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To evaluate newborn fluoxetine exposure at different period on development and behavior of adult rats.
Male rat pups were randomized to be treated once daily with fluoxetine(s.c.) or saline(s.c.) during postnatal day 1∼7 and postnatal day 8∼21. Recorded the body weight. Starting at 90 days of age, all rats were tested with several experimental facilities, including open field test, elevated-plus maze, novelty- suppressed feeding test and forced swim test.
1 Weight gain of rats with fluoxetine exposure during postnatal day 1∼7 were lower than controls (P<0.05).
2 Exploratory behavior decreased and depression anxiety behavior increased in adult rats with neonatal fluoxetine exposure (P<0.05), and more severe with postnatal day 1∼7 exposure (P<0.05).
Newborn fluoxetine exposure may result badness weight gain and depression anxiety behavior in adult rats, and the earlier exposure may accompany the larger risk.
To explore rearing, coping, attributional style and their relations in depression adolescents.
64 adolescents with depressive disorder and 125 normal subjects of similar age, sex were presented with self-made social demographic scale, Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-own memories of parental rearing practices in childhood (EMBU), Children attributional style questionnaire (CASQ) and Coping style questionnaire.
1. As to EMBU, there was a significant deficit in parental emotional warmth (p< 0.001) with depression adolescents, and whose parental punishment and strict (p< 0.05), rejection and denial (p< 0.001) were higher than normal ones.
2. As to CASQ, the differences were significant in self-blame (p< 0.001), asking for help (p< 0.001), daydreaming (p< 0.001) and recession (p< 0.05).
3. The difference of attributional pattern was significant (p< 0.001).
4. Mather’ emotional warmth and rejection and denial were both related to adolescents’ coping style and attributional style.
Depressive adolescents had negative coping style and attributional style, and mother’ rearing style may has relation with them.
Retreatment of tuberculosis (TB) often fails in China, yet the risk factors associated with the failure remain unclear. To identify risk factors for the treatment failure of retreated pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients, we analyzed the data of 395 retreated PTB patients who received retreatment between July 2009 and July 2011 in China. PTB patients were categorized into ‘success’ and ‘failure’ groups by their treatment outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between treatment outcome and socio-demographic as well as clinical factors. We also created an optimized risk score model to evaluate the predictive values of these risk factors on treatment failure. Of 395 patients, 99 (25·1%) were diagnosed as retreatment failure. Our results showed that risk factors associated with treatment failure included drug resistance, low education level, low body mass index (<18·5), long duration of previous treatment (>6 months), standard treatment regimen, retreatment type, positive culture result after 2 months of treatment, and the place where the first medicine was taken. An Optimized Framingham risk model was then used to calculate the risk scores of these factors. Place where first medicine was taken (temporary living places) received a score of 6, which was highest among all the factors. The predicted probability of treatment failure increases as risk score increases. Ten out of 359 patients had a risk score >9, which corresponded to an estimated probability of treatment failure >70%. In conclusion, we have identified multiple clinical and socio-demographic factors that are associated with treatment failure of retreated PTB patients. We also created an optimized risk score model that was effective in predicting the retreatment failure. These results provide novel insights for the prognosis and improvement of treatment for retreated PTB patients.
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) is a naturally stress-tolerant plant, a major reserve crop and a model for panicoid grasses. The recent completion of the S. italica genome facilitates identification and characterization of WRKY transcription factor family proteins that are important regulators of major plant processes, including growth, development and stress response. The present study identified 103 WRKY transcription factor-encoding genes in the S. italica genome. The genes were named SiWRKY1–SiWRKY103 according to their order on the chromosomes. A comprehensive expression analysis of SiWRKY genes among four different tissues was performed using publicly available RNA sequencing data. Eighty-four SiWRKY genes were more highly expressed in root tissue than in other tissues and nine genes were only expressed in roots. Additionally, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to comprehensively analyse the expression of all SiWRKY genes in response to dehydration. Results indicated that most SiWRKY genes (over 0.8) were up-regulated by drought stress. In conclusion, genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SiWRKY genes provided a set of candidates for cloning and functional analyses in plants’ response to drought stress.
In this paper, a hybrid lattice Boltzmann flux solver (LBFS) is proposed for simulation of viscous compressible flows. In the solver, the finite volume method is applied to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. Different from conventional Navier-Stokes solvers, in this work, the inviscid flux across the cell interface is evaluated by local reconstruction of solution using one-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model, while the viscous flux is still approximated by conventional smooth function approximation. The present work overcomes the two major drawbacks of existing LBFS [28–31], which is used for simulation of inviscid flows. The first one is its ability to simulate viscous flows by including evaluation of viscous flux. The second one is its ability to effectively capture both strong shock waves and thin boundary layers through introduction of a switch function for evaluation of inviscid flux, which takes a value close to zero in the boundary layer and one around the strong shock wave. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the present solver can accurately and effectively simulate hypersonic viscous flows.
In this paper, a switch function-based gas-kinetic scheme (SF-GKS) is presented for the simulation of inviscid and viscous compressible flows. With the finite volume discretization, Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are solved and the SF-GKS is applied to evaluate the inviscid flux at cell interface. The viscous flux is obtained by the conventional smooth function approximation. Unlike the traditional gas-kinetic scheme in the calculation of inviscid flux such as Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS), the numerical dissipation is controlled with a switch function in the present scheme. That is, the numerical dissipation is only introduced in the region around strong shock waves. As a consequence, the present SF-GKS can well capture strong shock waves and thin boundary layers simultaneously. The present SF-GKS is firstly validated by its application to the inviscid flow problems, including 1-D Euler shock tube, regular shock reflection and double Mach reflection. Then, SF-GKS is extended to solve viscous transonic and hypersonic flow problems. Good agreement between the present results and those in the literature verifies the accuracy and robustness of SF-GKS.
Glyphosate is used in the transition zone to control annual bluegrass in fully dormant warm-season grasses. A suspected resistant (R) biotype of annual bluegrass was identified on a golf course in South Carolina after at least 10 consecutive years of glyphosate application. Greenhouse bioassays revealed the R biotype was 4.4-fold resistant to glyphosate compared with a standard susceptible (S) biotype. Further studies were conducted to investigate the mechanism conferring glyphosate resistance in the R biotype. Leaf discs of both biotypes accumulated shikimate in response to increasing glyphosate concentration, but the glyphosate concentration resulting in 50% EPSP synthase inhibition as a result of shikimate accumulation (I50) was 4.2-fold higher in the R biotype compared with the S biotype. At the whole plant level, similar levels of shikimate accumulation were observed between biotypes at 6 and 24 h after treatment (HAT) with glyphosate, but greater shikimate accumulation occurred in the S biotype at 72, 120, and 168 HAT. Shikimate levels decreased in the R biotype after 72 HAT. There were no differences in 14C-glyphosate absorption between biotypes. However, more 14C-glyphosate translocated out of the treated leaf in the R biotype and into root tissues over time compared with the S biotype. Partial sequencing of the EPSP synthase gene revealed a point mutation that resulted in an Ala substitution at Pro106. Although other mechanisms may contribute to glyphosate resistance, these results confirm a Pro106 to Ala substitution is associated with resistance to glyphosate in the R annual bluegrass biotype.
We describe three approaches to identify novel product affordances: affordance of absence; insights from lead users, specifically do-it-yourselfers (DIYers); and natural-language searches. While these approaches were separately pursued, we show their connection to each other in this paper. We begin by describing the affordance of absence, inspired by insights on affordances arising from a lack of resources. For example, in the absence of specialized tools, more general tools are used to accomplish similar tasks. Such absence clarifies how other tools could be modified to add relevant features and identifies critical features of the absent tool. In addition, the temporary removal of physical features and objects enables user interaction in ways that may not emerge in their presence. Affordance of absence has the potential to more fully specify affordances for a given object and to help overcome functional fixedness. For the second approach, we describe insights from DIYers obtained from the “IKEA hackers” online community. We consider DIYers lead users for seeking out and exploiting product affordances, often transforming product functions dramatically. We also discuss their projects through the lens of affordance of absence. For the third approach, we outline our natural-language approach to affordance extraction, beginning with consumer product reviews provided for Canadian Tire, a major Canadian retailer. We describe efforts toward automatically identifying less common affordances, and the use of cue phrases to highlight insightful DIY transformations from the IKEA hackers community. Finally, we comment on the potential value of this work for product design in general.
A boundary condition-implemented immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) is presented in this work. The present approach is an improvement to the conventional IB-LBM. In the conventional IB-LBM, the no-slip boundary condition is only approximately satisfied. As a result, there is flow penetration to the solid boundary. Another drawback of conventional IB-LBM is the use of Dirac delta function interpolation, which only has the first order of accuracy. In this work, the no-slip boundary condition is directly implemented, and used to correct the velocity at two adjacent mesh points from both sides of the boundary point. The velocity correction is made through the second-order polynomial interpolation rather than the first-order delta function interpolation. Obviously, the two drawbacks of conventional IB-LBM are removed in the present study. Another important contribution of this paper is to present a simple way to compute the hydrodynamic forces on the boundary from Newton’s second law. To validate the proposed method, the two-dimensional vortex decaying problem and incompressible flow over a circular cylinder are simulated. As shown in the present results, the flow penetration problem is eliminated, and the obtained results compare very well with available data in the literature.
A lattice Boltzmann flux solver (LBFS) is presented in this work for simulation of incompressible viscous and inviscid flows. The new solver is based on Chapman-Enskog expansion analysis, which is the bridge to link Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations and lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE). The macroscopic differential equations are discretized by the finite volume method, where the flux at the cell interface is evaluated by local reconstruction of lattice Boltzmann solution from macroscopic flow variables at cell centers. The new solver removes the drawbacks of conventional lattice Boltzmann method such as limitation to uniform mesh, tie-up of mesh spacing and time interval, limitation to viscous flows. LBFS is validated by its application to simulate the viscous decaying vortex flow, the driven cavity flow, the viscous flow past a circular cylinder, and the inviscid flow past a circular cylinder. The obtained numerical results compare very well with available data in the literature, which show that LBFS has the second order of accuracy in space, and can be well applied to viscous and inviscid flow problems with non-uniform mesh and curved boundary.
Metal nanoparticle–decorated graphene oxides are promising materials for use in various optoelectronic applications because of their unique plasmonic properties. In this paper, a simple, environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticle–decorated graphene oxide that can be used to improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) is reported. Here, the amino acid glycine is empolyed as an environmentally friendly reducing reagent for the reduction of gold ions in the graphene oxide solutions. Furthermore, these nanocomposites are empolyed as the anode buffer layer in OPVs to trigger surface plasmonic resonance, which improved the efficiency of the OPVs. The results indicate that such nanomaterials appear to have great potential for application in OPVs.
Metal Nickel(Ni) fill becomes the challeng in integrating silicide-last process into CMOS advanced technology with further contact size scaling. In this work, the specific contact resistivity (ρc) of cold titanium(Ti)/Si was investigated by the cross-bridge Kelvin resistor(CBKR) method and compared with that of Ni(Pt)Si/Si. The cold Ti/n+-Si showed comparable contact resistance(ρc∼3x10-8Ω·cm2) to Ni(Pt)Si/ n+-Si, while a larger ρc(7.5x10-1Ω·cm2) for cold Ti formed on B+ doped Si substrates. The cold Ti/Si interface was also discussed. Our results furnish a fresh perspective on the solutions to the metal fill challeng for silicide-last process.
A review of the annual prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a regional hospital in Taiwan revealed a significant increase in the incidence of extensive drug-resistant P. aeruginosa (XDRPA) from 2·1% in 2003 to 5·8% in 2007. The first XDRPA isolate was recovered in 2001 from the emergency ward. The widespread dissemination of XDRPA isolates to more than 10 other wards was discovered the following year. Six pulsotypes of 67 XDRPA isolates from 2006 onwards were identified and 91% were a single strain, suggesting the existence of a hidden outbreak. Prior to the recognition of the outbreak, the majority of cases were not considered to be healthcare-associated infections until molecular evidence was provided. A cohort measure was launched by the infection control practitioners that effectively controlled the outbreak. Patients with XDRPA were mostly referred from neighbouring long-term care facilities, which may have been the reservoir of the XDRPA clone.
This paper at first shows the details of finite volume-based lattice Boltzmann method (FV-LBM) for simulation of compressible flows with shock waves. In the FV-LBM, the normal convective flux at the interface of a cell is evaluated by using one-dimensional compressible lattice Boltzmann model, while the tangential flux is calculated using the same way as used in the conventional Euler solvers. The paper then presents a platform to construct one-dimensional compressible lattice Boltzmann model for its use in FV-LBM. The platform is formed from the conservation forms of moments. Under the platform, both the equilibrium distribution functions and lattice velocities can be determined, and therefore, non-free parameter model can be developed. The paper particularly presents three typical non-free parameter models, D1Q3, D1Q4 and D1Q5. The performances of these three models for simulation of compressible flows are investigated by a brief analysis and their application to solve some one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. Numerical results showed that D1Q3 model costs the least computation time and D1Q4 and D1Q5 models have the wider application range of Mach number. From the results, it seems that D1Q4 model could be the best choice for the FV-LBM simulation of hypersonic flows.
The charge transport properties critically depend on the degree of ordering of the chains in the solid state as well as on the density of chemical or structural defects. In general, goodelectronic performance requires strong electronic coupling between adjace nt molecules in the solid-state that yield strong intermolecular π-overlap. Herein, we newly designed and synthesized organic semiconducting materials having both aryl (Ar) and perfluoroaryl (FAr) as substituents for organic electronics along with molecular packing control. Regarding this molecular design, we hypothesized and expected that the Ar and FAr substituents would induce well-defined π-π stacking structure of charge transport units for high performance organic electronics devices.
To monitor the changing trend of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, a 7-year continuous study was launched in 2001 at the largest tertiary hospital in Taiwan. A significant increase over the study period was evident for ESBL-producing isolates of Escherichia coli (4·8–10·0%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (15·0–23·4%). Molecular investigation conducted in three separate periods revealed the prevalent ESBL types and their genetic relatedness. CTX-M-producing isolates (73·8%) were more prevalent than SHV-type ESBLs (37·0%), the most frequent being CTX-M-14 (34·3%), CTX-M-3 (25·9%), and SHV-12 (25·7%). However, a marked increase of CTX-M-15-producing isolates from 2·1% in 2002 to 29·6% in 2007 was also noted. The increase of ESBL-producing isolates in both species may be mainly due to the horizontal transmission of resistance plasmids, while clonal expansion of some epidemic strains further added to the dispersion of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae.