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Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) of parents are associated with a variety of negative health outcomes in offspring. Little is known about the mechanisms by which ACEs are transmitted to the next generation. Given that maternal depression and anxiety are related to ACEs and negatively affect children’s behaviour, these exposures may be pathways between maternal ACEs and child psychopathology. Child sex may modify these associations. Our objectives were to determine: (1) the association between ACEs and children’s behaviour, (2) whether maternal symptoms of prenatal and postnatal depression and anxiety mediate the relationship between maternal ACEs and children’s behaviour, and (3) whether these relationships are moderated by child sex. Pearson correlations and latent path analyses were undertaken using data from 907 children and their mothers enrolled the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study. Overall, maternal ACEs were associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression during the perinatal period, and externalizing problems in children. Furthermore, we observed indirect associations between maternal ACEs and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems via maternal anxiety and depression. Sex differences were observed, with boys demonstrating greater vulnerability to the indirect effects of maternal ACEs via both anxiety and depression. Findings suggest that maternal mental health may be a mechanism by which maternal early life adversity is transmitted to children, especially boys. Further research is needed to determine if targeted interventions with women who have both high ACEs and mental health problems can prevent or ameliorate the effects of ACEs on children’s behavioural psychopathology.
Ecoevolutionary processes affecting hosts, vectors and pathogens are important drivers of zoonotic disease emergence. In this study, we focused on nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) whose natural reservoir is the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. We questioned the possibility of NE emergence in a French region that is considered to be NE-free but that is adjacent to a NE-endemic region. We first confirmed the epidemiology of these two regions and we demonstrated the absence of spatial barriers that could have limited dispersal, and consequently, the spread of PUUV into the NE-free region. We next tested whether regional immunoheterogeneity could impact PUUV chances to circulate and persist in the NE-free region. We showed that bank voles from the NE-free region were sensitive to experimental PUUV infection. We observed high levels of immunoheterogeneity between individuals and also between regions. Antiviral gene expression (Tnf and Mx2) reached higher levels in bank voles from the NE-free region. During experimental infections, anti-PUUV antibody production was higher in bank voles from the NE-endemic region. These results indicated a lower susceptibility to PUUV for bank voles from this NE-free region, which might limit PUUV persistence and therefore, the risk of NE.
We report on the long term X-ray monitoring with Swift, RXTE, Suzaku, Chandra, and XMM-Newton of the outburst of the newly discovered magnetar Swift J1822.3–1606 (SGR 1822-1606), from the first observations soon after the detection of the short X-ray bursts which led to its discovery (July 2011), through the first stages of its outburst decay (April 2012). Our X-ray timing analysis finds the source rotating with a period of P = 8.43772016(2) s and a period derivative Ṗ = 8.3(2) × 10−14 ss−1, which entails an inferred dipolar surface magnetic field of B ≃ 2.7 × 1013 G at the equator. This measurement makes Swift J1822.3–1606 the second lowest magnetic field magnetar (after SGR 0418+5729; Rea et al. 2010). Following the flux and spectral evolution from the beginning of the outburst, we find that the flux decreased by about an order of magnitude, with a subtle softening of the spectrum, both typical of the outburst decay of magnetars. By modeling the secular thermal evolution of Swift J1822.3–1606, we find that the observed timing properties of the source, as well as its quiescent X-ray luminosity, can be reproduced if it was born with a poloidal and crustal toroidal fields of Bp ~ 1.5 × 1014 G and Btor ~ 7 × 1014 G, respectively, and if its current age is ~550 kyr (Rea et al. 2012).
Amiodarone can induce severe hyperthyroidism that justifies its withdrawal and the introduction of antithyroid drugs. Continuing amiodarone use, failure to control hyperthyroidism and poor clinical progress may require thyroidectomy. This study aimed to evaluate patients’ post-operative development and mid-term outcome after thyroidectomy for amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis.
Prospective case series.
Tertiary care centre.
Subjects and methods:
We prospectively collected cases of amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis requiring thyroidectomy due to failure of antithyroid treatment, despite amiodarone discontinuation. Post-thyroidectomy complications were compared immediately, 30 days and one year post-operatively, and also for scheduled versus emergency surgery cases.
Of 11 total cases, nine scheduled thyroidectomy cases had no morbidity after elective surgery. Two cases required emergency surgery for multiple organ failure and cardiac problems. Immediate post-operative complications (mostly haemodynamic) occurred in both cases (emergency vs routine surgery, p = 0.018).
In such cases, pre-operative medical treatment is vital to limit peri- and post-operative complications, but surgery should not be delayed if the haemodynamic status deteriorates. Surgery, with careful anaesthesia, is the cornerstone of the treatment.
Multiphoton absorption has become a powerful technique for the creation of three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures. Here we review some of our recent progress towards creating functional microdevices with multiphoton absorption. Specific thrusts of our research include development of new resins for multiphoton absorption polymerization, design of novel schemes for metal deposition, and post-fabrication ablation of polymeric structures.
The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns in a representative sample from Puna and Quebrada of Humahuaca, Jujuy, Argentina. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in a representative sample (n 1236) of individuals from these regions. For the present study, only children aged 2–9 years (n 360), adolescents aged 10–18 years (n 223) and adults aged 18 years or over (n 465) were considered. Breast-fed children, pregnant women and lactating women were excluded. Dietary data collection methods comprised one 24 h recall and a semi-quantitative FFQ. We used principal component (PC) analyses to identify prevailing dietary patterns. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the determinants of the identified dietary patterns. Two dominant PC were identified: PC1 reflected a ‘Western-like’ diet with an emphasis on not-autochthon foods. This pattern tended to be present in urban areas of the Quebrada region and was associated with a younger age, a higher level of development, and a worse diet quality. PC2 reflected an ‘Andean-like’ diet including a variety of autochthon crops. This was preferred by individuals living in rural areas from Puna with a high level of development during the post-harvest season, and was associated with a greater diet quality. These results suggest that the nutrition transition phenomenon is a reality in certain sectors of this population and might be one of the leading causes of the observed double burden of malnutrition.
In the current cosmological scenario, part of the linearly polarized
emission of the CMB is expected to be rotational (B-modes). This
component is due to tensor perturbations of the metric produced by
primordial gravitational waves, which are generated a split-second after the
Big Bang. The signal expected is of the order of ≲ 0.1 μK, well below the non-rotational component of the polarization
signal (E-modes), and beyond the sensitivity of present generation
instruments. New, more sensitive instruments are developed in
several labs, with the goal to measure the B-modes. Control of
systematics and foregrounds will be the key to make the results of
these experiments believable. In this paper we shortly outline
BRAIN, a bolometric interferometer devoted to B-modes research,
and its pathfinder experiment, devoted to test the Dome-C site.
Structural and ferromagnetic transitions in shape memory Ni–Mn–Ga alloys and their martensitic structure and microstructure were found to be strongly influenced by rapid quenching from the liquid state and by subsequent aging. Detailed calorimetric and magnetic measurements, dynamic mechanical analysis, and transmission electron microscopy observations were performed to characterize the transformation behavior of thin ribbons compared to the bulk materials. The rapid quenching caused the decrease of the ferromagnetic, martensitic, and premartensitic transformation temperatures, as well as of the saturation magnetization, while the subsequent annealing brought about an increase of the depressed values. This influence was attributed to quenched-in short-range chemical disorder within sublattices, the ordering being improved by a vacancy migration mechanism upon subsequent annealing.
Ferrofluids are colloidal solutions of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles
in either a
polar or no polar liquid. We present here two biological applications using maghemite
(γFe2O3) ferrofluids: magnetic cell sorting and magnetocytolysis.
The first application employs magnetic particles binding a biological effector, which
is capable to recognize the target cells specifically. These cells become magnetic and can
be sorted in a gradient of magnetic field. We describe first the various steps of the
synthesis of a biocompatible ferrofluid and the grafting an effector protein onto the
particles. We then describe the use of particles carrying annexin V in the separation and
quantification of damaged erythrocytes in blood samples. This very sensitive technique can
be used to follow the erythrocytes ageing of normal blood samples during their storage
under blood bank conditions or to detect the membrane modifications that are associated
with some pathologies such as malaria or Alzheimer's disease.
The dependence of the magnetic susceptibility versus the frequency is a way to
transform magnetic energy into thermal energy. Magnetocytolysis is the destruction of
cells, carrying magnetic particles, through the action of an alternating magnetic field (about
1 MHz). We present here preliminary experiments with macrophages, which demonstrate
the method's feasibility and the formation of the non-specific interactions between the cells
and the magnetic particles.
This study was performed to examine the main characteristics of the French Romulus twin population: zygosity, chorionicity, sex, term and birthweight. A sample of 104 pairs of twins was distinguished by zygosity, chorionicity and sex, and divided into concordant and discordant birthweight groups. Fifty-three % (n = 55) of the fetus pairs studied were born at “ideal term” (35-38 weeks), and 25% (n = 26) were delivered at “preterm” (28-34 weeks). The very preterm (< 28 weeks), and “postterm” (> 38 weeks) represented altogether 22% (n = 23) of the sample. Of the 104 twin pairs, 68% (n = 71) differ by less than 15% in birthweight, and 32% (n = 33) have a birthweight difference higher than 15%. In dizygotic (DZ) pairs females had more tendency to be in the discordant group (p = 0.01) while in monochorionic-monozygotic (MC-MZ) pairs males were more discordant (p = 0.07). We found a significant interaction between sex and zygosity type (p = 0.02). Males had a birthweight difference significantly weaker than that of females in dichorionic-monozygotic (DC-MZ) and DZ twins whereas it was higher than that of females in MC-MZ twins. There were no MZ twin pairs with DC placentation over than 15% birthweight difference. Log linear analysis demonstrated a three-way interaction (p < 0.05) between term type, zygosity type and hypotrophy. Our data indicate that in the group of twins born between 35 and 38 weeks' gestation the crucial question still remains unsettled on how term and birhweight are related to zygotism and/or chorionicity.
Parents of a sample of 76 same sexed pairs of twins aged 3 to 9 months completed a mailed similarity questionnaire. It included the Bonnelykke et al.'s questionnaire and a four anthropological variable scale. To improve each of these two methods, three other combined methods were carried out and results were compared with the biological zygosity diagnosis. The Bonnelykke et al.'s classification combined with anthropological scale (method 4) gave only 1.2% misclassified in the whole sample. It is concluded that zygosity diagnosis using this type of procedure to distinguish MZ and DZ pairs would be important not only for epidemiological study but also for pediatricians and parents.
A multitude of life-threatening and nonlife-threatening processes cause chest pain and shortness of breath. Prehospital therapy for these patients may be lifesaving and includes pharmacologic interventions, as well as invasive procedures. Appropriate therapy depends on the diagnostic skills of the paramedic.
This study was undertaken to determine the accuracy of the paramedic diagnosis in patients transported with a chief complaint of pain or shortness of breath.
Multihospital, one large municipal hospital, one community hospital.
Prospective, cross-sectional study. Paramedics evaluated the patient and then completed a standard form indicating the diagnosis. The paramedic's and final emergency physician's diagnoses were compared to assess the accuracy of the paramedic diagnosis.
All patients who complained of chest pain or shortness of breath, transported to the study centers by the city of Denver paramedia, were eligible for the study. Ninety-nine of the 102 patients enrolled had complete records for analysis and were entered into the study.
Diagnostic concordance data were analyzed by organ system (e.g., cardiac, pulmonary, etc.) and for specific diagnoses using the kappa statistic and McNemar's chi-square analysis for discordant pairs. Using the kappa statistic, there was statistically significant concordance between the paramedic and emergency-physician diagnosis for cardiac (p = 0.0001; kappa value = 0.54) and pulmonary organ systems (p = 0.0001; kappa value = 0.61). Overall, for organ system diagnosis, the paramedics had an 82% accuracy (p = 0.05) rating. For specific cardiac and pulmonary diagnosis, paramedics had good concordance with emergency physicians.
Overall, paramedia have excellent diagnosis by organ system. They retained good agreement on specific cardiac diagnoses and pulmonary diagnosis.
Millimetre-sized flakes of a homogeneous, high layer charge vermiculite from S. Olalla (Spain) saturated with l'ornithine cations were made to swell in l'ornithine hydrochloride solutions of various concentrations, and the gel-like structures formed were subjected to uniaxial loads up to 150 g/cm2. Small-angle X-ray diffraction measurements from the swollen flakes show well-modulated intensity patterns from which the equilibrium interlayer distances were obtained for the various swelling conditions. The interlayer spacings can be adequately expressed as normal-logarithmic distribution functions of probability density. The gel texture is described in terms of the average number of elementary layers, all in parallel orientation, constituting independent coherent domains within the swollen flake. Changes in structure and in texture taking place as the gel volume increases, or as water is expelled from the interlayer volume under mechanical compression, are followed by the variation of the corresponding parameters of order.
Par diffraction des Rayons X sur la vermiculite-Li de Santa-Olalla, il a été montré en fonction de la température qu'il existait différentes phases homogènes (d001 = 12·17 Å, T = 25°C; d001 = 12·02 Å, T = 60°C; d001 = 11·89 Å, T = 70°C; d001 = 10·04 Å, T = 100°C). Par ailleurs, pendant le processus de déshydratation entre les phases homogènes à 11·89 Å et 10·04 Å, il a été mis en évidence l'apparition d'états inhomogènes (interstratifiés). L'utilisation parallèle des méthodes directes d'étude des diagrammes de rayons X par transformée de Fourier monodimentionnelle pour les phases homogènes et d'une méthode indirecte de modélisation pour les états interstratifiés a permis de montrer que le passage de la phase 11·89 Å à la phase 10·04 Å se fait conjointement par une ségrégation de ces phases et un interstratifié aléatoire (11·89–10·04). Ce travail a en outre montré que la caractérisation des états intermédiaires entre phases homogènes ne peut être faite sans une étude structurale préalable des phases homogènes.
Single-phased films of α-Ti1−x Nx, ∊-Ti2Nx, or δ-TiNx with a homogeneous composition on more than 400 nm were produced by ion implantation at several different energies in the TiAl6V4 alloy. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) profiles and ionic images recorded within the tracks after incremented cycles of friction against a 35NCD16 steel ball in air have shown that a Ti–O–C–N film is progressively formed on the surface of α solid solutions, while more concentrated nitride films resist oxidation. The friction and abrasion resistances of ∊ or δ nitride films are initially improved for a time lasting for as long as their N content increases, but they are finally self-destroying. On the contrary, the hardening effect of N in an α-Ti matrix keeps a really severe amount of abrasion from occurring during running in of the implanted surface, without suppressing the building up of a lubricant oxide hardened by N.
Mineralogical and chemical examination of Tertiary interbasaltic clays from the Faeroe Islands revealed three types of alteration of volcanic tufts and basalts: (1) Argillization of volcanic tuffs within a lacustrine environment resulted in the formation of aluminous beidellites and metahalloysites; these clays are associated with extensive coal layers at Suduroy. (2) Argillization of volcanic tuffs due to hydrothermal action resulted in the formation of thick layers of ferriferous beidellites associated with small amounts of hematite and zeolite (e.g. at Nolsoy). (3) Meteoric alteration of volcanic tufts and basalts, which took place under hot climatic conditions and contrasting seasons, led to the development of ferriferous and aluminous-ferriferous beidellites, metahalloysite, kaolinite, hematite and goethite in low (Høv profile) or high (Øravik profile) topographical positions. The three processes occurred individually or were superimposed.
Present-day marine sediments around the emerged basaltic areas of Iceland and the Faeroe Islands are characterized by the abundance and predominance of smectites. Smectites increase regularly and systematically near volcanic areas. Their origin from (i) meteoric/deuteric weathering, (ii) hydrothermal products, (iii) neoformation in the marine environment or (iv) transformation during their transport to or stay in oceanic regions is considered in a comparative study of three types of environments on or near the Faeroe Islands. These are (1) a basaltic environment where phyllite minerals of deuteric and hydrothermal origin are abundant; (2) a soil environment formed on basaltic flows; (3) a marine sedimentary environment within adjacent sedimentary basins. This investigation clearly shows the link between hydrothermal and deuteric saponite-celadonite in basalt, Fe,Mg-smectite in Faeroe soils and Fe-smectite in marine sediments.
Comme la plupart des vermiculites, l'hydrate à une couche de la vermiculite-Na (d001 = 11·85 Å) présente une structure semi-ordonnée, avec des défauts d'empilement (glissements selon l'axe b). Le plan (h0l)* du réseau réciproque est entièrement discret, tandis que les rangées n'appartenant pas à ce plan sont plus ou moins diffuses dans la direction c*. La projection x0z est obtenue par une classique analyse de Fourier bidimensionelle. Dans les plans (0kl)* et (1kl)*, certaines rangées semblent presque discrètes: ceci permet d'essayer de déterminer la translation selon l'axe 0y entre deux feuillets adjacents. Le calcul des intensités des diffusions le long des rangées des plans (0kl)* et (1kl)* conduit à ne retenir qu'un seul modèle. Le désordre résulte d'une distribution aléatoire de trois translations parallèles à l'axe Oy: l'une est nulle et les deux autres sont de +0·307b et −0·307b. Le principal intérêt de ce travail est de présenter une nouvelle méthode d'approche pour l'étude des structures semi-ordonnées.
La mesure de l'intensité à l'échelle absolue consiste à déterminer le pouvoir diffusant de l'objet rapporté au motif élémentaire de la structure, c'est-à-dire exprimé en nombre d'électrons libres équivalents diffusant indépendamment et qui donnerait, en chaque point de l'espace réciproque, le même effet que l'objet. Les avantages de cette méthode sont les suivants: (i) elle permet de corriger la courbe expérimentale de la diffusion incohérente et ainsi d'augmenter le nombre de réflexions quantitativement exploitables; (ii) elle permet une meilleure caractérisation de la nature des défauts structuraux et, pour des systèmes hétérogènes tels que des particules en suspensions, elle rend possible la séparation des effets de diffraction spécifiques de chaque phase; (iii) elle rend possible l'interprétation des fonds de diffusion. Ces propriétés sont illustrées sur quelques exemples d'application (kaolinite, sépiolite mal cristallisée et suspension de montmorillonite-Na dans l'eau).
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