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As part of a high resolution (0.55Å) spectroscopic survey of southern Seyfert galaxies, we observed a number of objects in the Hα region. The main goal of this survey is to study the profiles of the narrow lines in Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies. As a by-product, one can search for and analyse weak broad components in Ha that sometimes show up when Seyfert 2 galaxies are observed with high resolution and high signal to noise. Such objects are usually classified as Seyfert 1.8 or 1.9. The search and detailed study of these objects is of great importance for characterizing the weak end of the luminosity function of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The observations were made with a two channel intensified Reticon at the Coude spectrograph of the 1.6m telescope at the Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofisica (CNPq/LNA).
We describe a proposed far-ultraviolet (FUV) photometric and spectroscopic survey covering the 1300–2000 Å band with a sensitivity comparable to that of the Palomar Sky Survey. Among the numerous scientific objectives of this mission, many have direct bearing on the nature of the FUV background.
Dysfunctional attitudes are a feature of depression that has been correlated with receptor binding abnormalities in limbic and cortical regions. We sought to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of dysfunctional attitudes in major depressive disorder (MDD) and the effects of treatment with cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT).
Participants were 16 patients with unipolar depression in an acute depressive episode (mean age 40.0 years) and 16 matched healthy controls (mean age 39.9 years). Patients were medication free and received a course of treatment with CBT. All participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans at baseline and at week 16, prior to the initiation of therapy and following the course of CBT for patients. During each fMRI scan, participants indicated their attributions to statements from a modified Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (mDAS-48).
MDD patients in an acute depressive episode endorsed a greater number of extreme responses to DAS statements, which normalized following CBT treatment. Extreme attributions were associated with greater activation in the left hippocampal region, inferior parietal lobe and precuneus in MDD patients as compared with healthy controls as a main effect of group. An interaction effect was found in the left parahippocampal region, which showed less attenuation in MDD patients at the follow-up scan relative to healthy controls.
Attenuation of activity in the parahippocampal region may be indicative of an improvement in dysfunctional thinking following CBT treatment in depression, while persistent engagement of regions involved in attentional processing and memory retrieval with extreme attributions reflects a trait feature of depression.
High post-release survival, low dispersal and the recruitment of captive-reared individuals into the wild population are critical to the success of any reintroduction programme. Reintroducing a migratory species poses an additional challenge as success also depends on the return of captive-reared individuals to breeding grounds in subsequent years. We investigated the effects of seven husbandry and management factors on the return rate of captive-reared eastern loggerhead shrikes Lanius ludovicianus migrans and documented the recruitment of returning individuals. During 2004–2010, 564 juveniles were released in Ontario, Canada, as part of a field propagation and release programme and there were 27 confirmed sightings of returning birds during 2005–2011. Returning birds were significantly more likely to have been released in large groups of juveniles (9–10 birds) at 5.5 weeks post-fledging from the Carden field propagation site. Comparisons of the number of young fledged and survival to 2 weeks post-fledging revealed similar results for pairs comprising one captive-reared and one wild-reared individual and pairs comprising two wild individuals. These results highlight the contribution of captive-reared shrikes to the recovery of the wild population and the importance of monitoring outcomes and evaluating techniques.
Local structural and metabolic as well as inter-regional connectivity abnormalities have been implicated in the neuropathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). How local tissue properties affect intrinsic functional connectivity is, however, unclear. Using a cross-sectional, multi-modal imaging approach, we investigated the relationship between local cortical tissue abnormalities and intrinsic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in MDD.
A total of 20 MDD in-patients and 20 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T for structural and functional imaging. Whole-brain cortical thickness was calculated and compared between groups. Regions with reduced cortical thickness defined seeds for subsequent whole-brain RSFC analyses. Contributions of structural tissue abnormalities on inter-regional RSFC were explicitly investigated.
Lower cortical thickness was observed in MDD in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), superior temporal gyrus/temporal pole, middle-posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral PFC. No differences in local fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations were observed. Lower thickness in patients' dorsomedial PFC further directly and selectively affected its RSFC with the precuneus, which was unaffected by symptom severity. No effects of cortical thickness in other regions showing abnormal thickness were observed to influence functional connectivity.
Abnormal cortical thickness in the dorsomedial PFC in MDD patients was observed to selectively and directly affect its intrinsic connectivity with the precuneus in MDD patients independent of depression severity, thereby marking a potential vulnerability for maladaptive mood regulation. Future studies should include an unmedicated sample and replicate findings using independent component analysis to test for morphometric effects on network integrity.
Silicon wafers as obtained from the manufacturer are immersed in a large area argon/hydrogen plasma for surface cleaning. The plasma discharge is maintained between a heated cathode and the grounded process chamber at discharge voltages of about 30 V for which discharge currents up to 100 A can be chosen. In this regime, neither the chamber walls nor the substrates are sputtered. Chemical reactions at the wafer surface are assumed to be mainly stimulated by low energy electron bombardment. The etch rates for diamond-like carbon (DLC) on silicon wafers were determined for selected discharge parameters and compared with the previously obtained results for SiO2. It was found that 5 minutes in-situ cleaning prepares the silicon wafers for homoepitaxy at 500 °C and higher substrate temperatures, whereas a short anneal at 500 °C was necessary to obtain low temperature homoepitaxy at 300 °C on (100) and 400 °C on (111) silicon. This seems to be due to hydrogen passivation of silicon during the cleaning procedure.
Zinc-based buffer layers like ZnSe, ZnS, or wet-chemically deposited ZnO on Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)2 absorber materials (CIGSSe) have yielded thin film solar cell efficiencies comparable to or even higher than standard CdS/CIGSSe cells. However, little is known about surface and interface properties of these novel buffer layers. In this contribution we characterize the specific chemical environment at the absorber/buffer-interface using X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) in a complementary way. Evidence of intermixing and chemical reactions is found for different buffer materials and deposition methods.
CuxGaySe2 MOCVD and PVD grown films were structurally and optically characterized by Raman, Micro-Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Defect related photoluminescence excitation with wavelengths varying across the material band gap reveals: a) in Cu-rich CuGaSe2 films, three band edge splitting due to the spin-orbit interaction and the crystal field, and donor-acceptor pair recombination between a shallow donor and two different acceptor levels, and b) in Ga-rich CuGaSe2 films, donor-acceptor pair transitions between quasi-continua of donor and acceptor levels related to potential fluctuations. Raman spectra of CuxGaySe2films, excited by laser light near and below the material band gap, show intense modes at 197cm-1, 187cm-1, and 277cm-1, which can be used as indicators of crystallinity and Ga-content of the films. Polarization- and angular- dependent micro-Raman spectra of MOCVD CuGaSe2 indicate that CuxSey-crystallites, dispersed on the surface of Cu-rich films, are grown oriented with their c-axis perpendicular to the film surface.
The Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory consists of a 1m aperture Gregory telescope, a UV filter imager, an imaging vector polarimeter, an image stabilization system and further infrastructure. The first science flight of Sunrise yielded high-quality data that reveal the structure, dynamics and evolution of solar convection, oscillations and magnetic fields at a resolution of around 100 km in the quiet Sun. Here we describe very briefly the mission and the first results obtained from the Sunrise data, which include a number of discoveries.
Neotropical species richness is often estimated using accumulation or rarefaction curves and extrapolations based on various methods, but the efficacy of these methods is rarely tested. We used both a time-limited trapping session and previous knowledge of the mammal fauna from a site in French Guiana to validate these different methods. Three currently used extrapolation models were tested on our data. In a 2.5-mo trapping period we caught 75 individuals representing 18 small non-volant mammal species in three different habitats. We found that for comparable trapping efforts, village edges presented a higher abundance and species richness than primary and secondary forests. Species richness extrapolations using current models demonstrated that the exponential dependence model fits the known diversity of the site better, although this model is usually applied to large geographic areas and to relatively poorly documented taxa. Both Clench equation and linear dependence models underestimate small-mammal species richness in our study. We finally emphasize the interest of sampling in such edges surrounded by either primary or secondary forest, to maximize the probability of trapping rare species.
We have investigated the role of smectite clay particles in biofilm formation by several different species of bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). We observed that the presence of clay particles enhances the formation of biofilms and, after 24 h, the bacterial populations in the clay mixtures were greater than the respective populations in media without clay. Smectite-bearing clay slurries uniformly develop bacteria–clay aggregates with a substantial biofilm component within 24 h, while the exclusively bacterial suspensions do not develop any observable biofilm component. The biofilm–clay aggregates vary in size from tens of micrometers to several millimeters. Biofilm formation was evaluated by phase contrast microscopy and fluorescence staining. Biofilm promotion by smectite clays may indicate the importance of transport of bacteria by aerosol dust particles.
An efficient way to increase the operational performance of hot strip mills is to lubricate the work rolls. A
series of tests have been carried out at the hot rolling mill of Chertal (Cockerill-Sambre - Usinor). The
main benefits which have been observed when using lubrication concern the reduction of friction and
of rolling force.