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Scientific fields benefit when their researchers engage in self-reflection. Accordingly, we welcome the evidence gathered by Gardner, Ryan, and Snoeyink (2018) on gender differences in our field, the field of industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. In this commentary, we argue that such self-reflection processes can be further enhanced by taking advantage of the wealth and breadth of scientometrics, the quantitative study of science.
The effect of transportation and lairage on the faecal shedding and post-slaughter contamination of carcasses with Escherichia coli O157 and O26 in young calves (4–7-day-old) was assessed in a cohort study at a regional calf-processing plant in the North Island of New Zealand, following 60 calves as cohorts from six dairy farms to slaughter. Multiple samples from each animal at pre-slaughter (recto-anal mucosal swab) and carcass at post-slaughter (sponge swab) were collected and screened using real-time PCR and culture isolation methods for the presence of E. coli O157 and O26 (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and non-STEC). Genotype analysis of E. coli O157 and O26 isolates provided little evidence of faecal–oral transmission of infection between calves during transportation and lairage. Increased cross-contamination of hides and carcasses with E. coli O157 and O26 between co-transported calves was confirmed at pre-hide removal and post-evisceration stages but not at pre-boning (at the end of dressing prior to chilling), indicating that good hygiene practices and application of an approved intervention effectively controlled carcass contamination. This study was the first of its kind to assess the impact of transportation and lairage on the faecal carriage and post-harvest contamination of carcasses with E. coli O157 and O26 in very young calves.
In the UK increasing economic pressure on milk producers has highlighted the need to identify key areas to optimise farm efficiency and profitability. The areas of dairy herd production diseases are a major concern and improvements made in reducing the incidence of disease will improve animal welfare and reduce costs (Kossaibati, M. A. and Esslemont, R. J., 1997)
Therefore the aim this research was to identify the training, advisory and research requirements of milk producers in the SW of England.
Mastitis is one of most frequent and costly diseases encountered on dairy farms. In 1998 mastitis costs UK dairy farmers approximately £80 million a year and this figure increases to over £100 million when further associated losses such as somatic cell count (SCC) penalties, antibiotic residue penalties and reduced cell count and bacteria count payments are accounted for. In the 1980’s and 1990’s there has been a continuing increase in the incidence of environmental mastitis and especially due to E coli (Brand, 1999),. Increasing SCC levels are set against a background of emphasis on higher milk price for low SSC milk by purchasers has led to the need to increase milk price by reducing losses from high SCC levels. The aim of the study was to monitor bulk milk SCC levels in milk supplied to a milk producer co-operative over a 12 month period and select a sub-sample of milk producers with high SCC, analyse the clinical incidence of mastitis, establish the pathogens involved and their response to antibiotics.
The L204 dark cloud complex is a highly elongated structure stretching over 4 degrees in declination. Its total mass is 400 M⊙ with the more tenuous sections of the cloud being displaced in right ascension from the more heavily obscured parts.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by proteinaceous aggregates named Lewy Bodies and Lewy Neurites containing α-synuclein fibrils. The underlying aggregation mechanism of this protein is dominated by a secondary process at mildly acidic pH, as in endosomes and other organelles. This effect manifests as a strong acceleration of the aggregation in the presence of seeds and a weak dependence of the aggregation rate on monomer concentration. The molecular mechanism underlying this process could be nucleation of monomers on fibril surfaces or fibril fragmentation. Here, we aim to distinguish between these mechanisms. The nature of the secondary processes was investigated using differential sedimentation analysis, trap and seed experiments, quartz crystal microbalance experiments and super-resolution microscopy. The results identify secondary nucleation of monomers on the fibril surface as the dominant secondary process leading to rapid generation of new aggregates, while no significant contribution from fragmentation was found. The newly generated oligomeric species quickly elongate to further serve as templates for secondary nucleation and this may have important implications in the spreading of PD.
The pulsations of white dwarf stars are potentially a rich source of information about white dwarf structural properties. Extracting and applying this information to improve our knowledge of white dwarf interiors requires measuring individual eigenperiods in a complex power spectrum, and identifying the character of the eigenmodes they represent. This review will summarize observational progress in these areas for the ZZ Ceti pulsators.
Measuring cortisol in hair is a promising method to assess long-term alterations of the biological stress response system, and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) may be altered in psychiatric disorders and in subjects suffering from chronic stress. However, the pattern of associations between HCC, chronic stress and mental health require clarification. Our exploratory study: (1) assessed the association between HCC and perceived stress, symptoms of depression and neuroticism, and the trait extraversion (as a control variable); and (2) made use of the twin design to estimate the genetic and environmental covariance between the variables of interest. Hair samples from 109 (74 female) subjects (age range 12–21 years, mean 15.1) including 8 monozygotic (MZ) and 21 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs were analyzed. Perceived stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale and/or the Daily Life and Stressors Scale, neuroticism, and extraversion with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory or the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and depressive symptoms with the Somatic and Psychological Health Report. We found a modest positive association between HCC and the three risk factors — perceived stress, symptoms of depression, and neuroticism (r = 0.22–0.33) — but no correlation with extraversion (-0.06). A median split revealed that the associations between HCC and risk factors were stronger (0.47–0.60) in those subjects with HCC >11.36 pg/mg. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic effects underlying HCC are largely shared with those that influence perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism. These results of our proof of principle study warrant replication in a bigger sample but raise the interesting question of the direction of causation between these variables.
The ZZ Ceti stars form a class of variable white dwarfs: the hydrogen dominated atmosphere ones, which do pulsate in an instability strip in the effective temperature range 13000K-11500K. We know 22 such ZZ Ceti white dwarfs. Their variations are caused by nonradial g-mode pulsations with periods are in the range 100-1000 seconds.
A subsample of the ZZ Ceti stars shows amplitude variations on time scales of the order of one month. These variations could be driven by nonlinear phenomena.
We report the analysis of 154 hours of nearly continuous high-speed photometric data on the pulsating DB white dwarf (DBV) GD 358 obtained during the Whole Earth Telescope (WET) run of May 1990. The Fourier transform (FT) of the light curve is dominated by power in the range from 1200 – 1700μHz with more than 180 significant peaks in the total transform. We also see significant power at the sums and differences of the dominant frequencies, indicating the importance of nonlinear behavior. We can use this data to obtain an accurate total stellar mass, and surface He layer mass. The implied surface He layer mass, if correct, provides a significant and surprising challenge to stellar evolution theory, as well as the theory of chemical mixing.
White dwarf stars provide important boundary conditions for the understanding of stellar evolution. An adequate understanding of even these simple stars is impossible without detailed knowledge of their interiors. PG1346+082, an interacting binary white dwarf system, provides a unique opportunity to view the interior of one degenerate as it is brought to light in the accretion disk of the second star as the primary strips material from its less massive companion (see Wood et at. 1987).
PG1346+082 is a photometric variable with a four magnitude variation over a four to five day quasi-period. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the light curve shows a complex, time-dependent structure of harmonics. PG1346+082 exhibits flickering – the signature of mass transfer. The optical spectra of the system contain weak emission features during minimum and broad absorption at all other times. This could be attributed to pressure broadening in the atmosphere of a compact object, or to a combination of pressure broadening and doppler broadening in a disk surrounding the compact accretor. No hydrogen lines are observed and the spectra are dominated by neutral helium. The spectra also display variable asymmetric line profiles.
The variability of CD-24 7599 (V=11.48 mag) was discovered by JCC during observing run XCOV7 of the Whole Earth Telescope (WET, Nather et al. 1990) network in February, 1992. The star was observed as an additional target and 117 hours of high-quality temporal spectroscopic observations were obtained.
Our analysis of these data revealed the presence of 7 independent pulsation modes between 27.0 and 38.1 cycles per day (313 – 441 μHz) with semiamplitudes of 2.1 – 10.2 milli-modulation amplitudes (mma). We showed that peaks at linear combination frequencies detected in the power spectra were not due to eigenmodes excited to visible amplitude by resonant mode coupling.
The recurring debate over the causes of the massive extinctions of such groups as the dinosaurs, ammonites, and calcareous nannoplankton, and the crash of the distinctive Aquilapollenites pollen province, used by biostratigraphers to mark the close of the Cretaceous, has been considerably enlivened with the resurgence of hypotheses suggesting catastrophic events. The impact of an asteroid, explosion of a supernova, sudden changes in oceanic circulation and composition, or atmospheric perturbations, to mention a few, have been put forward as malefactors. But, just how sound is the evidence of a biotic catastrophe?
The influence of threading dislocations (TDs) on the dry thermal oxidation of c-plane gallium nitride (GaN) is investigated for oxidation temperatures above 800°C. The transformation of GaN to gallium oxide (Ga2O3) is preferably found at TDs and grain boundaries, showing enhanced vertical oxidation, compared to defect free surface sites. Therefore, the increase in surface roughness commonly obtained upon oxidation is explained by an inhomogeneous chemical reactivity associated with those crystal defects. Additionally, annealing in an N2 atmosphere showed that also decomposition is favored at such chemically reactive spots. Comparison between decomposition and oxidation suggests that at temperatures above 950°C, the Ga2O3 formation is supported by the decomposition of GaN and subsequent oxidation of the metallic gallium.
The high cost of single-crystal III–V substrates limits the use of gallium arsenide (GaAs) and related sphalerite III–V materials in many applications, especially photovoltaics. However, by making devices from epitaxially grown III–V layers that are separated from a growth substrate, one can recycle the growth substrate to reduce costs. Here, we show damage-free removal of an epitaxial single-crystal GaAs film from its GaAs growth substrate using a laser that is absorbed by a smaller band gap, pseudomorphic indium gallium arsenide nitride layer grown between the substrate and the GaAs film. The liftoff process transfers the GaAs film to a flexible polymer substrate, and the transferred GaAs layer is indistinguishable in structural quality from its growth substrate.
We have written this book for four groups of people. The first are those new to the work of Alain Badiou, Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Lacan. These readers will find abstracts of selected concepts, directed exposition, and putatively helpful comparative discussion of these concepts as they range across the three authors. The second group includes specialised scholars of one or more of these figures. These will find ammunition here for their own preferences. For this book is not simply exegesis, but traces an ongoing philosophical war that the authors, attempting to follow the models of their masters, are continuing to fight against each other and themselves. The third group we address are those voyeurs who would like an aperture through which to enjoy the machinations of such theoretical confrontation. Whether tendentious, irritable, self-deceiving or aggressive, there may be choice selections of this text that will incite such readers to rage, terror or pity; or indeed to enthusiasm, complaisance and joy. The fourth group of addressees, finally, are we ourselves, the authors, who also simultaneously occupy the first three positions of amateur, professional and pervert. This book has been written to see if we could reconsider those thinkers and ways of thinking we find at once mystifying, titillating, precise, infuriating, disturbing – rendering them other to our own existing apprehensions and learned ignorance.