Several recent studies have discussed the interaction of host life-history traits and parasite life cycles. It has been observed that the life-history of a host often changes after infection by a parasite. In some cases, changes of host life-history traits reduce the costs of parasitism and can be interpreted as a form of resistance against the parasite. In other cases, changes of host life-history traits increase the parasite's transmission and can be interpreted as manipulation by the parasite. Alternatively, changes of host's life-history traits can also induce responses in the parasite's life cycle traits. After a brief review of recent studies, we treat in more detail the interaction between the microsporidian parasite Edhazardia aedis and its host, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. We consider the interactions between the host's life-history and parasite's life cycle that help shape the evolutionary ecology of their relationship. In particular, these interactions determine whether the parasite is benign and transmits vertically or is virulent and transmits horizontally.
Key words: host-parasite interaction, life-history, life cycle, coevolution.