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Viral pneumonia is an important cause of death and morbidity among infants worldwide. Transmission of non-influenza respiratory viruses in households can inform preventative interventions and has not been well-characterised in South Asia. From April 2011 to April 2012, household members of pregnant women enrolled in a randomised trial of influenza vaccine in rural Nepal were surveyed weekly for respiratory illness until 180 days after birth. Nasal swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction for respiratory viruses in symptomatic individuals. A transmission event was defined as a secondary case of the same virus within 14 days of initial infection within a household. From 555 households, 825 initial viral illness episodes occurred, resulting in 79 transmission events. The overall incidence of transmission was 1.14 events per 100 person-weeks. Risk of transmission incidence was associated with an index case age 1–4 years (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40–3.96), coinfection as initial infection (IRR 1.94; 95% CI 1.05–3.61) and no electricity in household (IRR 2.70; 95% CI 1.41–5.00). Preventive interventions targeting preschool-age children in households in resource-limited settings may decrease the risk of transmission to vulnerable household members, such as young infants.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Interactions at magnetic interfaces are central to the operation of virtually all magnetic heterostructures. When the interface is between two magnetic materials, the exchange interaction between spins at the interface is often a dominant force, and can dramatically change the magnetic response of the overall heterostructure. In ferromagnet (FM)/antiferromagnet (AFM) heterostructures, this interaction is often referred to as exchange anisotropy or bias and it has been widely used over the past decade in a wide array of applications such as magnetic recording heads, MRAMs, etc. The powerful implications of interactions between an AFM and a FM have been realized in a wide range of thin film heterostructure with both metallic and oxide constituents. There is, however, much less work on oxide-oxide FM/AFM systems. On the other hand, the development and understanding of functional oxide materials, especially multifunctional materials like BiFeO3 (BFO), have piqued the interest of researchers worldwide with the promise of coupling between order parameters such as ferroelectricity and antiferromagnetism. Recent research suggests that there is exchange coupling and anisotropy between the metallic ferromagnet Co0.9Fe0.1 (CoFe) and the multiferroic, antiferromagnet BFO, showing the possibility to create highly desirable multifunctional systems with new possibilities for device design. Such a result provides the driving force to create multifunctional oxide-oxide systems where exchange interactions could be much stronger then in metal/oxide structures due the added epitaxial nature of the interface. In this study, we use La0.7Sr0.3MnO3(LSMO)/BFO thin film heterostructures as a model system to explore the exchange interaction at an oxide interface. The heterostructures are grown on various vicinal cuts of SrTiO3 single crystal substrates using laser MBE. Structural analysis using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry reveals high quality films with the pristine interfaces required for exchange coupling. First results from photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) studies reveal that the magnetic LSMO domain structure mimics underneath ferroelectric BFO domain structure, i..e, it is strongly pinned by the underlying AFM structure. The coupling behavior is being characterized by magnetic measurements (SQUID, VSM), which shows a strong enhancement in the coercivity of the LSMO layer, suggesting the existence of exchange bias coupling. We are probing the strength of this coupling using a combination of careful laser MBE growth experiments and physical property measurements. In this paper, we will report results of experiments in which the LSMO layer has been grown by laser MBE in the thickness range of 2-50nm on a  BFO layer.
Both double-crystal and triple-axis x-ray diffraction techniques have been used to study complex SiGe/Si structures. A novel method for measuring the nucleation activation energy of dislocations in strain relaxed SiGe/Si structures is presented to illustrate the usefulness of these techniques.
Here we present the synthesis of porous platinum–palladium macrobeams templated from high aspect ratio Magnus’ salt needle derivatives. The combination of [PtCl4]2− and/or [PdCl4]2− with [Pt(NH3)4]2+ ions results in salt needles ranging from 15 to 300 µm in length. Electrochemical reduction of the salt templates results in porous macrobeams with a square cross-section. Porous side wall texture and elemental composition was controlled with initial platinum to palladium salt ratio. Macrobeam free-standing films exhibited a specific capacitance up to 11.73 F/g and a solvent accessible surface area of 26.6 m2/g. These salt-templated porous platinum–palladium macrobeams offer a promising material for fuel cell catalysis.
Plasma levels of very-long-chain SFA (VLCSFA) are associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the associations may vary by different biological activities of individual VLCSFA or population characteristics. We aimed to examine the associations of VLCSFA and MetS risk in Chinese adults. Totally, 2008 Chinese population aged 35–59 years were recruited and followed up from 2010 to 2012. Baseline MetS status and plasma fatty acids data were available for 1729 individuals without serious diseases. Among 899 initially metabolically healthy individuals, we identified 212 incident MetS during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI. Cross-sectionally, each VLCSFA was inversely associated with MetS risk; comparing with the lowest quartile, the multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest quartile were 0·18 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·25) for C20 : 0, 0·26 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·35) for C22 : 0, 0·19 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·26) for C24 : 0 and 0·16 (0·11, 0·22) for total VLCSFA (all Pfor trend<0·001). The associations remained significant after further adjusting for C16 : 0, C18 : 0, C18 : 3n-3, C22 : 6n-3, n-6 PUFA and MUFA, respectively. Based on follow-up data, C20 : 0 or C22 : 0 was also inversely associated with incident MetS risk. Among the five individual MetS components, higher levels of VLCSFA were most strongly inversely associated with elevated TAG (≥1·7 mmol/l). Plasma levels of VLCSFA were significantly and inversely associated with MetS risk and individual MetS components, especially TAG. Further studies are warranted to confirm the findings and explore underlying mechanisms.
TiO2 nanomaterials with platelet or nanosheet morphologies can offer improved properties for photocatalytic applications, but established methods to produce them typically require structure-directing agents since anatase-phase TiO2 does not have a layered structure. In the present work, the preparation of TiO2 nanosheets by the chemical oxidation of TiS2 nanosheets is demonstrated. Electrochemical exfoliation of bulk TiS2 into TiS2 nanosheets, followed by the hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C for 14 h is performed. The results show that polycrystalline TiO2 nanosheets with the anatase structure are formed, and that the nanosheet morphology can still be maintained after the hydrothermal treatment. The TiO2 nanosheets show good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue, but the performance is negatively affected by the residual carbon black that was needed in the TiS2 electrode to enable electrochemical exfoliation. These results show that conversion of TiS2 nanosheets to TiO2 nanosheets is a promising synthetic strategy but highlights how the interfacial properties of the obtained materials could be affected by ancillary components in the preparation method.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The TL1 Team approach aims to train translational investigators capable of tackling complex and multifaceted diseases, such as hypertension, by beginning multidisciplinary, team-based training early in their graduate programs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Leanne Dumeny is a graduate student in Genetics and Genomics studying how pharmacogenomics can be applied to improve clinical care and cardiovascular outcomes. Chu Hsiao is a graduate student in Anthropology studying how sociocultural experiences become biologically embodied. Both are in the Ph.D. phase of M.D.-Ph.D. training. Joining the seemingly disparate but complementary fields of anthropology and genomics facilitates understanding of the intersection between socially driven experiences and genetics on nocturnal blood pressure. Understanding both social determinants, such as racial discrimination, and biological determinants, such as genetics, is important because an interplay of gene-environment interactions influences many complex diseases. Rarely can 1 individual, or 1 discipline, tackle all the perspectives necessary to answer these types of complex questions. The TL1 Team curriculum teaches students to navigate the spectrum of translational research as a team, reflect on disciplinary limitations, and embrace collaborative research. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This team project will investigate the relationship between racial discrimination and genetics using a large epidemiological cohort of African Americans in Mississippi. The data request application is currently under review. By the project’s end, the team anticipates their investigation will reveal novel associations between racial discrimination, genetic polymorphisms, and nocturnal blood pressure measurements. The investigators will have gained experience obtaining and analyzing large external data sets, working in diverse team settings, collaborating across state-lines, and publishing articles. Through this team approach, the students will also understand the barriers to working in multidisciplinary groups, and develop a foundation for approaching future collaborations. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: By joining anthropology with genomics, it becomes possible to understand the intersection between socially driven experiences of racial discrimination and genetics on nocturnal blood pressure. The successful training of this first cohort of team-applicants to the TL1 funding mechanism can impact how graduate education will be structured and could reframe graduate education to emphasize a team-based approach.
Risk assessment instruments have become a preferred means for predicting
future aggression, claiming to predict long-term aggression risk.
To investigate the predictive value over 12 months and 4 years of two
commonly applied instruments (Historical, Clinical and Risk Management -
20 (HCR-20) and Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG)).
Participants were adult male psychiatric patients detained in a high
secure hospital. All had a diagnosis of personality disorder. The focus
was on aggression in hospital.
The actuarial risk assessment (VRAG) was generally performing better than
the structured risk assessment (HCR-20), although neither approach
performed particularly well overall. Any value in their predictive
potential appeared focused on the longer time period under study (4
years) and was specific to certain types of aggression.
The value of these instruments for assessing aggression in hospital among
patients with personality disorder in a high secure psychiatric setting
Piglets are characteristically cold intolerant and thus susceptible to high mortality. However, browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) can induce non-shivering thermogenesis as a potential strategy to facilitate the animal’s response to cold. Whether cold exposure can induce browning of subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) in piglets in a similar manner as it can in humans remains largely unknown. In this study, piglets were exposed to acute cold (4°C, 10 h) or chronic cold exposure (8°C, 15 days), and the genes and proteins of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent and independent thermogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, lipogenic and lipolytic processes were analysed. Interestingly, acute cold exposure induced browning of porcine sWAT, smaller adipocytes and the upregulated expression of UCP1, PGC1α, PGC1β, C/EBPβ, Cidea, UCP3, CKMT1 and PM20D1. Conversely, chronic cold exposure impaired the browning process, reduced mitochondrial numbers and the expression of browning markers, including UCP1, PGC1α and PRDM16. The present study demonstrated that acute cold exposure (but not chronic cold exposure) induces porcine sWAT browning. Thus, browning of porcine sWAT could be a novel strategy to balance the body temperature of piglets, and thus could be protective against cold exposure.
TAOS II is a next-generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small end of the Kuiper Belt (objects with diameters 0.5–30 km). Such objects have magnitudes r > 30, and are thus undetectable by direct imaging. The project will operate three telescopes at San Pedro Mártir Observatory in Baja California, México. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom-built camera comprised of a focal-plane array of CMOS imagers. The cameras will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. The telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation detections, thus minimising the false-positive rate. This talk described the project, and reported on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.
Based upon the Shliomis ferromagnetic fluid model and the Stokes microcontinuum theory incorporating with the Christensen stochastic model, a modified Reynolds equation of centrosymmetric squeeze films has been derived in this paper. The Reynolds equation includes the combined effects of non-Newtonian rheology, magnetic fluids with applied magnetic fields, rotational inertia forces, and surface roughness. To guide the use of the derived equation, the squeeze film of rotational rough-surface circular disks lubricated with non-Newtonian magnetic fluids is illustrated. According to the results obtained, the effects of rotation inertia decrease the load capacity and the squeeze film time of smooth circular disks. By the use of non-Newtonian magnetic fluids with applied magnetic fields, the rotational circular disks predict better squeeze film performances. When the influences of circumferential roughness patterns are considered, the non-Newtonian magnetic-fluid lubricated rotational rough disks with applied magnetic fields provide further higher values of the load capacity and the squeeze film time as compared to those of the smooth case.
It is the purpose of this paper to illustrate the interrelation between the problems of the “missing mass”, the galactic age and the cosmological constant Λ (or its equivalent quantum vacuum density ).
The increasing demands on renewable energy nowadays caused the development of marine current turbine industry. In order to improve the current design of marine current turbines, studies were conducted to analyse their hydrodynamic performances during operation. Since most of the time marine current turbines operate in arrays, it is important to understand the interactions between the turbines in order to design the optimum turbine farm. OpenFOAM® was used to simulate the turbine interactions of conventional and biomimetic marine current turbines in tandem configuration. The conventional marine current turbines were referred to Pinon et al. (2012) and Mycek et al. (2013) while the biomimetic marine current turbine was adopted from Chu (2016). The numerical simulations were conducted with turbines in different inter-device distances, A/D. The percentage differences of ‘‘efficiency’’, η between the IFREMER-LOMC and the biomimetic turbine case of inter-device distances, A/D = 4, 6, 8 and 10 are 14.3%, 6.4%, 3% and 1.92% respectively. The results show that the power produced by the biomimetic turbines in tandem is comparable with the IFREMER-LOMC turbines when A/D > 4. The biomimetic marine current turbines can be a fair choice due to their potential to have alternative fabrication method of their sheet-like turbine blades.
Introduction: Emergency medicine physicians in our urban/suburban area have a range of training in medical education; some have no formal training in medical education, whereas others have completed Master’s level training in adult education. Not all staff have a university appointment; of those who are affiliated with our university, 87 have appointments through the Department of Medicine, 21 through the Department of Pediatrics, and 117 through the Department of Family Medicine. Emergency physicians in our area are a diverse group of physicians in terms of both formal training in adult education and in the variety of settings in which we work. The purpose of this study was to gauge interest in formal training in adult education among emergency medicine physicians. Methods: With research ethics board approval, we created and sent a 10-item electronic questionnaire to emergency medicine staff in our area. The questionnaire included items on demographics, experience in emergency medicine, additional post-graduate training, current teaching activities and interest in short (30-60 minute) adult education sessions. Results: Of a potential 360 active emergency physicians in our area, 120 responded to the questionnaire (33.3%), representing 12 area hospitals. Nearly half of respondents had been in practice over 10 years (48.44%). Respondents were mainly FRCP (50%) or CCFP-EM (47.50%) trained. 33.3% of respondents had masters degrees, of which 15% were MEd. Most physicians were involved in teaching medical students (98.33%), FRCP residents (80%) and family medicine residents (88.3%), though many were also teaching off-service residents, and allied health professionals. More than half of respondents (60%) were interested in attending short sessions to improve their skills as adult educators. The topics of most interest were feedback and evaluation, time-efficient teaching, the learner in difficulty, case-based teaching and bedside teaching. Conclusion: Emergency physicians in our area have a wide variety of experience and training in medical education. They are involved in teaching learners from a range of training levels and backgrounds. Physicians who responded to our survey expressed an interest in additional formal teaching on adult education topics geared toward emergency medicine.
To achieve the first demonstration of non-polar a-plane gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxy on (0 1 0) gallium oxide substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), a low temperature AlGaN nucleation layer was engineered. Specific low temperature AlGaN growth parameters were necessary because the gallium oxide substrate begins to decompose at ∼600 °C in the ambient of H2. To achieve a smooth GaN epitaxial surface, low V/III molar ratio, and low pressure were required. To characterize the GaN film, AFM along with an orientation-dependent crystal tilt mosaic study by X-ray diffraction was performed. We effectively reduced threading dislocation density by applying in situ SiN interlayers grown by MOCVD. The oxygen contamination in the GaN film was found to originate from the substrate decomposition during GaN growth and can be reduced more than 10 times by using GaN buffer layer grown under N2 ambient.