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For their glucose supply, ruminants are highly dependent on the endogenous synthesis in the liver, but despite the numerous studies that evaluated hepatic glucose production, very few simultaneously measured hepatic glucose production and uptake of all precursors. As a result, the variability of precursor conversion into glucose in the liver is not known. The present study aimed at investigating by meta-analysis the relationships between hepatic glucose net release and uptake of precursors. We used the FLuxes of nutrients across Organs and tissues in Ruminant Animals database, which gathers international results on net nutrient fluxes at splanchnic level measured in catheterized animals. Response equations were developed for intakes up to 41 g DM intake/kg BW per day of diets varying from 0 to 100 g of concentrate/100 g DM in the absence of additives. The net hepatic uptake of propionate, α-amino-N and l-lactate was linearly and better related to their net portal appearance (NPA) than to their afferent hepatic flux. Blood flow data were corrected for lack of deacetylation of the para-aminohippuric acid, and this correction was shown to impact the response equations. To develop response equations between the availability of precursors (portal appearance and hepatic uptake) and net glucose hepatic release, missing data on precursor fluxes were predicted from dietary characteristics using previously developed response equations. Net hepatic release of glucose was curvilinearly related to hepatic supply and uptake of the sum of precursors, suggesting a lower conversion rate of precursors at high precursor supply. Factors of variation were explored for the linear portion of this relationship, which applied to NPA of precursors ranging from 0.99 to 9.60 mmol C/kg BW per h. Hepatic release of glucose was shown to be reduced by the portal absorption of glucose from diets containing bypass starch and to be increased by an increased uptake of β-hydroxybutyrate indicative of higher body tissue mobilization. These relationships were affected by the physiological status of the animals. In conclusion, we established equations that quantify the net release of glucose by the liver from the net availability of precursors. They provide a quantitative overview of factors regulating hepatic glucose synthesis in ruminants. These equations can be linked with the predictions of portal absorption of nutrients from intake and dietary characteristics, and provide indications of glucose synthesis from dietary characteristics.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this project is to determine whether HRV, collected peri-operatively, is predictive of cognitive decline among older adults who undergo elective surgery/anesthesia. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This project is a part of the ongoing INTUIT/PRIME study, which is collecting pre- and post-operative cognitive testing, fMRI imaging, CSF samples, and EEG recordings from 200 older adults (age ≥ 60) undergoing elective non-cardiac/non-neurologic surgery scheduled to last > 2 hours at Duke University Medical Center and Duke Regional Hospital. This project utilizes data from the first 60 INTUIT participants who contributed continuous heart rate data before and during surgery. Participants undergo cognitive testing prior to surgery (baseline) and at 6 weeks after surgery. Our primary dependent variable is the change in the composite score from baseline to 6-weeks. Delirium is assessed in the hospital with the twice daily 3D-CAM tool, so we will report the proportion of individuals with 6-week cognitive decline who exhibited delirium in the days following surgery. Participants’ echocardiogram (ECG) recordings are extracted pre- and intraoperatively from B650/B850 patient monitors with VSCapture software. HRV is defined as the variability between successive R-spikes or inter-beat-intervals on ECG. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that lower intraoperative HRV is associated with worse cognitive decline at 6 weeks after surgery. As secondary objectives, we will determine whether pre-operative HRV or change in HRV (from pre-operative to intra-operative measures) are predictive of cognitive decline after surgery. We expect that in-hospital delirium will be detected in a higher proportion of those with 6-week cognitive decline, compared to those with stable or improved cognition at 6 weeks. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: HRV may address the present need for pre- and intra-operative cognitive risk stratification in the elderly. Physiological indices like HRV have the potential to dramatically change our understanding of CI in older adults undergoing surgery, as they offer an accessible, cost-effective, and non-invasive means whereby clinicians, particularly those unfamiliar with the nuances of geriatric and CI/dementia-related care, can monitor patients and refer those at high-risk of CI after surgery for early intervention.
We present ALMA band 7 data of the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6. In addition to lines of CO and its isotopologues, the circumstellar envelope also exhibits a number of emission lines due to metal-containing molecules, e.g., NaCl and KCl. A lack of C18O is expected, but a non-detection of C17O is puzzling given the strengths of H217O in Herschel spectra of the star. However, a line associated with Si17O is detected. We also report a tentative detection of a gas-phase emission line of MgS. The ALMA spectrum of this object reveals intriguing features which may be used to investigate chemical processes and dust formation during a high mass-loss phase.
The integrated care in dual diagnosis units involves selecting pharmacological treatment strategies for both substance use disorder and the non-addictive psychiatric disorder. It is recommended to choose drugs with a favorable balance between efficacy/tolerability, an adequate side effects profile and the minimal drug interactions.
Objectives and aims
To evaluate the tolerability and side effects after first administration-first dose of an extended-release injectable suspension of aripiprazole in a group of patients admitted to an acute dual diagnosis unit.
The study included a series of patients admitted in our unit from May to August 2015 that received the first dose of the aripiprazole preparation (400 mg). Evaluations included different scales for side effects (SAS, ESRS, UKU) and the clinical global impression scale (CGI).
A total of 9 patients were included and evaluated (all men, mean age: 39-years-old). Diagnoses were: bipolar disorder (5/9), schizophrenia (2/9), schizoaffective disorder (1/9) and delusional disorder (1/9) with concomitant substance use disorder (6 cannabis, 2 alcohol, 1 cocaine). All of them without outpatient control and treatment at admission. The results of the clinical scales conclude that none of them had significant side effects, including extrapyramidal, with an improvement in the ICG scale.
Tolerability of extended-release injectable suspension of aripiprazole was good in all cases. In the future, new cases should be included to extend the sample and to evaluate other aspects such as the craving for substances.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Describe the distinguishing characteristics between patients with early onset of alcohol use (EARLY, age < 15) and late onset of alcohol use (LATE, age > 16), both affected of acute non-substance use psychiatric disorders (non-SUD) and any substance use disorder admitted in a dual diagnosis unit.
Material and methods
Data on demographic, family, and clinical factors were gathered among subjects admitted to our dual diagnosis unit along three years, all of them meeting DSM-IV criteria of any non-substance related Axis I or II disorder and comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS program.
We show results of 748 patients (437 of EARLY group and 311 of LATE group). Predominantly male (73,53%) with a mean age of 39,60 ± 9,7 years. Most prevalent non-SUD psychiatric disorders were psychotic disorder (39,97%) and personality disorder (39,30%). In our sample, most common substances of abuse were Alcohol (45,05%) and Cocaine (30,35%). EARLY patients had an earlier first contact all substances as well as an earlier age of problematic consumption of cocaine, alcohol, opioids and nicotine; they also had major prevalence of opioid SUD, sedatives SUD and amphetamines SUD (see Tables 1, 2 and 3).
Patients who began earlier their consumptions of alcohol had major prevalence of opioid, sedatives and amphetamine use. They also had earlier consumptions of other substances and earlier problematic consumptions of cocaine, alcohol, opioids and nicotine, what probably means greater severity of drug addiction in the long run.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
For energy feeding systems for ruminants to evolve towards a nutrient-based system, dietary energy supply has to be determined in terms of amount and nature of nutrients. The objective of this study was to establish response equations of the net hepatic flux and net splanchnic release of acetate, butyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate to changes in diet and animal profiles. A meta-analysis was applied on published data compiled from the FLuxes of nutrients across Organs and tissues in Ruminant Animals database, which pools the results from international publications on net splanchnic nutrient fluxes measured in multi-catheterized ruminants. Prediction variables were identified from current knowledge on digestion, hepatic and other tissue metabolism. Subsequently, physiological and other, more integrative, predictors were obtained. Models were established for intakes up to 41 g dry matter per kg BW per day and diets containing up to 70 g concentrate per 100 g dry matter. Models predicted the net hepatic fluxes or net splanchnic release of each nutrient from its net portal appearance and the animal profile. Corrections were applied to account for incomplete hepatic recovery of the blood flow marker, para-aminohippuric acid. Changes in net splanchnic release (mmol/kg BW per hour) could then be predicted by combining the previously published net portal appearance models and the present net hepatic fluxes models. The net splanchnic release of acetate and butyrate were thus predicted from the intake of ruminally fermented organic matter (RfOM) and the nature of RfOM (acetate: residual mean square error (RMSE)=0.18; butyrate: RMSE=0.01). The net splanchnic release of β-hydroxybutyrate was predicted from RfOM intake and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.035), or from the net portal appearance of butyrate and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.050). Models obtained were independent of ruminant species, and presented low interfering factors on the residuals, least square means or individual slopes. The model equations highlighted the importance of considering the physiological state of animals when predicting splanchnic metabolism. This work showed that it is possible to use simple predictors to accurately predict the amount and nature of ketogenic nutrients released towards peripheral tissues in both sheep and cattle at different physiological status. These results provide deeper insight into biological processes and will contribute to the development of improved tools for dietary formulation.
We present the optical/infrared counterpart to GT0106+613, a transient gamma-ray source believed to be a blazar. Long-term differential photometry and satellite information was used to confirm the variability in optical/infrared wavelengths, correlated with gamma-ray flares from the source. An intense optical flare with no counterpart in gamma-rays is also remarkable.
Hot Jupiters (HJs) are usually defined as giant Jovian-size planets with orbital periods P⩽10 days. Although they lie close to the star, several have finite eccentricities and significant misalignment angle with respect to the stellar equator, leading to ~20% of HJs in retrograde orbits. More than half, however, seem consistent with near-circular and planar orbits. In recent years, two mechanisms have been proposed to explain the excited and misaligned subpopulation of HJs: Lidov–Kozai migration and planet–planet scattering. Although both are based on completely different dynamical phenomena, at first hand they appear to be equally effective in generating hot planets. Nevertheless, there has been no detailed analysis comparing the predictions of both mechanisms, especially with respect to the final distribution of orbital characteristics. In this paper, we present a series of numerical simulations of Lidov–Kozai trapping of single planets in compact binary systems that suffered a close fly-by of a background star. Both the planet and the binary component are initially placed in coplanar orbits, although the inclination of the impactor is assumed random. After the passage of the third star, we follow the orbital and spin evolution of the planet using analytical models based on the octupole expansion of the secular Hamiltonian. We also include tidal effects, stellar oblateness and post-Newtonian perturbations. The present work aims at the comparison of the two mechanisms (Lidov–Kozai and planet–planet scattering) as an explanation for the excited and inclined HJs in binary systems. We compare the results obtained through this paper with results in Beaugé & Nesvorný (2012), where the authors analyse how the planet–planet scattering mechanisms works in order to form this hot Jovian-size planets. We find that several of the orbital characteristics of the simulated HJs are caused by tidal trapping from quasi-parabolic orbits, independent of the driving mechanism (planet–planet scattering or Lidov–Kozai migration). These include both the 3-day pile-up and the distribution in the eccentricity versus semimajor axis plane. However, the distribution of the inclinations shows significant differences. While Lidov–Kozai trapping favours a more random distribution (or even a preference for near polar orbits), planet–planet scattering shows a large portion of bodies nearly aligned with the equator of the central star. This is more consistent with the distribution of known hot planets, perhaps indicating that scattering may be a more efficient mechanism for producing these bodies.
The variability of larval excretion impedes the parasitological diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis in infected individuals. We assessed the number of larvae excreted per gram (LPG) stool in 219 samples from 38 infected individuals over 7 consecutive days before and in 470 samples from 44 persons for 21 consecutive days after ivermectin treatment (200 μg kg−1 BW). The diagnostic sensitivity of a single stool sample was about 75% for individuals with low-intensity infections (⩽1 LPG) and increased to 95% for those with high-intensity infections (⩾10 LPG). Doubling the number of samples examined per person increased sensitivity to more than 95%, even for low-intensity infections. There was no indication of a cyclic excretion of larvae. After treatment, all individuals stopped excreting larvae within 3 days. Larvae were not detected during any of the following 18 days (total 388 Baermann and 388 Koga Agar tests). Two stool samples, collected on consecutive days, are recommended in settings where low or heterogeneous infection intensities are likely. In this way, taking into account the possible biological variability in excretion, the efficacy of ivermectin treatment can be assessed as soon as 4 days after treatment.
Alfalfa is a model plant defined as less sensitive than others to iron (Fe) deficiency. In the present work, some mechanisms induced in low Fe availability conditions were studied, including the effect of inoculation of alfalfa seeds with Pseudomonas putida. The effect of different Fe contents in the nutrient solution on the growth parameters was evaluated at 3 and 10 days, observing that low Fe conditions promoted biomass accumulation. Activation in the mechanisms of Fe acquisition, through acidification of the media and an increase in the ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity, was observed in the absence of Fe at 10 days. The presence of P. putida KT2442 in the rhizosphere eliminated FCR activation through the excretion of siderophores. The effect of the siderophores on the modulation of FCR activity was demonstrated using a ppsD mutant strain, unable to segregate them, observing an activation of the activity similar to that observed in the absence of the bacteria. This, together with the demonstrated mechanisms to increase Fe availability, contributed to the conclusion that alfalfa can be used for recovery programmes of soils with low Fe availability.
Sea ice microalgae actively contribute to the pool of dissolved organic matter (DOM) available for bacterial metabolism, but this link has historically relied on bulk correlations between chlorophyll a (a surrogate for algal biomass) and bacterial abundance. We incubated microbes from both the bottom (congelation layer) and surface brine region of Antarctic fast ice for nine days. Algal-derived DOM was manipulated by varying the duration of irradiance, restricting photosynthesis with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or incubating in the dark. The bacterial response to changes in DOM availability was examined by performing cell counts, quantifying bacterial metabolic activity and examining community composition with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The percentage of metabolically active bacteria was relatively low in the surface brine microcosm (10–20% of the bacterial community), the treatment with DCMU indirectly restricted bacterial growth and there was some evidence for changes in community structure. Metabolic activity was higher (35–69%) in the bottom ice microcosm, and while there was no variation in community structure, bacterial growth was restricted in the treatment with DCMU compared to the light/dark treatment. These results are considered preliminary, but provide a useful illustration of sea ice microbial dynamics beyond the use of ‘snapshot’ biomass correlations.
This study describes the results of the health programme implemented in the Valencian Community (Spain) to achieve an early diagnosis of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin American women and their newborns. During 2009 and 2010, 1975 women living in the health districts of three university hospitals were enrolled via midwives or at the time of delivery. Diagnosis of disease was performed using two serological tests with different antigens. Congenital infection was diagnosed by parasitological, molecular or serological methods from blood samples obtained at birth or in subsequent controls. The overall seroprevalence of Chagas infection in pregnant women from 16 different endemic countries was 11·4%. Infection was higher in those from countries in the Gran Chaco Region (Bolivia, 34·1%; Paraguay, 7·4%; Argentina, 5·3%). Eight newborn infants from Bolivian mothers had congenital Chagas which represents a vertical transmission rate of 3·7%. In conclusion, this work supports the benefits of offering an early diagnosis to pregnant women and newborns during routine prenatal healthcare.
A total of 111 clinical and environmental O1, O139 and non-O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated between 1978 and 2008 from different geographical areas were typed using a combination of methods: antibiotic susceptibility, biochemical test, serogroup, serotype, biotype, sequences containing variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) and virulence genes ctxA and tcpA amplification. As a result of the performed typing work, the strains were organized into four clusters: cluster A1 included clinical O1 Ogawa and O139 serogroup strains (ctxA+ and tcpA+); cluster A2 included clinical non-O1/O139 strains (ctxA− and tcpA−), as well as environmental O1 Inaba and non-O1/O139 strains (ctxA− and tcpA−/tcpA+); cluster B1 contained two clinical O1 strains and environmental non-O1/O139 strains (ctxA− and tcpA+/tcpA−); cluster B2 contained clinical O1 Inaba and Ogawa strains (ctxA+ and tcpA+). The results of this work illustrate the advantage of combining several typing methods to discriminate between clinical and environmental V. cholerae strains.
Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in plasma at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and increased numbers of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli were detected in overweight compared with normal-weight pregnant women. E. coli numbers were higher in women with excessive weight gain than in women with normal weight gain during pregnancy, while Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia muciniphila showed an opposite trend. In the whole population, increased total bacteria and Staphylococcus numbers were related to increased plasma cholesterol levels. Increased Bacteroides numbers were related to increased HDL-cholesterol and folic acid levels, and reduced TAG levels. Increased Bifidobacterium numbers were related to increased folic acid levels. Increased Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli numbers were related to increased ferritin and reduced transferrin, while Bifidobacterium levels showed the opposite trend. Therefore, gut microbiota composition is related to body weight, weight gain and metabolic biomarkers during pregnancy, which might be of relevance to the management of the health of women and infants.
To investigate relationships between rates of antimicrobial consumption and the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitals.
We conducted an observational study that used retrospective data from 2002 and linear regression to model relationships. Hospitals were asked to collect data on consecutive S. aureus and P. aeruginosa isolates, consumption rates for antibiotics (ie, anti-infectives for systemic use as defined by Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical class J01), and hospital characteristics, including infection control policies. Rates of methicillin resistance in S. aureus and rates of ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin resistance in P. aeruginosa were expressed as the percentage of isolates that were nonsusceptible (ie, either resistant or intermediately susceptible) and as the incidence of nonsuceptible isolates (ie, the number of nonsuceptible isolates recovered per 1,000 patient-days). The rate of antimicrobial consumption was expressed as the number of defined daily doses per 1,000 patient-days.
Data were obtained from 47 French hospitals, and a total of 12,188 S. aureus isolates and 6,370 P. aeruginosa isolates were tested.
In the multivariate analysis, fewer antimicrobials showed a significant association between the consumption rate and the percentage of isolates that were resistant than an association between the consumption rate and the incidence of resistance. The overall rate of antibiotic consumption, not including the antibiotics used to treat methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection, explained 13% of the variance between hospitals in the incidence of methicillin resistance among S. aureus isolates. The incidence of methicillin resistance in S. aureus isolates increased with the use of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin and with the percentage of the hospital's beds located in intensive care units (adjusted multivariate coefficient of determination [aR2], 0.30). For P. aeruginosa, the incidence of ceftazidime resistance was greater in hospitals with higher consumption rates for ceftazidime, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (aR2, 0.37). The incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance increased with the use of fluoroquinolones and with the percentage of a hospital's beds located in intensive care (aR2, 0.28).
A statistically significant relationship existed between the rate of fluoroquinolone use and the rate of antimicrobial resistance among S. aureus and P. aeruginosa isolates. The incidence of resistant isolates showed a stronger association with the rate of antimicrobial use than did the percentage of isolates with resistance.
The radio stars ABDor A and ABDor B (=Rst137B) are the main components of the ABDoradus system. Both stars are double (ABDor A/ABDor C and ABDor Ba/ABDor Bb) and usual targets of astrometric instruments at optical (Hipparcos), infrared (VLT), and radio (VLBI) wavelengths. From a combination of all astrometric data available, we have obtained precise limits to the dynamical mass of both binaries in AB Doradus. The determination of the mass of ABDor C (0.090±0.003 M⊙) is important, since this object constitutes one of the few calibration points used to test theoretical evolutionary models of low-mass young stars. Follow-up observations both in radio (VLBI) and optical wavelengths (VLT) should determine with high precision the dynamical mass of the four components of this system.
We report on the first global high-precision (differential phase-delay) astrometric analyses performed on a complete set of radio sources. We have observed the S5 polar cap sample, consisting of 13 quasars and BL Lac objects, with the VLBA at 8.4, 15, and 43 GHz. We have developed new algorithms to enable the use of the differential phase-delay observable in global astrometric observations. From our global analyses, we determine the relative positions between all pairs of sources with typical precisions ranging from 10 to 200 μas, depending on observing frequency and source separation. In this paper, we discuss the impact of this observable in the enhancement of the astrometric precision. Since a large fraction of the S5 polar cap sources are ICRF defining sources, this may result in a test of the ICRF stability. Our multi-epoch/multi-frequency approach will also provide both absolute kinematics and spectral information of all sources in the sample. In turn, this will provide an important check on key predictions of the standard jet interaction model.