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The Caribbean island of Mona, on a key Atlantic route from Europe to the Americas, was at the heart of sixteenth-century Spanish colonial projects. Communities on the island were exposed to the earliest waves of European impact during a critical period of transformation and the forging of new identities. One of many caves within an extensive subterranean world on the island was marked both by indigenous people and by the first generations of Europeans to arrive in the New World. This account of spiritual encounters provides a rare, personalised insight into intercultural religious dynamics in the early Americas.
The Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) is an instrument designed to make images of the cosmic microwave background radiation and to measure its statistical properties on angular scales from about 3 arc minutes to one degree (spherical harmonic scales from l ˜ 4250 down to l ˜ 400). The CBI is a 13-element interferometer mounted on a 6 meter platform operating in ten 1-GHz frequency bands from 26 GHz to 36 GHz. The instantaneous field of view of the instrument is 45 arcmin (FWHM) and its resolution ranges from 3 to 10 arcmin; larger fields can be imaged by mosaicing. At this frequency and resolution, the primary foreground is due to discrete extragalactic sources, which are monitored at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and subtracted from the CBI visibility measurements.
The instrument has been making observations since late 1999 of both primordial CMB fluctuations and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in clusters of galaxies from its site at an altitude of 5080 meters near San Pedro de Atacama, in northern Chile. Observations will continue until August 2001 or later. We present preliminary results from the first few months of observations.
A bark shield now in the British Museum can be identified from documentary and pictorial evidence as one collected by Captain Cook during his first voyage to Australia in 1770. Such shields often had special value to their Australian Aboriginal owners and hence might have been exchanged over considerable distances. This particular shield is known to have been collected in Kamay Botany Bay but analysis of the bark of which it is made revealed it to be of red mangrove, a tropical species found today more than 500km distant on the New South Wales north coast. It hence bears valuable testimony to the long-distance exchange networks operating in eastern Australia in the period before the disruption caused by European colonisation.
Excavations at the Easton Down long barrow were part of a wider programme of research into the Neolithic sequence and context of the Avebury area in north Wiltshire. The short barrow, on high chalk downland to the south-west of Avebury and the upper Kennet valley, and containing only a few inhumations according to Thurnam's 19th-century investigation, dates to the later 4th millennium BC. Test pits around the barrow produced very little struck flint, and virtually no colluvium in the adjacent dry valley to the west. The mound covered a thin calcareous turfline above a rubbly soil, probably formerly cultivated. The pre-barrow molluscan fauna, soil micromorphology and other environmental data indicate a clearance adjacent to woodland. In the secondary fill of the flanking ditches there is a succession from renewed woodland to open conditions in the Late Neolithic.
The Easton Down monument falls relatively late in the regional sequence of long barrow construction. Its setting was probably one of scattered, non-permanent clearances in woodland. Woodland was still widespread on the higher downland of the region in the middle of the Neolithic. Renewed and bigger-scale clearance towards the end of the Neolithic may be connected with the construction of very large monuments elsewhere in the region. The later prehistoric landscape became both more open and less diverse.
Background: Previous meta-analyses of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for children and young people with anxiety disorders have not considered the efficacy of transdiagnostic CBT for the remission of childhood anxiety. Aim: To provide a meta-analysis on the efficacy of transdiagnostic CBT for children and young people with anxiety disorders. Methods: The analysis included randomized controlled trials using transdiagnostic CBT for children and young people formally diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. An electronic search was conducted using the following databases: ASSIA, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Current Controlled Trials, Medline, PsycArticles, PsychInfo, and Web of Knowledge. The search terms included “anxiety disorder(s)”, “anxi*”, “cognitive behavio*, “CBT”, “child*”, “children”, “paediatric”, “adolescent(s)”, “adolescence”, “youth” and “young pe*”. The studies identified from this search were screened against the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 20 studies were identified as appropriate for inclusion in the current meta-analysis. Pre- and posttreatment (or control period) data were used for analysis. Results: Findings indicated significantly greater odds of anxiety remission from pre- to posttreatment for those engaged in the transdiagnostic CBT intervention compared with those in the control group, with children in the treatment condition 9.15 times more likely to recover from their anxiety diagnosis than children in the control group. Risk of bias was not correlated with study effect sizes. Conclusions: Transdiagnostic CBT seems effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety in children and young people. Further research is required to investigate the efficacy of CBT for children under the age of 6.
Cameroon has experienced recurrent cholera epidemics with high mortality rates. In September 2009, epidemic cholera was detected in the Far North region of Cameroon and the reported case-fatality rate was 12%. We conducted village-, healthcare facility- and community-level surveys to investigate reasons for excess cholera mortality. Results of this investigation suggest that cholera patients who died were less likely to seek care, receive rehydration therapy and antibiotics at a healthcare facility, and tended to live further from healthcare facilities. Furthermore, use of oral rehydration salts at home was very low in both decedents and survivors. Despite the many challenges inherent to delivering care in Cameroon, practical measures could be taken to reduce cholera mortality in this region, including the timely provision of treatment supplies, training of healthcare workers, establishment of rehydration centres, and promotion of household water treatment and enhanced handwashing with soap.
Methods which aid and enhance the teaching of surgical procedures to trainees are beneficial to both trainer and trainee. In this article, we suggest a simple way of performing suction diathermy which allows the trainer to provide a template for the trainee to reproduce. Related articles have suggested the use of additional equipment, such as an endoscope; however, the method we describe requires no additional technical elements. Thus, it represents a sound and efficient teaching tool.
Artemisinin-based combination therapy is exerting novel selective pressure upon populations of Plasmodium falciparum across Africa. Levels of resistance to non-artemisinin partner drugs differ among parasite populations, and so the artemisinins are not uniformly protected from developing resistance, already present in South East Asia. Here, we consider strategies for prolonging the period of high level efficacy of combination therapy for two particular endemicities common in Africa. Under high intensity transmission, two alternating first-line combinations, ideally with antagonistic selective effects on the parasite genome, are advocated for paediatric malaria cases. This leaves second-line and other therapies for adult cases, and for intermittent preventive therapy. The drug portfolio would be selected to protect the ‘premier’ combination regimen from selection for resistance, while maximising impact on severe disease and mortality in children. In endemic areas subject to low, seasonal transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, such a strategy may deliver little benefit, as children represent a minority of cases. Nevertheless, the deployment of other drug-based interventions in low transmission and highly seasonal areas, such as mass drug administration aimed to interrupt malaria transmission, or intermittent preventive therapy, does provide an opportunity to diversify drug pressure. We thus propose an integrated approach to drug deployment, which minimises direct selective pressure on parasite populations from any one drug component. This approach is suitable for qualitatively and quantitatively different burdens of malaria, and should be supported by a programme of routine surveillance for emerging resistance.
A comparative study, using time-resolved and CW photoluminescence spectroscopy, of MOVPE grown InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells deposited on HVPE GaN/Sapphire at different growth temperatures was undertaken. It was found that the PL linewidth increased and the peak emission energy decreased as the growth temperature was reduced. Moreover, the sample grown at an intermediate growth temperature exhibited total integrated luminescence intensity much greater than the samples grown at higher or lower growth temperatures. A phenomenological carrier recombination dynamics model based on the competition of quantum well-like radative recombination, spatially localized radiative recombination in potential minima and non-radiative recombination through defects is presented to provide an explanation of the observed emission dynamics and efficiency. In this model, the emission efficiency is determined by the relative area of defects and the number density of localized states in the potential minima, both of which are influenced by the growth temperature. Furthermore, the photon energy dependent lifetimes are well fitted with this model by assuming a Gaussian shape localized states distribution. The localized potential minima are consistent with nanoscale indium rich regions due to indium aggregation.
Room temperature time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) studies of multiple quantum well (MQW) structures of the binaries GaN and AlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy are reported. The eventual application of these structures is for GaN intersubband IR light emitters. However, as an initial study, the structures are evaluated at UV to investigate materials parameters relevant to IR light emission. The nominally 0.9, 1.3 and 1.5 nm GaN quantum wells are clad by 6nm of AlN on top of a thick AlN buffer grown on sapphire. All samples consisted of 20 quantum wells. The observed peak energy of the emission spectrum is in excellent agreement with a model that includes the strong confinement present in these structures and the existence of the large built-in piezoelectric field and spontaneous polarization present inside the wells. Furthermore, consistent with screening of the in-well field as carriers are injected in the well, a clear blue shift of the emission is observed at short times after carrier injection. Subsequently, as the carriers recombine, the peak emission red-shifts and the screening of the field is reduced. Moreover, the observed lifetimes were energy dependent as should be expected from field dependent elongation of lifetimes due to spatial separation of the injected carriers. Specifically, the decay time at high energies can be fitted by a stretched exponential with a beta value of 0.8 which is consistent with carrier spatial separation. The lifetimes obtained from the fitting are of the order of 1ns, longer than the reported recombination lifetimes in similar GaN/AlGaN MQW's. On the low energy side of the PL feature the intensity time decay becomes exponential with lifetimes ranging from 3 to 10ns. The strong UV emission at room temperature makes these structures promising for UV emitters.
AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on sapphire substrates by plasmaassisted molecular beam epitaxy. Growth temperature, III/V ratio, growth rate, and other growth parameters were optimized for the buffer layer and the MQWs, separately. The growth of AlN buffer was kept as Al-rich as possible while the formation of Al droplets was avoided. A GaN buffer layer was also tried but proved to be inferior to AlN buffer probably due to its larger surface roughness, higher dislocation density, and larger lattice mismatch with the AlN barrier layers in the MQWs. Very flat surfaces with a RMS roughness of 0.7nm were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the samples with both AlN buffer layer and 20 MQWs deposited under the optimized growth conditions. Abrupt interfaces and excellent periodicities of the MQWs were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and reflectivity measurements with MQWs' satellite peaks clearly visible up to the 10th order. Room-temperature intense ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence (PL) emission with wavelength in the range of 320–350nm was also observed from the MQWs with well width ranging from 1.0 to 1.5nm. These MQW structures can potentially be used for UV light emitters and quantum cascade lasers.
Glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) is a fabrication method capable of producing thin films with variable porosity. The GLAD process exploits substrate shadowing and limited adatom diffusion to create isolated columns of material that collectively comprise a highly porous thin film. GLAD can be used to create chiral or helical structures with a wide range of porosity through variation of the substrate tilt angle and controlled substrate rotation. We present the effect of the deposition angle on the selective transmittance of circularly polarized light in helical thin films fabricated with the GLAD process. Transmission measurements of titanium dioxide helical films reveal two regimes of enhanced selective transmittance: one corresponding to a substrate tilt angle that produces a maximum circular birefringence and another corresponding to strong anisotropic scattering.
Time-resolved photoluminescence studies can provide useful information for the development of InGaN/GaN heterostructures for long wavelength visible emitters. In this paper, we present results of time-resolved photoluminescence from samples grown using two different approaches to achieve green emission from InGaN/GaN MQWs. In one approach, samples, with high indium incorporation, were grown on a high quality AlN substrate to achieve green emission. The resulting photoluminescence decay of the green luminescence is long-lived and non-exponential. Quantitative analysis showed that the decay has a stretched-exponential characteristic, typical of InGaN/GaN MQW with potential fluctuation along the growth plane. This carrier localization, in a structure with low defect density, proves to be an effective means to achieve green emission. In another approach, a piezoelectric Stark-like ladder effect is used. In this case, a methodical layer-by-layer growth homogeneity optimization process was adopted to achieve an optical transition below the electron to heavy-hole (e1hh1) transition when the quantum well is subjected to the strong piezoelectric polarization dipole. This approach has proven to be successful in achieving green luminescence on conventional sapphire substrates. The resulting photoluminescence decay at 14 K, of a sample grown by this approach, is single exponential and shorter in duration than the decay observed in the first approach. This exponential decay is consistent with previous AFM studies that revealed a homogeneous active region.
Eu3+ doped Y2O3 and Lu2O3 nanocrystalline powders were synthesized via combustion technique using urea as a fuel and the metal nitrates as oxidants. The compacted nanopowders were vacuum sintered in order to form the translucent ceramics. A significant enhancement of emission characteristics was observed from the ceramics synthesized from the nanoparticles by controlling the vacuum-sintering conditions. Although the processed ceramics display superior emission characteristics, the nanocrystalline phosphor powders also display reasonably good emission characteristics. Highly epitaxial Y2O3:Eu3+ and Lu2O3:Eu3+ films were deposited on various substrates under different growth and optimization conditions using pulsed-laser deposition technique using high-density translucent ceramic target. Superior spectroscopic performance was obtained on films grown on sapphire substrates due to high-quality and epitaxial nature of the film.
This paper reviews of some of the progress made in the development of ZnO-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). n-ZnO/p-AlGaN-based heterostructures have been successfully for the fabrication of UV emitting LEDs that have operated at temperatures up to 650K, suggesting an excitonic origin for the optical transitions. RF-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been used to grow epitaxial CdxZn1-xO films on GaN/sapphire structure. These films have a single-crystal wurtzite structure as demonstrated by structural and compositional analysis. High quality CdxZn1-xO films were grown with up to x=0.78 mole fraction as determined by RBS and SIMS techniques. Optical emission ranging from purple (Cd0.05Zn0.95O) to yellow (Cd0.29Zn0.71O) was observed. Compositional fluctuations in a Cd0.16Zn0.84O films were not detected by spatially resolved CL measurements, although intensity fluctuation with features of ∼0.5 μm diameter were seen on the intensity maps. Time resolved photoluminescence shows multi-exponential decay with 21 psec. and 49±3 psec. lifetimes, suggesting that composition micro-fluctuations may be present in Cd0.16Zn0.84O film.