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COVID-19 has caused a major global pandemic and necessitated unprecedented public health restrictions in almost every country. Understanding risk factors for severe disease in hospitalised patients is critical as the pandemic progresses. This observational cohort study aimed to characterise the independent associations between the clinical outcomes of hospitalised patients and their demographics, comorbidities, blood tests and bedside observations. All patients admitted to Northwick Park Hospital, London, UK between 12 March and 15 April 2020 with COVID-19 were retrospectively identified. The primary outcome was death. Associations were explored using Cox proportional hazards modelling. The study included 981 patients. The mortality rate was 36.0%. Age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.53), respiratory disease (aHR 1.37), immunosuppression (aHR 2.23), respiratory rate (aHR 1.28), hypoxia (aHR 1.36), Glasgow Coma Scale <15 (aHR 1.92), urea (aHR 2.67), alkaline phosphatase (aHR 2.53), C-reactive protein (aHR 1.15), lactate (aHR 2.67), platelet count (aHR 0.77) and infiltrates on chest radiograph (aHR 1.89) were all associated with mortality. These important data will aid clinical risk stratification and provide direction for further research.
To characterize associations between exposures within and outside the medical workplace with healthcare personnel (HCP) SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the effect of various forms of respiratory protection.
We collected data from international participants via an online survey.
In total, 1,130 HCP (244 cases with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, and 886 controls healthy throughout the pandemic) from 67 countries not meeting prespecified exclusion (ie, healthy but not working, missing workplace exposure data, COVID symptoms without lab confirmation) were included in this study.
Respondents were queried regarding workplace exposures, respiratory protection, and extra-occupational activities. Odds ratios for HCP infection were calculated using multivariable logistic regression and sensitivity analyses controlling for confounders and known biases.
HCP infection was associated with non–aerosol-generating contact with COVID-19 patients (adjusted OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.04–1.9; P = .03) and extra-occupational exposures including gatherings of ≥10 people, patronizing restaurants or bars, and public transportation (adjusted OR range, 3.1–16.2). Respirator use during aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) was associated with lower odds of HCP infection (adjusted OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2–0.8, P = .005), as was exposure to intensive care and dedicated COVID units, negative pressure rooms, and personal protective equipment (PPE) observers (adjusted OR range, 0.4–0.7).
COVID-19 transmission to HCP was associated with medical exposures currently considered lower-risk and multiple extra-occupational exposures, and exposures associated with proper use of appropriate PPE were protective. Closer scrutiny of infection control measures surrounding healthcare activities and medical settings considered lower risk, and continued awareness of the risks of public congregation, may reduce the incidence of HCP infection.
To obtain a community perspective on key nutrition-specific problems and solutions for mothers and children.
A qualitative study comprising nine focus group discussions (FGD) following a semi-structured interview guide.
The township of Soweto in South Africa with a rising prevalence of double burden of malnutrition.
Men and women aged ≥18 years (n 66). Three FGD held with men, six with women.
Despite participants perceived healthy diet to be important, they felt their ability to maintain a healthy diet was limited. Inexpensive, unhealthy food was easier to access in Soweto than healthier alternatives. Factors such as land use, hygiene and low income played a fundamental role in shaping access to foods and decisions about what to eat. Participants suggested four broad areas for change: health sector, social protection, the food system and food environment. Their solutions ranged from improved nutrition education for women at clinic visits, communal vegetable gardens and government provision of food parcels to regulatory measures to improve the healthiness of their food environment.
South Africa’s current nutrition policy environment does not adequately address community-level needs that are often linked to structural factors beyond the health sector. Our findings suggest that to successfully address the double burden of malnutrition among women and children, a multifaceted approach is needed combining action on the ground with coherent policies that address upstream factors, including poverty. Further, there is a need for public engagement and integration of community perspectives and priorities in developing and implementing double-duty actions to improve nutrition.
To describe the pattern of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during 2 nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19 with regard to the possibility of airborne transmission.
Contact investigations with active case finding were used to assess the pattern of spread from 2 COVID-19 index patients.
A community hospital and university medical center in the United States, in February and March, 2020, early in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Two index patients and 421 exposed health care workers.
Exposed staff were identified by analyzing the EMR and conducting active case finding in combination with structured interviews. Staff were tested for COVID-19 by obtaining oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal specimens, with RT-PCR testing to detect SARS-CoV-2.
Two separate index patients were admitted in February and March 2020, without initial suspicion for COVID-19 and without contact or droplet precautions in place; both patients underwent several aerosol generating procedures in this context. A total of 421 health care workers were exposed in total, and the results of the case contact investigations identified 8 secondary infections in health care workers. In all 8 cases, the staff had close contact with the index patients without sufficient personal protective equipment. Importantly, despite multiple aerosol generating procedures, there was no evidence of airborne transmission.
These observations suggest that, at least in a healthcare setting, a majority of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is likely to take place during close contact with infected patients through respiratory droplets, rather than by long-distance airborne transmission.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Early age at menopause has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease; however, there is limited evidence for a relationship between early menopause and heart failure (HF). We examined whether early menopause is associated with incident HF among women in the southeastern United States. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Southern Community Cohort Study enrolled ~86,000 low-income black and white adults from 2002 to 2009. Participants for this analysis were 11,948 women who were postmenopausal at enrollment, had no history of HF, and were on Medicaid or Medicare. HF events were ascertained using ICD-9 codes 428.x via linkage of the cohort with CMS Research Identifiable Files through December 31, 2010. Early menopause was defined as self-reported age at menopause less than 45 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from multivariable Cox regression models, overall and by race, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and reproductive factors, including reason for menopause. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: At baseline, mean age was 58±9 years, and 65% of participants were black. Among women with early menopause, 76% (n = 4,836) had menopause due to hysterectomy or oophorectomy. In women with later menopause, 74% (n = 4,102) reported natural menopause. During a median follow-up of 5.0 years (range 3.1-6.7), 2,157 incident HF events occurred. Compared with women with later onset of menopause, those with early menopause had increased HF risk (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.10–1.47). Risk of HF associated with early menopause was similar in white and black women (p-value for interaction: 0.13). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this largely low-income population, early menopause was associated with an increased risk of developing HF. Women with early menopause represent a potential target population for future interventions to decrease risk of HF and cardiovascular risk factors.
Does citizen approval of vote buying depend on the type of benefit being offered? I answer this question using data from a survey experiment conducted on a nationally representative sample of Nicaraguans in 2017. Nicaraguans report significantly lower approval of money-for votes exchanges compared to goods-for-votes exchanges. Furthermore, reported rates of vote buying are lower in the money condition (4.8%) than in the goods-for-votes condition (7.8%), even though the posttreatment question assessing vote buying experience was identical across conditions. This study echoes other work suggesting the need for care in designing questions about vote buying, as slight changes in question wording that prime participants to think about goods versus monetary exchanges can affect both citizen approval of the behavior and the reported prevalence of vote buying.
Asenapine is indicated in adults for acute treatment of schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder with or without psychotic features. We report the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of asenapine in patients with bipolar I disorder completing up to 52 weeks of treatment.
Patients completing either of two 3-week efficacy trials and a 9-week double-blind extension were eligible for this 40-week double-blind extension. Patients in the 3-week trials were randomized to flexible-dose asenapine (5 or 10 mg BID), placebo, or olanzapine (5-20 mg QD; included for assay sensitivity only). Patients entering the extension continued their preestablished treatment; those originally randomized to placebo received flexible-dose asenapine (placebo/asenapine, 5 or 10 mg BID). Safety and tolerability endpoints included adverse events (AEs), extrapyramidal symptoms, laboratory values, and anthropometric measures. Efficacy was measured as the change in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score from 3-week trial baseline to week 52; the placebo/asenapine group was included in the safety analyses.
Incidence of treatment-emergent AEs was 71.9%, 86.1%, and 79.4% with placebo/asenapine, asenapine, and olanzapine, respectively. The most frequent AEs included headache and somnolence (placebo/asenapine); insomnia, sedation, and depression (asenapine); and weight gain, somnolence, and sedation (olanzapine). Mean ± SD changes in YMRS score at week 52 among observed cases in the intent-to-treat population were -28.6±8.1 for asenapine and -28.2±6.8 for olanzapine.
In this 52-week study, asenapine was well tolerated and long-term maintenance of efficacy was supported in patients initially presenting with bipolar mania.
The perinatal mental health field is growing rapidly, which has yielded innovations in both prevention and treatment. To realise the potential of these innovations to transform clinical practice, further investment in research and clinical service development is required. Clinical services must be expanded by providing increased access to specialty care and education for front-line clinicians. Research is needed to develop a personalised medicine approach to understanding the complex aetiologies of perinatal depression and optimising treatments to promote both remission and long-term recovery. Such initiatives will require policies to prioritise federal research funding and healthcare coverage for perinatal depression.
Le parcours de soins des patients atteints de TDA/H est mal connu. Cette enquête nationale a pour objectif de préciser les étapes d’évaluation successives menant au diagnostic ainsi qu’au traitement du TDA/H et d’identifier des éléments susceptibles d’être améliorés.
Enquête transversale menée en France du 04/11/2013 au 31/01/2014 auprès d’un échantillon national de 61 médecins prenant en charge des enfants atteints de TDA/H, à l’aide d’un auto-questionnaire remis aux patients/parents.
Quatre cent soixante-treize questionnaires analysés. Les premiers signes (troubles du comportement [78,2 %] et de l’attention [70 %]) sont repérés vers 4,5 ans, principalement hors du milieu familial. Le diagnostic est posé à l’âge de 8,1 ans, environ 4 ans après l’observation des premiers signes. Les familles consultent en moyenne 3,5 professionnels de santé avant que le diagnostic ne soit évoqué. Le psychiatre/pédopsychiatre est le plus consulté quelle que soit l’étape d’évaluation. Lors de la 1re étape, seuls 10,7 % des patients sont diagnostiqués. Ce délai pourrait en partie expliquer les taux élevés de redoublement (31,5 %), notamment en CP et CE1, et d’insatisfaction vis-à-vis de la prise en charge, principalement lors de la 1re étape d’évaluation (38,6 % d’insatisfaits). Deux groupes de patients ont été mis en évidence par une analyse en cluster : le premier (89,9 % de garçons) présente des problèmes de comportement, d’agitation, et des difficultés familiales ; le 2e (49 % de garçons), dont l’hyperactivité est moins prononcée, a mis une année supplémentaire pour recevoir un diagnostic de TDA/H. Dans cet échantillon, plus de 2/3 des patients bénéficient d’un traitement médicamenteux, du méthylphénidate dans 98 % des cas. Le diagnostic tardif a été la principale source de préoccupation des proches.
Le délai d’environ 4 ans, des premiers signes au diagnostic, pourrait constituer une perte de chance pour les enfants atteints de TDA/H.
Given the limited knowledge on the long-term outcome of adolescents who receive electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), the study aimed to follow-up adolescents treated with ECT for severe mood disorder. Eleven subjects treated during adolescence with bilateral ECT for psychotic depression (n = 6) or mania (n = 5), and ten psychiatric controls matched for sex, age, school level, and clinical diagnosis, completed at least 1 year after treatment a clinical and social evaluation. Mean duration between time of index episode and time of follow-up evaluation was 5.2 years (range 2–9 years). At follow-up: (1) all patients except two in the control group received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. (2) Fifteen patients had had more than one episode of mood disorder. (3) The two groups did not differ in social functioning nor school achievement. (4) Impact on school achievement was related to the severity of the mood disorder rather than ECT treatment. The results suggest that adolescents given ECT for bipolar disorder, depressed or manic, do not differ in subsequent school and social functioning from carefully matched controls.
We shall present the development of a cohort of 40 children aged from 6 to 11 who were initially diagnosed with ADHD (T0) and then reassessed after two years of treatment with multimodal treatment in addition to stimulant medication. At the outset of the study (T0) the children underwent a complete assessment which included a child psychiatric examination, a neuropsychological evaluation of attention skills and a psychodynamic psychological assessment using the T.A.T. and Rorschach projective tests interpreted from a psychoanalytic viewpoint. An identical protocol was used for the reassessment of the children two years later (T2).
Clinically, and from a strictly behavioral point of view, it is clear that there was a calming down of the symptoms associated with the ADHD. Can the same be said for the results of the neuro-psychological and projective tests as well as for the overall psychic functioning of the children?
At this point in our research, and taking into account that T 2 just ended, we can affirm that the children who were assessed with neurotic disorders (according to the classification of psychopathological disorders in childhood) were those who showed the clearest signs of improvement. We shall then study in depth the majority of the population who were assessed with borderline personality disorders (BPD). As these children received a multimodal treatment over the two years time of the study which involved either individual, group or family psychotherapy, we shall use brief clinical case studies for a comparative approach to our research results.
Authors recently have suggested that family enrneshment is not synonymous with high levels of closeness or cohesion. A model proposed by Green and Werner clarifies the cohesion-enmeshment domain by distinguishing between closeness-caregiving and intrusiveness as separate relationship processes. This paper examines the cross-cultural applicability of this perspective through a study of 61 married couples in France. The French version of the California Inventory for Family Assessment (CIFA), a self-report measure designed to assess clinically relevant marital dimensions, was employed. In general, spouses' reports of their marital process demonstrated high internal consistency reliabilities. Factor analysis showed meaningful factor structures distinguishing closeness-caregiving and intrusiveness, as predicted, as well as openness of communication. Significant correlations were obtained between CIFA scales and scores on the Marital Adjustment Test. These results are similar for French and American couples. Research implications for studying relationships among French-speaking couples are underlined.
The understanding and classification of persistently depressed mood has undergone many changes since the term ‘dysthymia’ was first used nearly 150 years ago. Originally it was applied to both melancholia and mania; later it was applied to depressive personality. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III in 1980 and in subsequent updates classified dysthymia as a mood disorder, characterized by a frequently insidious onset and a course that is chronic and unremitting. The assessment of clinical response in the pharmacologic treatment of dysthymia has been more difficult than that for major depression. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, among others, is oriented towards episodic rather than chronic states of depression. A new rating scale, the Cornell Dysthymia Rating Scale, has been developed to better assess milder symptomatology in chronically depressed patients. Early studies suggest its utility, but further validation of the scale is needed in patients with dysthymia and without major depression.
The purpose of this talk is to present a study on risk assessments of female sex offenders. The literature on this issue focuses mainly on male sex offenders. By contrast, the literature on female sex offenders is scarce and mostly recent. Moreover, the law regarding sex offenders does not usually deal with offences committed by females. For example, in Israel section 345 of the criminal code refers solely to male rapists. In recent years we are witnessing a rise in the number females who are brought to justice for committing sex offences. Sex offence assessment is a professional process whereby the probability that a certain behavior will occur within certain terms and in a given range of time is assessed. The assessment takes into account the attributes of both, the assault and the perpetrator. During the last few years much research on risk assessment of male sex offenders has been carried out. However, research on female sex offenders is scanty. As of today, there is no theoretical or data base for assessing sexual recidivism of female sex offenders. Assessment criteria are still unclear, and it is still impossible to ascertain whether the actuarial tools which are commonly used for risk assessment of male sexual offenders are valid for females. In the present study actuarial tools and clinical criteria for assessing female sex offenders were compared. The main finding we found is correlation between actuarial tools and dynamic criteria. The main criticism is that the actuarial tools includes
White matter development during adolescents is crucial for a mature integration of neural networks in the brain. Autism spectrum condition (ASC), characterized by social and communication difficulties and rigid behaviour may interact with white matter development observed during adolescence. Changes in white matter development may link autistic symptoms to its genetic underpinnings and explain a 10-fold increase in susceptibility to ASC among siblings of individuals with ASC.
We used diffusion tensor imaging to study an association between age and white matter integrity measures, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), in adolescents with ASC, their siblings and age-matched healthy controls. Diffusion-weighted data were acquired with 64-direction protocol with 3mm slices and TR of 6600ms and tract-based spatial statistics analysis was performed.
The control subjects showed robust signs of increase in white matter integrity correlated with age. In contrast, individuals with ASC showed significantly lower negative correlation between MD and age in a broad area centred in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (rSLF). When the three eigenvalues constituting a tensor ellipsoid were considered separately, siblings of individuals with ASC showed a diminished negative correlation between the second eigenvalue and age also centred in the rSLF.
Adolescents with ASC and their siblings experience alterations in white matter development in comparison to age-matched healthy controls, which are similar in direction yet different in scale for the two affected groups. The alterations are observed in the area associated with flexibility of behaviour and may explain both symptoms of ASC and increased susceptibility to ASC.
PTSD patients display abnormal emotional processing and bias towards negative emotion. Long latency eventrelated potentials (ERP’s) are composed of the P300 and subsequent slow wave activity. These ERP’s are hypothesized to be relevant for attentional and initial memory storage events as well as emotional processing. objectives: This study tested the hypothesis that abnormal emotional processing in PTSD is reflected in altered brain activity, as measured via ERP’s.
Detect differences in cortical activity and emotional processing in PTSD patients as compared to controls.
ERP’s were recorded from 14 PTSD and 14 control subjects while viewing emotion-laden pictures. Subjects were instructed to press a button depending on the presence of a person or human part in the picture and response time was recorded.
Long latency ERP data (300-1035 msec) showed valence dependent activity in control subjects distinguishing negative vs. positive and neutral pictures. PTSD patients, however, lacked differential activation and had similar brain activity across all picture valances, which resembled the pattern observed in controls only for negative stimuli.
[Late ERP’s 980-1035msec]
PTSD patients also exhibited longer response time.
Our results demonstrate abnormal cognitive-emotional processing in PTSD patients and may underlie overgeneralization processes that are part of this disorder.
“SEYLE” is a project, funded under the 7th European Framework Program, which is implemented in 11 European countries, with the coordination of Karolinska Institutet(Stockholm, Sweden). Its main objectives are: to encourage the adolescents to adopt healthier behaviours through reduction of “at-risk” behaviours and suicidal behaviours; to assess the benefits or prevention programs and recommend culturally adapted health promotion models for European students.
The whole Consortium gathered 12.395 students, aged 15-17 years, across the 11 participating countries. In France, 1007 students were recruited for the study, that took place in the Lorraine region. Each student had to fill a 127 questions self-report questionnaire at baseline and 3 and 12 months later. Data were collected, using questions from the Global School-Based Pupil Health Survey (GSHS) and European Values Study (EVS). Data were also obtained on different risk behaviors and on psychopathology, using questions issued from 13 scales, including, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Paykel Suicide Scale (PSS).
Preliminary results, from the baseline questionnaire show that, there are marked differentes between the various european countries. French students present high levels of depression, as measured by the BDI, high levels of suicidality, as mesured by the PSS and high levels of Non Suicidal Self Injuries (NSSI). They also sleep significantly less than students from other countries.
These different results will be presented and discussed.