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In applied linguistics, being explicit about ontologies of English, and how they underpin educational ideologies and professional practices, is essential. For the first time, this volume presents a critical examination of the ways in which English is conceptualised for learning, teaching, and assessment, from both social and cognitive perspectives. Written by a team of leading scholars, it considers the language in a range of contexts and domains, including: models and targets for EFL, ESL and EAL teaching and testing, and the contested dominance of native-speaker 'standard' varieties; English as a school subject, using England's educational system as an example; English as a lingua franca, where typically several languages and cultures are in contact; and English as broader social practice in a world characterised by unprecedented mobility and destabilisation. Readers are provided with a balanced set of perspectives on ontologies of English and a valuable resource for educational research and practice.
This seminar was hosted by York St John University, UK, from 24–26 June 2015, and the co-ordinators were Chris Hall and Rachel Wicaksono (aided by Indu Meddegama, Clare Cunningham, Vicky Crawley, Ruth Ataçocuğu and Christian Sims). The seminar aimed to share diverse understandings of the ontological status of ‘English’ and to stimulate debate regarding the ways in which the language can be most effectively conceptualised for first language and second language learning, teaching and assessment. The seminar was organised around five sessions representing different frameworks. Following each session, an invited discussant highlighted major themes and led a general discussion. Individual papers are reported on below and the conclusion suggests their implications for applied linguistics.
Halosulfuron-methyl, a sulfonylurea herbicide, was registered for broadleaf weed control in dry bean. This herbicide has an adequate margin of crop safety in white bean, but causes unacceptable injury to adzuki bean. Halosulfuron-methyl absorption, translocation, and metabolism were evaluated in white and adzuki bean using radiolabeled herbicide to determine if differences in these parameters could explain the difference in crop safety between these two species. Adzuki bean had more rapid halosulfuron-methyl absorption than white bean. Adzuki bean reached 90% absorption (t90) 26.2 h after treatment (HAT), whereas white bean required 40.1 HAT to reach t90. The maximum halosulfuron-methyl absorption was higher in adzuki bean (75.7%) than in white bean (65.3%). More 14C-halosulfuron was translocated to the apex, first trifoliate, stem above the treated leaf, and roots in aduzki bean than in white bean. The maximum radioactivity translocated out of treated leaf was higher in adzuki bean (17.7%) than in white bean (12.1%). Halosulfuron-methyl was broken down to the same metabolites in white and adzuki bean. The half-life of halosulfuron-methyl in adzuki bean was 16 HAT, compared with less than 6 HAT in white bean. More herbicide remained as the free acid in adzuki bean compared with white bean over the entire 48-h time course. The differential tolerance of white and adzuki bean to halosulfuron can be attributed to greater absorption and translocation and decreased metabolism in adzuki bean.
To identify issues during donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) for infectious diseases and to inform PPE procurement criteria and design.
A mixed methods approach was used. Usability testing assessed the appropriateness, potential for errors, and ease of use of various combinations of PPE. A qualitative constructivist approach was used to analyze participant feedback.
Four academic health sciences centers: 2 adult hospitals, 1 trauma center, and 1 pediatric hospital, in Toronto, Canada.
Participants (n=82) were representative of the potential users of PPE within Western healthcare institutions.
None of the tested combinations provided a complete solution for PPE. Environmental factors, such as anteroom layout, and the design of protocols and instructional material were also found to impact safety. The study identified the need to design PPE as a complete system, rather than mixing and matching components.
Healthcare institutions are encouraged to use human factors methods to identify risk and failure points with the usage of their selected PPE, and to modify on the basis of iterative evaluations with representative end users. Manufacturers of PPE should consider usability when designing the next generation of PPE.
There is little information on the association of the APOEe4 allele and AD risk in African populations. In previous analyses from the Indianapolis-Ibadan dementia project, we have reported that APOE ε4 increased the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in African Americans but not in Yoruba. This study represents a replication of this earlier work using enriched cohorts and extending the analysis to include cognitive decline.
In this longitudinal study of two community dwelling cohorts of elderly Yoruba and African Americans, APOE genotyping was conducted from blood samples taken on or before 2001 (1,871 African Americans & 2,200 Yoruba). Mean follow up time was 8.5 years for African Americans and 8.8 years for Yoruba. The effects of heterozygosity or homozygosity of ε4 and of the possession of e4 on time to incident AD and on cognitive decline were determined using Cox's proportional hazards regression and mixed effects models.
After adjusting for covariates, one or two copies of the APOE ε4 allele were significant risk factors for incident AD (p < 0.0001) and cognitive decline in the African-American population (p < 0001). In the Yoruba, only homozygosity for APOE ε4 was a significant risk factor for AD (p = 0.0002) but not for cognitive decline (p = 0.2346), however, possession of an e4 allele was significant for both incident AD (p = 0.0489) and cognitive decline (p = 0.0425).
In this large longitudinal comparative study, APOE ε4 had a significant, but weaker, effect on incident AD and on cognitive decline in Yoruba than in African Americans. The reasons for these differences remain unclear.
Primary production in terrestrial environments generates about 100 gigatons of biomass annually (Gessner et al. 2010). While on average 90% of terrestrial plant biomass escapes herbivory (Cebrian 2004), herbivores nonetheless exert a pervasive influence on the quality of all plant tissues in ecological and evolutionary time (Hunter 2001; Dethier 1954; Ehrlich and Raven 1964; Thompson 1994; Karban and Baldwin 1997). By inducing chemical changes in plant tissues in ecological time, or by acting as agents of natural selection favouring defended tissues in evolutionary time, herbivores have a significant impact on plant traits. Accordingly, terrestrial herbivores may engage in density-mediated indirect effects (DMIEs) with other organisms by their consumption of 10% of plant biomass, and in trait-mediated indirect effects (TMIEs) by their ecological and evolutionary effects on the 90% of the biomass that is not consumed. Finally, assuming average assimilation efficiencies of around 20% (Speight et al. 2008), herbivores may convert around 2% of terrestrial plant biomass into animal biomass. If herbivores are not consumed by their own predators, their cadavers are subsequently available for decomposition by the soil microbial community. Cadaver inputs and burrowing or trampling (Hunter 1992) are the only direct effects (DEs) of herbivores on soil processes of which we are aware. Based on these numbers alone, we might expect TMIEs of herbivores on other organisms to be relatively more important than DMIEs or DEs. Simply put, the effects of terrestrial herbivores on plant quality may often be more important ecologically than their effects on plant biomass.
TMIEs induced by herbivores may be particularly important in soil food webs. Communities of decomposers and detritivores in the soil rely largely upon energy derived from dead plant material and are fundamental players in the global carbon cycle (Cornwell et al. 2008). If 90% of land plant biomass enters the decomposer food web without being consumed (Cebrian 2004), a focus on DMIEs or DEs alone might lead us to assume that herbivores have relatively minor effects on the population and community ecology of decomposers and detritivores. However, the activities of herbivores can lead to dramatic changes in the nutritional, chemical and structural characteristics of plant tissues (Speight et al. 2008) that subsequently mediate their rates of decomposition (Choudhury 1988; Pastor and Naiman 1992; Findlay et al. 1996; Hunter 2001; Chapman et al. 2006).
Auxinic herbicides are widely used for control of broadleaf weeds in cereal crops and turfgrass. These herbicides are structurally similar to the natural plant hormone auxin, and induce several of the same physiological and biochemical responses at low concentrations. After several decades of research to understand the auxin signal transduction pathway, the receptors for auxin binding and resultant biochemical and physiological responses have recently been discovered in plants. However, the precise mode of action for the auxinic herbicides is not completely understood despite their extensive use in agriculture for over six decades. Auxinic herbicide-resistant weed biotypes offer excellent model species for uncovering the mode of action as well as resistance to these compounds. Compared with other herbicide families, the incidence of resistance to auxinic herbicides is relatively low, with only 29 auxinic herbicide-resistant weed species discovered to date. The relatively low incidence of resistance to auxinic herbicides has been attributed to the presence of rare alleles imparting resistance in natural weed populations, the potential for fitness penalties due to mutations conferring resistance in weeds, and the complex mode of action of auxinic herbicides in sensitive dicot plants. This review discusses recent advances in the auxin signal transduction pathway and its relation to auxinic herbicide mode of action. Furthermore, comprehensive information about the genetics and inheritance of auxinic herbicide resistance and case studies examining mechanisms of resistance in auxinic herbicide-resistant broadleaf weed biotypes are provided. Within the context of recent findings pertaining to auxin biology and mechanisms of resistance to auxinic herbicides, agronomic implications of the evolution of resistance to these herbicides are discussed in light of new auxinic herbicide-resistant crops that will be commercialized in the near future.
Saflufenacil is a PRE herbicide for the control of broadleaf weeds. Field and growth room studies were conducted to explore the tolerance of corn to POST treatments of saflufenacil and BAS 781. Additionally, the potential use of sodium as a safener for saflufenacil was evaluated. Crop injury caused by saflufenacil or BAS 781 was 8 and 38%, respectively, when applied at twice the recommended dose at the spike to two-leaf stage of crop growth. This injury increased to 28 and 65%, respectively, when applied at the three- to four-leaf stage. This level of crop injury resulted in yield loss, particularly when applied at the three- to four-leaf stage. The addition of Na-bentazon to saflufenacil reduced this injury and increased crop dry weight under both field and laboratory conditions. In the field, Na-bentazon also increased corn collar height and yield compared with saflufenacil applied alone. Na-bentazon reduced injury through a reduction in foliar uptake of saflufenacil. Sodium derived from baking soda also provided a safening effect, but only at the lowest dose of saflufenacil tested.
Fractal fingering is a well known phenomenon, ususally visualised using photography. Previous experiments have shown that the patterns can be visualised using NMR imaging, and in this paper we show that the fractal dimension of such a pattern can be easily calculated.
The combination of Raman spectroscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry can improve understanding of the chemistry of the glass alteration process. Formic and acetic acids play an important role in the alteration of museum glass objects placed in a humid atmosphere. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the soda-rich glass structure is modified differently when exposed to a humid versus a humid and polluted atmosphere at 60°C. Formic acid was not formed from soda-rich glass in the presence of carbon dioxide, high humidity and light.