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The multipolar representation of the magnetic field has, for the lowest-order term, a magnetic dipole that dominates the far field. Thus the far-field representation of the magnetic field of the Earth, Sun and other celestial bodies is a dipole. Since these bodies consist of or are surrounded by plasma, which can support Alfvén waves, their propagation along dipole magnetic field lines is considered using a new coordinate system: dipolar coordinates. The present paper introduces multipolar coordinates, which are an example of conformal coordinates; conformal coordinates are orthogonal with equal scale factors, and can be extended from the plane to space, for instance as cylindrical or spherical dipolar coordinates. The application considered is to Alfvén waves propagating along a circle, that is a magnetic field line of a dipole, with transverse velocity and magnetic field perturbations; the various forms of the wave equation are linear second-order differential equations, with variable coefficients, specified by a background magnetic field, which is force free. The absence of a background magnetic force leads to a mean state of hydrostatic equilibrium, specified by the balance of gravity against the pressure gradient, for a perfect gas or incompressible liquid. The wave equation is simplified to a Gaussian hypergeometric type in the case of zero frequency, otherwise, for non-zero frequency, an extended Gaussian hypergeometric equation is obtained. The solution of the latter specifies the magnetic field perturbation spectrum, and also, via a polarisation relation, the velocity perturbation spectrum; both are plotted, over half a circle, for three values of the dimensionless frequency.
The maximisation of control power is considered for an aircraft with multiple control surfaces, with the force and moment coefficients specified by polynomials of the control surface deflections of degree two. The optimal deflections, which maximise and minimise any force or moment coefficient, are determined subject to constraints on the range of deflection of each control surface. The results are applied to a flying wing configuration to determine: (i/ii) the pitch trim, at the lowest drag for the fastest climb, and at the highest drag for the steepest descent; (iii) the maximum and minimum pitching moment; (iv) the maximum and minimum yaw control power and the fraction needed to compensate an outboard engine failure for several propulsion configurations; (v) the maximum and minimum rolling moment. The optimal use of all control surfaces has significant advantages over using just one, e.g. the range of drag modulation with pitch trim is much wider and the maximum and minimum available control moments larger.
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
Agents that block the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) improve glucoregulation in the metabolic syndrome disorder. We evaluated the effects of egg white hydrolysate (EWH), previously shown to modulate the protein abundance of RAS component in vivo, on glucose homeostasis in diet-induced insulin-resistant rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks to induce insulin resistance. They were then randomly divided into four groups receiving HFD or HFD supplemented with different concentrations of EWH (1, 2 and 4 %) for another 6 weeks in the first trial. In the second trial, insulin-resistant rats were divided into two groups receiving only HFD or HFD+4 % EWH for 6 weeks. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Insulin signalling and protein abundance of RAS components, gluconeogenesis enzymes and PPARγ were evaluated in muscle, fat and liver. Adipocyte morphology and inflammatory markers were evaluated. In vivo administration of EWH increased insulin sensitivity, improved oral glucose tolerance (P < 0·0001) and reduced systemic inflammation (P < 0·05). EWH potentiated insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in muscle (P = 0·0341) and adipose tissue (P = 0·0276), but minimal differences in the protein abundance of tissue RAS components between the EWH and control groups were observed. EWH treatment also reduced adipocyte size (P = 0·0383) and increased PPARγ2 protein abundance (P = 0·0237). EWH treatment yielded positive effects on the inflammatory profile, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation in HFD-induced insulin resistance rats. The involvement of local RAS activity requires further investigation.
The objective of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strains in children from Lima, Peru, before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), which was introduced in the national immunisation program on 2009. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, passive surveillance IPD study during 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, before and right after the introduction of PCV7 in Peru. The study was performed in 11 hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients <18 years old, with sterile site cultures yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae. In total 159 S. pneumoniae isolates were recovered. There was a decrease in the incidence of IPD in children <2 years old after the introduction of PCV7 (18.4/100 000 vs. 5.1/100 000, P = 0.004). Meningitis cases decreased significantly in the second period (P = 0.036) as well as the overall case fatality rate (P = 0.025), including a decreased case fatality rate of pneumonia (16.3% to 0%, P = 0.04). PCV7 serotypes showed a downward trend. Vaccine-preventable serotypes caused 78.9% of IPD cases, mainly 14, 6B, 5, 19F and 23F. A non-significant increase in erythromycin resistance was reported. Our findings suggest that the introduction of PCV7 led to a significant decrease of IPD in children under 2 years old and in the overall case fatality rate.
Ternary Sn-Sb-S thin films with remarkable optical, electrical and structural properties were developed by chemical bath deposition. Tin and antimony chlorides and thioacetamide were used as tin, antimony, and sulfur ion sources, respectively, while tartaric acid was used as a complexing agent. XRD analysis of as-deposited films showed a combination of binary phases of SnS, Sn2S3, and Sb2S3, while after thermal treatment in nitrogen at 400 °C, the films became crystalline showing well-defined reflections of the ternary SnSb2S4. The heating also influenced the morphology, compactness, and thickness of the films. On the other hand, all the films showed an absorption coefficient higher than 104 cm-1, while the optical band gap of the as-deposited film decreased from 1.49 to 1.37 eV after heating at 400 °C. In addition, the photoconductivity of the films prior to heating was of 10-9 Ω-1 cm-1, while after that at 400 °C was of 10-7 Ω-1 cm-1. The evaluation of the ternary film in solar cells gave an open-circuit voltage Voc of 448 mV and short-circuit current density of Jsc of 2.4 mA/cm2.
To date, there are no recent studies identifying the prevalence of parasites of human and veterinary importance in dogs and cats in Ireland. The interaction between pets and wildlife species in the environment is an important source of parasite exposure to canids and felines, and one likely to be heightened in the stray animal population. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of endoparasites in unowned dogs and cats in County Dublin, Ireland. Feces from stray dogs (n = 627) and cats (n = 289) entering a rehoming centre were collected immediately after defecation. The main parasitic agents detected were ascarids (15.52 and 30.26%), Cystoisospora (3.27 and 3.69%), Giardia spp. (6.02 and 1.84%) and lungworms (0.64 and 2.08%), in dogs and cats respectively. Animals younger than 3 months of age were more likely to be infected with ascarids (P < 0.001) and Cystoisospora spp. (P = 0.008 and P = 0.014) than older animals. All lungworms were morphologically identified and dogs were infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.48%) and Crenosoma vulpis (0.16%) whereas cats were only infected with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (2.08%). This represents the first prevalence study of stray animals in Ireland. Data collected will inform the treatment and in addition, the future monitoring and control studies of parasite populations.
A patient with intractable epilepsy, previous right frontal resection, and active vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) developed new onset quasi-continuous twitching around the left eye. Electroencephalography showed no correlate to the orbicularis oculi twitches apart from myographic potentials at the left supraorbital and anterior frontal electrodes. Magnetoencephalography was performed using spatiotemporal signal space separation to suppress magnetic artifacts associated with the VNS apparatus. Magnetoencephalographic source imaging performed on the data back-averaged from the left supraorbital myographic potentials revealed an intrasulcal cortical generator situated in the posterior wall of the right precentral gyrus representing the eye area of the motor homunculus.
Non-decorticated sunflower meal (SFM) is a potential protein source for dairy cows with high-fibre content but high ruminal degradability. The effect of replacement of soybean meal (SBM) and wheat middlings (WM) with SFM on the intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen utilization and milk production of dairy cows was evaluated. Twelve Holstein cows were blocked by days in milk and distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and contained 550 g maize silage/kg dry matter (DM). Treatment diets were no SFM (CON) or 70, 140 and 210 g/kg DM of SFM replacing fixed mixture of SBM and WM (536 and 464 g/kg of the mixture, respectively). The inclusion of SFM in diet did not affect DM intake, but intake of rumen degradable protein increased linearly. Inclusion of SFM reduced or tended to reduce total-tract digestibility of non-fibre carbohydrate, total digestible nutrients and excretion of purine derivatives. Milk production, milk protein content and efficiency of nitrogen use for lactation were reduced with increasing levels of SFM in the diet. The use of non-decorticated SFM as a replacement for SBM–WM mixture in diet reduces performance and efficiency of nutrient use in lactating dairy cows. The outcome of the current study is attributed to reduced fibre digestibility in SFM hulls. Therefore, future studies should evaluate the use of decorticated SFM.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate whether dietary reduction and sex class affect nutrient intake, digestibility, purine derivative (PD) excretion and heat tolerance coefficient in lambs. Thirty-five hair lambs (14.5 ± 0.89 kg initial body weight (BW), 2 months old) were used in a completely randomized study with a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, three sex classes (11 intact males, 12 castrated males and 12 females) and three levels of feeding (ad libitum, 300 and 600 g/kg/dry matter (DM) feed restriction) for 120 days. Intact and castrated males showed higher intakes of DM and neutral detergent fibre corrected for ash and protein (NDFap) than females. At 300 g/kg/DM feed restriction, NDFap digestibility was lower in intact males than in other classes; however, no differences were found between classes when subjected to ad libitum feeding or 600 g/kg/DM. The basal endogenous nitrogen and endogenous urinary losses were highest in intact males. Allantoin, uric acid and PD excretion, as well as PD absorption and microbial protein production were lowest in the animals subjected to 600 g/kg/DM feed restriction. Microbial protein synthesis (MPS) was highest in animals subjected to 600 g/kg/DM feed restriction. The lowest temperatures were observed in animals subjected to 600 g/kg/DM feed restriction. The heat tolerance coefficient was highest in animals subjected to 600 g/kg/DM feed restriction. In conclusion, feed restriction reduced the time spent on feeding and rumination but increased the digestibility of DM. The restriction level of 600 g/kg/DM maximized MPS and infrared thermography indicated an elevated heat tolerance coefficient.
To assess counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nasal polyps of adults with or without long-term exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke.
Twenty-two patients with and 22 patients without exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke participated in the study. After endoscopic polypectomy, the fragments of the nasal polyps were analysed by immunohistochemistry.
Compared to patients with no exposure, patients with exposure showed higher counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (t-test, p < 0.05). However, in patients with no exposure, multivariate analysis showed gender dimorphism, with lower counts in males than in females, and no influence from other variables (analysis of covariance, p > 0.05).
Exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke may induce increased counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nasal polyps of adults, with lower counts in males than females without exposure to tobacco smoke.
Poly (methyl methacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (PMMA/HAp) nanocomposites with HAp nanoparticles content of 12 wt.% were obtained by free-radical polymerization synthesis. Three different concentrations of benzoyl peroxide (PBO) of 3, 6, and 12 wt.% were studied. The results showed that the concentration of PBO has an effect on the performance of composites. In particular, the nanocomposite with the highest concentration of PBO presented the best mechanical and tribological behavior, as well as the lowest values of water absorption and porosity percent.
Studies have shown that dietary chromium (Cr) supplementation beneficially affects physiological functions such as cell preservation, antioxidant activity and immune response that are of utmost importance to animal homeostasis and thermoregulatory capacity under heat stress conditions. For instance, Cr is essential for the synthesis of the specific low molecular weight Cr-binding-substance (LMWCr) that upon conversion to chromodulin, activates the insulin signalling cascade. This results in greater cell permeability to insulin, with a subsequent positive effect on the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Furthermore, Cr has antioxidant properties which help to attenuate the negative effects of oxidative stress. With regards to meat quality, Cr decreases lipid peroxidation. It has been suggested that Cr supplementation increases antibody responses and lymphocyte counts in broiler chickens exposed to high environmental temperatures. In addition, trivalent Cr supplementation increases growth performance and decreases the circulating levels of undesirable metabolites and hormones such as cholesterol and corticosterone in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. The aim of this review was to report the effects of Cr supplementation as a nutritional strategy to increase growth performance, immune response, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broilers produced under hot conditions. This knowledge may contribute to improve the productivity and sustainability of broiler production in a context of global warming and development of livestock production in hot climate areas.
Breast-feeding initiation rates have increased in the USA; however, maintenance of breast-feeding for recommended durations is low. The objective of the present study was to identify factors that may facilitate breast-feeding for longer durations among first-time mothers, including physiological and social experiences and changes in maternal perceptions.
Survival analysis and linear regression methods were used to explore the relationship between experiences and breast-feeding duration, and the possible mediating effect of changes in maternal perceptions.
Secondary data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, conducted in the USA between 2005 and 2007.
Data from 762 first-time mothers who ever breast-fed were analysed.
Experiencing trouble with baby’s latch, problems with milk flow/supply and painful breast-feeding were significantly associated with breast-feeding duration (64, 26 and 36 % shorter duration, respectively). Meanwhile, positive changes in perception with respect to breast-feeding self-efficacy, opinion about infant feeding and belief about breast milk were associated with 16–27 % longer duration. Furthermore, changes in perception were observed to partially mediate the impact of physiological experiences on breast-feeding duration.
Perceptions of breast-feeding self-efficacy, beliefs and opinions can change over time and are influenced by breast-feeding experiences. The combined effect of experience and perception plays a key role in influencing breast-feeding duration. Future research should explore interventions to maintain or improve these perceptions while accounting for physiological experiences to support breast-feeding for recommended durations among first-time mothers.
To determine the effect of a fish protein isolate (FPi), administered over 6 months, on the growth of children aged 6–36 months, measured by Z-scores of height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ), compared with the standard meal without FPi; and to determine the safety and acceptability of FPi daily consumption.
Cluster-randomized community-based controlled trial. For 6 months, the centres received either FPi replacing 50 % of total proteins in the diet or standard protein. HAZ and WHZ were used to determine the effect on growth. Acceptability was determined by daily consumption, measured by weighing the servings before and after consumption.
Day care centres and community nutritional centres in northern Lima, Peru.
Children (n 441) aged 6–36 months.
Four centres were randomized to the intervention with FPi, five centres were randomized to the standard control diet. More than 36 900 meals were prepared and administered in a supervised manner. Both groups received the same amounts of energy and proteins daily (proteins about 12–15 % of total energy). Growth of children who received the FPi diet was similar to that of children with the standard diet. Consumption was similar in the FPi and control groups (70 v. 80 % of amount offered, respectively). The protein was safe and well tolerated. No adverse events were reported. However, the cost of the intervention with FPi was 20–40 % lower v. the standard diet with animal protein derived from beef, chicken, eggs or liver.
The FPi was well accepted and there was no significant difference in growth between both groups. FPi is a potential source of animal protein at lower cost.