cases.
Criteria of inclusion
A telephone number available to make the follow follow-up call and at least 6 months since termination (6 months to 39 months, mean 15.6 months). Three questionnaire were used, The First-Session Rating Questionnaire, The Last-Session Ration Questionnaire and The Follow-up Questionnaire.
Goals were reached 88% of the cases, patients said that complaint was totally resolved were 17% and 26% when the dropouts were excluded, and that complaint was partially resolved were 76% and 65% when the dropouts were excluded. According to the judges, the successful at termination was the 86%, and the successful at follow-up was 67% according to the Follow-Up Questionnaire. No variables were statistically associated to the successful at termination or the follow-up.
SFBT reaches the “minimum efficacy permitted” according to the general consensus of experts. Clinical of process variables was not associated to success.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Recent studies suggest that Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) could be regarded as an affective disorder within the Bipolar Affective Disorder (BP) spectrum. This is supported by evidence suggesting a clinical/neurobiological overlap between these two disorders. The Temperament and Character Inventory Revised (TCI-R) may help differentiate between the two disorders and orientate the clinical approach, considering the evidence of the medium-term temporal stability of TCI-R in a clinical population.
We present a clinical case diagnosed with BD which underwent testing using TCI-R. TCI-R orientated towards a secondary diagnosis of BPD and the case further received a course of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) which led to clinical improvement. We therefore study the usefulness of TCI-R in this clinical setting.
To study whether TCI-R may help differentiate between BD and BPD in mood stabilized patients.
Our patient is a 52-year-old married male diagnosed with BD. Considering his clinical features of impulsivity/instability of behaviors and pathological interpersonal relationships, patient was started on individual DBT (fortnightly, 4 months). Psychotropic treatment (paroxetine 30 mg/day, lithium 1000 mg/day, aripiprazole 15 mg/day) was not modified.
TCI-R scores: harm avoidance (100%), novelty seeking (53%), reward dependence (20%), persistence (18%), self-directedness (1%), cooperativeness (2%) and self-transcendence (48%). After 4 months of therapy, the patient improved in distress tolerance, acceptance, behavioral activation and assertiveness.
TCI-R is an inventory for personality traits in which character scores differ markedly between PD and non-PD patients. It is a useful tool in BPD patients orientating the clinician in the differential diagnosis and the treatment approach.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In DSM-V, catatonia is individualized as a disease of its own. The priority is to look first for organic causes like intoxication. We present a clinical case diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID) and catatonia.
To study a case of catatonia which underwent testing using Bush-Francis Catatonia rating scale (BFCRS) prior/after clinical intervention. We therefore study catatonia's etiology in ID population.
To study the etiology of catatonia (and its clinical complications) in ID.
Our patient is 48-year-old female with DI. Considering her clinical features of catatonia (using BFCRS) and clinical examination (fever and hypoxia), the case orientated towards a secondary diagnosis. Work-up tests revealed pneumonia in the lower lobe of the right lung (chest radiography showed opacities and blood tests showed Leuokocytosis with a left shift). The case further received a course oral levofloxacin (500 mg/day) and haloperidol was stopped. Valproic acid was also added to a dose of 600 mg/day, which led to clinical improvement. Remaining psychotropic treatment (duloxetine 60 mg/day, lorazepam 15 mg/day, diazepam 35 mg/day) was not modified.
After 1 month, the patient improved according to BFCSR score.
We presented a case of presence of catatonia in other psychiatric conditions and undiagnosed general medical conditions. Haloperidol is contraindicated those circumstances and it may have worsened her clinical state (it should be used cautiously in DI). Other medications (gabaergic drugs) should be considered in such settings and rare causes related to hypoxia cannot be ruled out (Table 1).
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The only generally accepted treatment of coeliac disease (CD) is a lifelong gluten-free diet. Wheat gluten proteins include gliadins, low and high molecular weight glutenins. However, we have found significant structural variations within these protein families among different cultivars. To determine which structural motifs might be less toxic than others, we assessed five variants of α-gliadin immunodominant CD-toxic peptides synthesised as 16mers in CD T cell stimulation assays with gluten-sensitive T cell lines generated from duodenal biopsies from CD-affected individuals. The peptides harboured the overlapping T cell epitopes DQ 2.5-glia-α-2 and naturally occurring variants that differed in certain amino acids (AA). The results revealed that introduction of two selected AA substitutions in α-gliadin peptides reduced immunogenicity. A peptide with three AA substitutions involving two glutamic acids (E) and one glutamine residue (G) revealed the peptide was negative in 5:5 samples. We used CD small-intestinal organ culture to assess CD toxicity that revealed two peptides with selected substitution of both glutamic acid (E) and proline (P) residues abrogated evidence of CD toxicity.
The objective of the Caribbean Strong Summit was to plan an intersectoral summit to address the equity of community health and resilience for disaster preparedness, response and recovery and develop a set of integrated and actionable recommendations for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean Region post Hurricanes Irma and Maria. A three-day meeting was convened with a wide range of community, organizational and private sector leaders along with representatives from Puerto Rico, the Caribbean, the Americas, and global experts to generate recommendations for enhanced resilience based upon lessons learned and evidence-based approaches. More than 500 participants from the region gave 104 presentations with recommendations for resilience. Over 150 recommendations were generated and ranked for importance and actionability by participants. A representative sample of these are presented along with five major themes for building health resilient communities in the Caribbean. This summit was successful in compiling a set of integrated recommendations from more than 19 diverse sectors and in defining five major thematic areas for future work to enhance resilience for all types of future disasters. A follow-up meeting should be planned to continue this discussion and to showcase work that has been accomplished in these areas. A complete set of the recommendations from the Caribbean Strong Summit and their analysis and compilation would be published and should serve as a foundational effort to enhance preparedness and resiliency towards future disasters in the Caribbean.
Triatomine bugs carry the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease. It is known that both the parasite and entomopathogenic fungi can decrease bug survival, but the combined effect of both pathogens is not known, which is relevant for biological control purposes. Herein, the survival of the triatomine Meccus pallidipennis (Stal, 1872) was compared when it was coinfected with the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) and T. cruzi, and when both pathogens acted separately. The immune response of the insect was also studied, using phenoloxidase activity in the bug gut and hemolymph, to understand our survival results. Contrary to expectations, triatomine survival was higher in multiple than in single challenges, even though the immune response was lower in cases of multiple infection. We postulate that T. cruzi exerts a protective effect and/or that the insect reduced the resources allocated to defend itself against both pathogens. Based on the present results, the use of M. anisopliae as a control agent should be re-considered.
Dietary protein adjustments can reduce environmental impact and economic losses in production systems. However, we lack information regarding nitrogen (N) metabolism and protein requirements for maintenance of crossbred animals such as Red Norte breed, precluding a precise dietary management. The objective was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary CP levels (9%, 11%, 13%, 15% and 17%) on intake, digestibility and N balance, as well as to estimate the metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance (MPm) of growing Red Norte bulls. Thirty five animals averaging 280 ± 4.0 kg BW were fed during 45 days in a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio diet in which the last 5 days were used for the digestibility trial. Intakes of CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFCs) and feed efficiency linearly increased (P < 0.05) as CP levels increased, while DM, NDF, nitrogen efficiency use and ether extract were not influenced by CP levels (P > 0.05). Digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ether extract, NFC and CP as well as metabolizable energy intake linearly increased (P < 0.05), and true digestibility of CP was not affected (P > 0.05) by treatments. Urinary N and retained N linearly increased (P < 0.05) with the increase in dietary N. The MPm were estimated as 4.46 g/BW0.75 and the efficiency of use of MPm was 0.673. In conclusion, obtained MPm requirements of growing Red Norte bulls are greater than the values reported in literature for Zebu cattle and dietary CP levels of 15% and 17% exhibited great responses for growing Red Norte cattle. However, a cost-benefit evaluation should be done before its use.
Hoerl & McCormack propose that animals learn sequences through an entrainment-like process, rather than tracking the temporal addresses of each event in a given sequence. However, past research suggests that animals form “temporal maps” of sequential events and also comprehend the concept of ordinal position. These findings suggest that a clarification or qualification of the authors’ hypothesis is needed.
The aim of this investigation was to study castor, canola, and sesame vegetable oils in order to evaluate their potential use as lubricants in steel mechanical components. For this purpose, densities of each oil were evaluated using the pycnometer method, as well as their dynamic viscosities through a Brookfield DV-II rotational viscometer. Both properties were evaluated at temperatures of 25, 40 and 100 °C. Additionally, viscosity indexes were determined according to ASTM D 2270. These rheological properties were used to estimate the lubrication regime considering parameters of real contact conditions in mechanical components. Friction and wear analyses were carried out to investigate the behaviour of the vegetable oil as lubricants. Such tests were carried out at room temperature on a CSM tribometer with pin-on-disk configuration by using castor, canola and sesame oils as lubricants. AISI 4140 hardened steel against AISI 100Cr6 steel pin was used as a mechanical component. From the rheological study, it was observed that canola and sesame oils behave as dilatant fluids at the evaluated temperatures, while castor oil behaves like a Newtonian fluid at 25 and 40 °C. Castor oil showed the highest density value among oils studied, but it also exhibited the lowest value of viscosity index (271). Contrarily, sesame oil was the least dense, but it exhibited the highest viscosity index (545). On the other hand, the lubrication regime study showed that by using castor oil as a lubricant in the mechanical component (4140/100Cr6), the system worked in a mixed lubrication regime while by using canola and sesame oils the system operated in boundary lubrication conditions. Finally, the kinetic friction coefficients were different for each lubricant obtaining the lowest value with castor oil while the highest value of friction coefficient was exhibited by the sesame oil lubricant.
Izapa is famous for its monumental architecture and extensive corpus of carved stelae dated to the Late Formative Guillén phase (300–100 cal b.c.). The site was first established, however, as the capital of a kingdom during the second half of the Middle Formative period (750–300 cal b.c.). Little is known of the first centuries of the site's occupation or how this early kingdom coalesced with Izapa as its capital. In 2012, the Izapa Regional Settlement Project (IRSP) excavated 21 test units and ran 10 radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates in order to begin correcting this lacuna. These excavations were the first at the site to screen soil matrices and recover artifact samples that can be quantitatively analyzed.
We undertook excavations in areas north and south of Group B, the original center of Izapa. This work dates the northern expansion of the site's main platform (under Mound 30a) to the Terminal Formative Itstapa phase (cal a.d. 100–300) that resulted in a doubling of the platform's size. Further, we documented that there were three distinct construction episodes in the Terminal Formative expansion and that a central staircase and ramp were built of stone during the second episode. Buried below the Terminal Formative platform expansion was a white clay surface built during the Escalón phase (750–500 cal b.c.) and used through to Guillén times. At the long, linear Mound 62 that defines the eastern edge of Izapa's site core, we documented two episodes of Guillén-phase monumental construction. Buried below this construction fill at Mound 62, a hearth feature and stone alignment are dated to the late Middle Formative based on radiocarbon assays and the results of ceramic analysis. Excavations at Mound 72 and 73 documented that Izapa's E-Group (newly recognized with lidar [light detection and ranging] data) was established in the late Middle Formative period and then significantly augmented during the Guillén phase. The architectural program at Izapa saw its apogee during the Late Formative period, but was first established during the preceding centuries of the Middle Formative. Ten new AMS dates confirm the dating of the Escalón, Frontera, and Guillén phases to 750–100 cal b.c.
Ceramic analysis allowed us to differentiate quantitatively between midden deposits and construction fill through the site's occupation and to recognize domestic versus public spaces during the first centuries of the Izapa kingdom's coalescence. We identify late Middle Formative period middens based on the high density of ceramics in addition to good surface preservation of sherds and a lack of temporal mixing of types. The designation of high-artifact density middens contrasts with the contents of Late and Terminal Formative construction fill with lower ceramic sherd densities and mixing of temporally diagnostic types. Off-mound contexts (where construction fill was mined) had even lower ceramic densities than construction fill and the sherds were very eroded. Analysis of ceramic remains from late Middle Formative period midden deposits also allowed us to infer differences in public and domestic areas of the site during the first centuries of its occupation. Formal and metric variables from these ceramic assemblages identify dish-to-jar ratios that differentiate domestic contexts (with an assortment of vessel forms) from more publically oriented areas of the site (with more serving dishes). The differential distribution of rim diameters of fancy and plain dishes allows us to identify areas of Izapa where domestic activities predominate and indicate that more publically oriented feasting practices occurred at the site center near the main pyramid (Mound 30a) during the late Middle Formative period.
We studied the effect of annealing on magnetic properties and structure of Heusler-type NiMnGa glass-covered microwires with a metallic nucleus diameter of about 22 μm prepared using the Taylor–Ulitovsky method. The as-prepared NiMnGa glass-covered microwires do not present ferromagnetic order at room temperature. Magnetization curves of the as-prepared samples do not present either saturation or coercivity at temperatures above 5 K. After annealing of the microwires, a ferromagnetic ordering is obtained with a Curie temperature of about 300 K which is beneficial for magnetic solid state refrigeration. The hysteresis observed on temperature dependence of magnetization in annealed samples and magnetic softening at about 260 K has been interpreted as the first-order phase transformation. Observed changes have been discussed considering internal stress relaxation after annealing, nanocrystalline structure of the as-prepared and annealed samples, recrystallization process and magnetic ordering of phases identified in the as-prepared sample and appearing under recrystallization. Existence of insulating and flexible glass-coating is beneficial for improvement of mechanical properties but the glass coating considerably affects magnetic properties of NiMnGa microwires. Therefore special attention must be paid to annealing conditions for realization of martensitic transformation.
Goats have played a key role as source of nourishment for humans in their expansion all over the world in long land and sea trips. This has guaranteed a place for this species in the important and rapid episode of livestock expansion triggered by Columbus’ arrival in the Americas in the late 1400s. The aims of this study are to provide a comprehensive perspective on genetic diversity in American goat populations and to assess their origins and evolutionary trajectories. This was achieved by combining data from autosomal neutral genetic markers obtained in more than two thousand samples that encompass a wide range of Iberian, African and Creole goat breeds. In general, even though Creole populations differ clearly from each other, they lack a strong geographical pattern of differentiation, such that populations of different admixed ancestry share relatively close locations throughout the large geographical range included in this study. Important Iberian signatures were detected in most Creole populations studied, and many of them, particularly the Cuban Creole, also revealed an important contribution of African breeds. On the other hand, the Brazilian breeds showed a particular genetic structure and were clearly separated from the other Creole populations, with some influence from Cape Verde goats. These results provide a comprehensive characterisation of the present structure of goat genetic diversity, and a dissection of the Iberian and African influences that gave origin to different Creole caprine breeds, disentangling an important part of their evolutionary history. Creole breeds constitute an important reservoir of genetic diversity that justifies the development of appropriate management systems aimed at improving performance without loss of genomic diversity.