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As part of further investigations into three linked haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases in Wales and England, 21 rats from a breeding colony in Cherwell, and three rats from a household in Cheltenham were screened for hantavirus. Hantavirus RNA was detected in either the lungs and/or kidney of 17/21 (81%) of the Cherwell rats tested, higher than previously detected by blood testing alone (7/21, 33%), and in the kidneys of all three Cheltenham rats. The partial L gene sequences obtained from 10 of the Cherwell rats and the three Cheltenham rats were identical to each other and the previously reported UK Cherwell strain. Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) RNA was detected in the heart, kidney, lung, salivary gland and spleen (but not in the liver) of an individual rat from the Cherwell colony suspected of being the source of SEOV. Serum from 20/20 of the Cherwell rats and two associated HFRS cases had high levels of SEOV-specific antibodies (by virus neutralisation). The high prevalence of SEOV in both sites and the moderately severe disease in the pet rat owners suggest that SEOV in pet rats poses a greater public health risk than previously considered.
The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p=.041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p=.025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p<.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden, that is, increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42, individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD. (JINS, 2015, 21, 841–850)
In clinical palliative cancer care, the diversity of patient concerns over time makes information provision a critical issue, the demands of information-seeking patients presenting a challenge to both the communicative and organizational skills of the health provider. This study puts forward a practice model for communication between patients, their family members, and professional health providers during ongoing palliative chemotherapy; a model which supports the providers in enabling person-centered communication.
A constant comparative analysis adapted to participatory action research was applied. The model was developed step-wise in three interrelated cycles, with results from previous studies from palliative cancer care processed in relation to professional health providers' experience-based clinical knowledge. In doing this, focus group discussions were carried out with providers and patients to develop and revise the model.
The Enabling Sense Making model for person-centered communication gave rise to three domains (which are also the major communicative actors in palliative care): the patient, the family, and the provider. These actors were placed in the context of a communicative arena. The three respective domains were built up in different layers discriminating between significant aspects of person-centered communication, from the manifest that is most usually explicated in dialogues, to the latent that tends to be implicitly mediated.
Significance of results:
The model intends to facilitate timely reorientation of care from curative treatment or rehabilitation to palliation, as well as the introduction of appropriate palliative interventions over time during palliative phases. In this way the model is to be regarded a frame for directing the awareness of the professionals, which focuses on how to communicate and how to consider the patient’s way of reasoning. The model could be used as a complement to other strategic initiatives for the advancement of palliative care communication. It needs to be further evaluated in regard to practice evidence.
An increased mortality risk associated with mental disorder has been reported for patients, but there are few studies are based on random samples with interview-based psychiatric diagnoses. Part of the increased mortality for those with mental disorder may be attributable to worse somatic health or hazardous health behaviour – consequences of the disorder – but somatic health information is commonly lacking in psychiatric samples. This study aims to examine long-term mortality risk for psychiatric diagnoses in a general population sample and to assess mediation by somatic ill health and hazardous health behaviour.
We used a double-phase stratified random sample of individuals aged 18–65 in Stockholm County 1970–1971 linked to vital records. First phase sample was 32 186 individuals screened with postal questionnaire and second phase was 1896 individuals (920 men and 976 women) that participated in a full-day examination (participation rate 88%). Baseline examination included both a semi-structured interview with a psychiatrist, with mental disorders set according to the 8th version of the International Classification of Disease (ICD-8), and clinical somatic examination, including measures of body composition (BMI), hypertension, fasting blood glucose, pulmonary function and self-reported tobacco smoking. Information on vital status was obtained from the Total Population Register for the years 1970–2011. Associations with mortality were studied with Cox proportional hazard analyses.
A total of 883 deaths occurred among the participants during the 41-year follow-up. Increased mortality rates were found for ICD-8 functional psychoses (hazard ratio, HR = 2.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.15–4.30); psycho-organic symptoms (HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.31–2.87); depressive neuroses (HR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.23–2.39); alcohol use disorder (HR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.40–2.61); drug dependence (HR = 3.71, 95% CI: 1.80–7.65) and psychopathy (HR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.02–8.16). Non-participants (n = 349) had mortality rates similar to participants (HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.81–1.18). In subgroup analyses of those with psychoses, depression or alcohol use disorder, adjusting for the potential mediators smoking and pulmonary function, showed only slight changes in the HRs.
This study confirms the increased risk of mortality for several psychiatric diagnoses in follow-up studies on American, Finnish and Swedish population-based samples. Only a small part of the increased mortality hazard was attributable to differences in somatic health or hazardous health behaviour measured at baseline.
A dietary survey was performed during a large screening study in Sweden among 13-year-old adolescents. The aim was to study how the intake of food groups was affected by a screening-detected diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD) and its gluten-free (GF) treatment. Food intake was reported using a FFQ, and intake reported by the adolescents who were diagnosed with CD was compared with the intake of two same-aged referent groups: (i) adolescents diagnosed with CD prior to screening; and (ii) adolescents without CD. The food intake groups were measured at baseline before the screening-detected cases were aware of their CD, and 12–18 months later. The results showed that food intakes were affected by screen-detected CD and its dietary treatment. Many flour-based foods were reduced such as pizza, fish fingers and pastries. The results also indicated that bread intake was lower before the screened diagnosis compared with the other studied groups, but increased afterwards. Specially manufactured GF products (for example, pasta and bread) were frequently used in the screened CD group after changing to a GF diet. The present results suggest that changing to a GF diet reduces the intake of some popular foods, and the ingredients on the plate are altered, but this do not necessarily include a change of food groups. The availability of manufactured GF replacement products makes it possible for adolescents to keep many of their old food habits when diagnosed with CD in Sweden.
Significant mortalities of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, have been reported worldwide since the 1950s. The impact these re-occurring mortality events have had on the C. gigas industry has highlighted the necessity to determine the factors that may be causing these mortalities. This study investigated the possible role of ostreid herpes virus (OsHV-1) in C. gigas mortalities over 2 successive summers at 2 study areas in Ireland. A single sample of adult C. gigas, which had been experiencing mortalities at one of the sites was screened. Successive cohorts of C. gigas spat obtained from a hatchery outside Ireland was relayed to both sites in 2003 and in 2004. Spat were screened each year prior to relaying. Samples were collected every 2 weeks and mortality counts were recorded and observed at both sites. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and subsequent sequencing indicated that a previously undocumented variant genotype of OsHV-1 was present in the single cohort of adult C. gigas and in seed and juveniles at both sites, in both years. Analysis suggests that the Irish OsHV-1 μvar variant genotype is closely related to OsHV-1 μvar, first described in France in 2008.
The expansion of the European Union during the last 2 yr has resulted in the need for a revision of existing guidelines to further harmonize education and training in the specialty of anaesthesiology throughout the European Union. Although each individual country is responsible for its own training and certification, these guidelines are intended to reflect minimum criteria for specialist training. It is the opinion of the Section and Board of Anaesthesia that specialist training will need to be for a minimum of 5 yr.
The still ever increasing demand for sedation and/or analgesia for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures puts high pressure on anaesthesia care providers all over Europe. Since the capacity to provide that service by anaesthetists is limited in most European countries, guidelines for non-anaesthetist doctors who want to sedate patients on a high-quality level and especially in a safe way are mandatory. This paper, produced by a working party of the European Board of Anaesthesiology of the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS/UEMS), gives direction to those practitioners who feel responsibilities in this area of medicine. Close cooperation with anaesthesiologists seems mandatory to achieve and sustain a high-quality standard for our patients undergoing medical or surgical procedures under sedation.
This chapter is meant to cover the Scandinavian region of Europe. It includes research mainly from the discipline of psychology, but with excursions to the fields of education and philosophy. Besides theoretical and empirical results from Denmark, Norway, and Finland, it reviews data from both applied and laboratory settings in Sweden. The time span covered stretches back approximately three decades. At the start, only a handful of pioneers can be spotted, but the number of creativity researchers has increased rapidly over the years.
While pondering on the catch in our net, we have come to the conclusion that there is no typically or coherent Scandinavian opinion about how creativity should be understood. Still, Scandinavian work does not unconditionally reflect mainline North American approaches to the matter. If most American researchers would probably agree with Mumford's (2003) emphasis on productivity when evaluating creative behavior, Scandinavian researchers would be more inclined to pay attention to Runco (2003), who gives more weight to potentials. Here creativity is rather understood as an attitude toward life, a way to come to grips with the problems of existence. We believe that an exclusive focus on tangible creative products may lose sight of many creative individuals who do not give priority to being in the limelight.
Thus, there has been more focus on different conditions that are positive or negative for creativity, whether they are prerequisites in the individual or conditions seen from other angles in a system's perspective (cf. Csikszentmihalyi, 1999).
Carbon coated nanoparticles were synthesized by laser-assisted (ArF excimer laser, λ = 193 nm) chemical vapor deposition (LCVD). The particles were formed in the gas-phase by photolytic dissociation of cobaltocene in argon and the particles were deposited onto a silicon substrate. The particles were deposited at two different laser fluencies, 70 and 300 mJ/cm2.
Single crystalline spherical cobalt particles with a well-defined carbon shell were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the highest fluence, 300 mJ/cm2. The metallic nucleus phase were identified as either β-Co or Co3O4. Polycrystalline particles were deposited at 70 mJ/cm2, these particles contained α-Co, β-Co, CoO and Co3O4. The particles deposited at 300 mJ/cm2 were log-normally distributed and the total diameter had a mean geometric size of 25 nm while the nuclei had a mean diameter of 10 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that the particles had a carbon content roughly ten times the amount of cobalt. Sputtering showed that both cobalt oxide and metallic cobalt was present. HRTEM micrographs of the particles revealed that only one phase was present in the whole nucleus, proving the nuclei were either oxide or metallic. Raman spectroscopy showed that that the carbon shell contained mostly amorphous carbon. Small domains of carbon of more graphitic character was embedded in the amorphous carbon shell in the 300 mJ/cm2 sample.
A ten-year-long laboratory experiment was recently started in order to study interactions between the groundwater, the bentonite, and the canister in the near-field of the planned Finnish repository for spent nuclear waste. The experimental set-up consists of a number of samples containing sodium MX-80 bentonite and cast iron cylinders placed in copper vessels. The bentonite stays in contact with an external solution, either distilled water or a 0.5 M NaCl solution, via metal sinters. The experiments are performed under anoxic conditions (N2 atmosphere) at ambient room temperature (∼30 °C). The experimental measurements focus mainly on the development of (1) the water chemistry, (2) the cast iron corrosion, and (3) the diffusion of corrosion products inside the bentonite, since these processes are the most likely ones to produce detectable changes during the ten-year-long programme.
The first analyses, after 9 months, showed that the iron corrosion had started and that the corrosion products had migrated into the bentonite. The corrosion products could not be identified by XRD, which either meant that the material was amorphous or present in concentrations too low to be detectable. The analyses of the gas phase indicated the presence of hydrogen, which most probably was the result of the iron corrosion. The compositions of the external water and the porewater were determined with regard to the major species of interest. A closer evaluation of the results will not be given until more data are at hand.
An intrinsic defect spectrum, commonly observed after ion-implantation, electron, proton or neutron irradiation and even after SIMS measurements is investigated using photoluminescence techniques. The spectrum is associated with carbon related isoelec-tronic centers having a pseudodonor like behaviour. Vacancy-interstitial pair complexes are tentatively suggested as the defect centers responsible for this intrinsic spectrum.
We have observed electroluminescence from 4H-SiC Ni-Schottky diodes on 1015cm−3 nitrogen doped n-type epilayers. A high barrier Schottky contact will form an inversion layer close to it. This creates minority carriers that can be injected into the epi and recombine to emit light. The spectral composition and its temperature dependence have been investigated from liquid He temperatures to room temperature. Band edge luminescence, Al related luminescence and DI bound exciton have been observed. To study the electroluminescence from Schottky diodes provides an easy and additional technique for defect characterization of epitaxial layers.
With a recently developed numerical technique, we have investigated failure processes in real fiber composites. This technique utilizes 3D lattice Green's functions to calculate load transfer from broken to unbroken fibers, and also includes the important effects of fiber/matrix sliding. It is found that the failure processes are more complex than previously thought: The fibers that break or slide are not necessarily located around the largest defect cluster. Rather, the breaking/sliding fibers accumulate, form several large clusters, coalesce and finally cause the fiber composite to fail. Only in some cases does one large defect dominate the damage evolution. Based on our observations of the irregular evolution of the damage, a simple model is developed to describe these different failure modes, and the failure criterion of the fiber composite is also discussed.