To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Today high quality and low product development turnaround time are company-wide priorities. Quality supporting processes such as an effective risk management system shall support continuous business running and meeting the goals of an organization. In this paper, an approach is presented on how to integrate the product risk management in Product Lifecycle Management for configured products by definition of an additional software module and its implementation.
Cognitive functioning in anxiety disorders has received little investigation, particularly among young adults and in non-clinical samples. The present study examined cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of young adults with anxiety disorders in comparison to healthy peers.
A population-based sample of 21–35-year-olds with a lifetime history of anxiety disorders (n = 75) and a random sample of healthy controls (n = 71) derived from the same population were compared in terms of performance in neuropsychological tests measuring verbal and visual short-term memory, verbal long-term memory, attention, psychomotor processing speed, and executive functioning.
In general, young adults with anxiety disorders did not have major cognitive impairments when compared to healthy peers. When participants with anxiety disorder in remission were excluded, persons with current anxiety disorder scored lower in visual working memory tests. Current psychotropic medication use and low current psychosocial functioning associated with deficits in executive functioning, psychomotor processing speed, and visual short-term memory.
Lifetime history of anxiety disorders is not associated with cognitive impairment among young adults in the general population. However, among persons with anxiety disorders, current psychotropic medication use and low psychosocial functioning, indicating more severe symptoms, may associate with cognitive impairments.
The main goal of this work was to evaluate the in vitro biological activity of two ferrocenyl chalcones (FcC-1 and FcC-2) against Haemonchus contortus (third-stage larvae (L3)) and Nacobbus aberrans (second-stage juveniles (J2)). Both compounds were synthesized and characterized by usual spectroscopic methods and their molecular structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Nematode strains were examined in terms of percentage mortality of H. contortus (L3) by the action of FcC-1, which showed an effectivity of 100% at a concentration of 342 μM in 24 h, with EC50 = 20.33 μM and EC90 = 162.76 μM, whereas FcC-2 had an effectivity of 72% at a concentration of 342 μM in 24 h, with EC50 = 167.39 μM and EC90 = 316.21 μM. The effect of FcC-1 against nematode phytoparasite N. aberrans showed a better percentage of 95% at a concentration of 342 μM, with EC50 = 7.18 μM and EC90 = 79.25 μM, whereas the effect of FcC-2 was 87% at 342 μM, with EC50 = 168 μM and EC90 = 319.56 μM at 36 h. After treatment, the scanning electron micrographs revealed deformities in the dorsal flank and posterior part close to the tail of H. contortus L3. They showed moderate in vitro nematicidal activity against H. contortus L3 and N. aberrans J2.
This study assessed the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of methanol and acetone:water leaf extracts from Annona squamosa, A. muricata and A. reticulata against Haemonchus contortus eggs. The egg hatch test was used to determine the effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% of eggs hatching (EC50). The role of polyphenols on AH activity was measured through bioassays with and without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). Methanolic extracts mainly caused the death of eggs at the morula stage (ovicidal activity). Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts caused egg-hatching failure of developed larvae (larvae failing eclosion (LFE) activity). The lowest EC50 values against H. contortus eggs were observed for the methanolic extracts from A. reticulata and A. muricata (274.2 and 382.9 µg/ml, respectively). From the six extracts evaluated, the methanolic extracts of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed the highest ovicidal activity, resulting in 98.9%, 92.8% and 95.1% egg mortality, respectively. When the methanolic extract of A. squamosa was incubated with PVPP, its AH activity increased. Similarly, when acetone:water extracts of A. muriata and A. reticulata were incubated with PVPP, their LFE activity increased. Alkaloids were only evident in methanolic extracts, irrespective of PVPP incubation. The presence of acetogenins was not observed. In conclusion, methanolic extracts obtained from leaves of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed ovicidal activity affecting the morula of H. contortus eggs, with minor LFE activity. Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts showed mostly LFE activity, with a lower proportion of ovicidal activity.
As apex predators, sharks are known to play an important role in marine food webs. Detailed information on their diet and trophic level is however needed to make clear inferences about their role in the ecosystem. A total of 335 stomachs of smooth hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna zygaena, were obtained from commercial fishing vessels operating in the Ecuadorian Pacific between January and December 2004. A total of 53 prey items were found in the stomachs. According to the Index of Relative Importance (%IRI), cephalopods were the main prey (Dosidicus gigas, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii and Lolliguncula [Loliolopsis] diomedeae). Sphyrna zygaena was thus confirmed to be a teutophagous species. The estimated trophic level of S. zygaena was between 4.6 and 5.1 (mean ± SD: 4.7 ± 0.16; males: 4.7; females: 4.8). Levin's index (BA) was low (overall: 0.07; males: 0.08; females: 0.09), indicating a narrow trophic niche. We found that sharks <150 cm in total length consumed prey of coastal origin, whereas sharks ≥150 cm foraged in oceanic waters and near the continental shelf. The analyses indicate that S. zygaena is a specialized predator consuming mainly squids.
This work presents a study about synthesis of polypyrrole films electrochemically doped with iodine by luminescent discharge plasma in aqueous sodium sulfate solution, and its structural, morphological and electrical characterization. The synthesis is carried out at atmospheric pressure with square pulse from -1.06 to 1.16 V for 120 minutes. Doping times of the films are 10, 30 and 50 minutes. The films have thicknesses of 6, 12.7, 20.32 and 25.4 μm, and linear growth trend according to the time exposure of their synthesis. The main chemical groups exhibited in the films are C-H, N-H and CH2I, which are characteristics of film doped with Iodine. The electrical conductivity calculated of polypyrrole films is in the range 10-5-10-3 S/cm, and its activation energy is between 0.052 and 1.77 eV.
This article outlines the use of quenching dilatometry in phase transformation kinetics research in steels under continuous cooling conditions. For this purpose, the phase transformation behavior of a hot-rolled heat treatable steel was investigated over the cooling rate range of 0.1 to 200 °C/s. The start and finish points of the austenite transformation were identified from the dilatometric curves and then the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were constructed. The experimental CCT diagrams were verified by microstructural characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Vickers micro-hardness. In general, results revealed that the quenching dilatometry technique is a powerful tool for the characterization and study of solid-solid phase transformations in steels. For cooling rates between 200 and 25 °C/s the final microstructure consists on plate-like martensite with the highest hardness values. By contrast, a mixture of phases of ferrite, bainite and pearlite predominated for slower cooling rates (10-0.1 °C/s).
Niche modelling software can be used to assess the probability of detecting a population of a plant species at a certain location. In this study, we used the distribution of the wild relatives of lettuce (Lactuca spp.) to investigate the applicability of Maxent species distribution models for collecting missions. Geographic origin data of genebank and herbarium specimens and climatic data of the origin locations were used as input. For Lactuca saligna, we varied the input data by omitting the specimens from different parts of the known distribution area to assess the robustness of the predicted distributions. Furthermore, we examined the accuracy of the modelling by comparing the predicted probabilities of population presence against recent expedition data for the endemic Lactuca georgica and the cosmopolitan Lactuca serriola. We found Maxent to be quite robust in its predictions, although its usefulness was higher for endemic taxa than for more widespread species. The exclusion of occurrence data from the perceived range margins of the species can result in important information about local adaptation to distinct climatic conditions. We discuss the potential for enhanced use of Maxent in germplasm collecting planning.
The origin of large-scale magnetic fields is an unsolved problem in cosmology. In order to overcome, a possible scenario comes from the idea that these fields emerged from a small primordial magnetic field (PMF), produced in the early universe. This field could lead to the observed large-scales magnetic fields but also, would have left an imprint on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this work we summarize some statistical properties of this PMFs on the FLRW background. Then, we show the resulting PMF power spectrum using cosmological perturbation theory and some effects of PMFs on the CMB anisotropies.
Gaia, the space astrometry satellite of the European Space Agency, was successfully launched on 2013 December 19th. A vast amount of data has already been received by the on-ground data processing systems running at the European Space Astronomy Centre near Madrid. In this paper we describe the mentioned systems, focusing on the Initial Data Treatment system which is coordinated by the Gaia group at the University of Barcelona. We present some of the results obtained during the first months of nominal operations.
The effect of mesogenic organic salts as reinforcing fillers for natural rubber has been investigated. The influence of cation size (thallium and sodium) and organic chain length (thallium (I) pentanoate and dodecanoate) on the vulcanization parameters, physical and mechanical characteristics and rheological behavior has also been analyzed. In general, the maximum torque of the vulcanizates increases in the presence of the salts and is clearly manifested in a sensible increase in tensile modulus and strength of the composites. The reinforcing effect of these salts is noticeable in the natural rubber matrix. The thallium (I) salts are more effective reinforcements than the sodium salt, and the length of the organic chain hardly has any influence on the mechanical properties. The composites based on the thallium (I) dodecanoate salt show a very peculiar rheological behavior with a “plateau” in the G’ and G” vs temperature graphics which is related with solid phase I, existing between 83.5 ºC and 127 ºC, characterized as a plastic condis phase. This issue is especially interesting for the fabrication of devices such as sensors to control, for instance, the security (resistance of a material) as a function of temperature.
This work presents the CICABOT, a novel 3-DOF translational parallel manipulator (TPM) with large workspace. The manipulator consists of two 5-bar mechanisms connected by two prismatic joints; the moving platform is on the union of these prismatic joints; each 5-bar mechanism has two legs. The mobility of the proposed mechanism, based on Gogu approach, is also presented. The inverse and direct kinematics are solved from geometric analysis. The manipulator's Jacobian is developed from the vector equation of the robot legs; the singularities can be easily derived from Jacobian matrix. The manipulator workspace is determined from analysis of a 5-bar mechanism; the resulting workspace is the intersection of two hollow cylinders that is much larger than other TPM with similar dimensions.
Psychiatric co-morbidity is often inadequately controlled for in studies on cognitive functioning in depression. Our recent study established no major deficits in cognition among young adults with a history of pure unipolar depression. The present study extends our previous work by examining the effects of psychiatric co-morbidity and other disorder characteristics on depression-related cognitive functioning.
Performance in verbal and visual short-term memory, verbal long-term memory and learning, attention, processing speed, and executive functioning was compared between a population-based sample aged 21–35 years with a lifetime history of unipolar depressive disorders (n=126) and a random sample of healthy controls derived from the same population (n=71). Cognitive functioning was also compared between the subgroups of pure (n=69) and co-morbid (n=57) depression.
The subgroups of pure and co-morbid depression did not differ in any of the cognitive measures assessed. Only mildly compromised verbal learning was found among depressed young adults in total, but no other cognitive deficits occurred. Received treatment was associated with more impaired verbal memory and executive functioning, and younger age at first disorder onset with more impaired executive functioning.
Psychiatric co-morbidity may not aggravate cognitive functioning among depressed young adults. Regardless of co-morbidity, treatment seeking is associated with cognitive deficits, suggesting that these deficits relate to more distress.
Effects of hot band annealing on the final microstructure and magnetic properties of cold rolled and annealed non-oriented grain Si-Al electrical steel strips are investigated. Microstructures are characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy and magnetic properties are determined using a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is shown that annealing of hot rolled bands at temperatures between 800 and 850 °C causes rapid decarburization and development of a microstructure consisting of large columnar ferrite grains free of secondary particles. This microstructure leads, after cold rolling and a fast annealing treatment, to large grain microstructures similar to those observed in production scale, fully processed strips. It is observed that the final grain size increases with the final annealing temperature, leading to a significant improvement of the magnetic properties. Therefore, hot band annealing technology can be an attractive alternative processing route for the manufacture of non-oriented grain low carbon Si-Al processed electrical steel strips.
The effect of mental disorders may be particularly detrimental in early adulthood, and information on mental disorders and their correlates in this age group is important.
A questionnaire focusing on mental health was sent to a nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of 1863 Finns aged 19 to 34 years. Based on a mental health screen, all screen-positives and a random sample of screen-negatives were asked to participate in a mental health assessment, consisting of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) interview and neuropsychological assessment. We also obtained case-notes from all lifetime mental health treatments. This paper presents prevalences, sociodemographic associations and treatment contacts for current and lifetime mental disorders.
Forty percent of these young Finnish adults had at least one lifetime DSM-IV Axis I disorder, and 15% had a current disorder. The most common lifetime disorders were depressive disorders (17.7%) followed by substance abuse or dependence (14.2%) and anxiety disorders (12.6%). Of persons with any lifetime Axis I disorder, 59.2% had more than one disorder. Lower education and unemployment were strongly associated with current and lifetime disorders, particularly involving substance use. Although 58.3% of persons with a current Axis I disorder had received treatment at some point, only 24.2% had current treatment contact. However, 77.1% of persons with a current Axis I disorder who felt in need of treatment for mental health problems had current treatment contact.
Mental disorders in young adulthood are common and often co-morbid, and they may be particularly harmful for education and employment in this age group.
Small-scale dairy farming has been suggested as a rural development option for Mexican campesino communities. However, there is a lack of information on how dairy farming systems operate. The objective of this paper is to analyse the social, productive and economic characteristics of small-scale dairy production systems in the central highlands in the northwest of the State of Mexico. These three characteristics were analysed on 69 farms using factor and cluster analysis. Five factors accounted for 68% of cumulative variance. Cluster analysis yielded three well-defined groups. A Kruskal–Wallis test was performed on the arable land area and the number of animals, and analysis of variance for milk yield. Economic analysis was undertaken using activity budgets. Results showed the relationships between scale and management methods and their effects on the income for the family. Families in only one of the three groups receive incomes from dairying that were above all Mexican poverty indices. This outcome is explained by the intensification in the management of their herds, which is reflected in higher milk yields, higher incomes and better access to government support schemes. Enhancement of milk production in the area studied needs differential policies which take in to account differences between the groups identified.
We report here the first results of an extensive optical/near-infrared imaging and spectroscopic study of massive stellar clusters in Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies using observations obtained from KPNO (USA), OAN (Mexico), the HST and the 2MASS data archive. We have collected spectra, B-imagery and 2MASS JHK imagery of approximately 60 prominent stellar clusters in 23 WR galaxies. One-third of the clusters have a WR stellar signature at He ii λ4686. In this poster, we present the comparison of the derived ages and masses of clusters with WR stars (WRCs) against clusters not containing WR stars (nWRCs). The results show that the mean age of the WRCs distribution is 5.2 ± 1.8 Myr and 6.4 ± 2 Myr for the nWRCs. The mean ages of the two cluster groups are not statistically different. The WRCs masses appear to be more evenly distributed than the nWRC masses and one typically finds that the WRC mass in a particular galaxy is larger than the nWRC mass.
For more than 20 years, Martin Melosi has thoughtfully considered the environmental state of the American city. One year after publishing The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastruc ture in America from Colonial Times to the Present, Melosi issued this important retrospective of his work in urban environmental history. In a series of 11 previously published articles and book chapters that Melosi wrote over a 20-year span, Effluent America provides his environmental analogue to John Kenneth Galbraith's Affluent Society: economic development and prosperity comes with a price.