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Introduction: The Ottawa SAH Rule was developed to identify patients at high-risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who require investigations and the 6-Hour CT Rule found that computed tomography (CT) was 100% sensitive for SAH 6 hours of headache onset. Together, they form the Ottawa SAH Strategy. Our objectives were to assess: 1) Safety of the Ottawa SAH Strategy and its 2) Impact on: a) CTs, b) LPs, c) ED length of stay, and d) CT angiography (CTA). Methods: We conducted a multicentre prospective before/after study at 6 tertiary-care EDs January 2010 to December 2016 (implementation July 2013). Consecutive alert, neurologically intact adults with a headache peaking within one hour were included. SAH was defined by subarachnoid blood on head CT (radiologists final report); xanthochromia in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); >1x106/L red blood cells in the final tube of CSF with an aneurysm on CTA. Results: We enrolled 3,669 patients, 1,743 before and 1,926 after implementation, including 185 with SAH. The investigation rate before implementation was 89.0% (range 82.9 to 95.6%) versus 88.4% (range 85.2 to 92.3%) after implementation. The proportion who had CT remained stable (88.0% versus 87.4%; p=0.60), while the proportion who had LP decreased from 38.9% to 25.9% (p<0.001), and the proportion investigated with CTA increased from 18.8% to 21.6% (p=0.036). The additional testing rate (i.e. LP or CTA) diminishedfrom 50.1% to 40.8% (p<0.001). The proportion admitted declined from 9.8% to 7.3% (p=0.008), while the mean length of ED stay was stable (6.2 +/− 4.0 to 6.4 +/− 4.1 hours; p=0.45). For the 1,201 patients with CT 6 hours, there was an absolute decrease in additional testing (i.e. LP or CTA) of 15.0% (46.6% versus 31.6%; p<0.001). The sensitivity of the Ottawa SAH Rule was 100% (95%CI: 98-100%), and the 6-Hour CT Rule was 95.3% (95%CI: 88.9-98.3) for SAH. Five patients with early CT had SAH with CT reported as normal: 2 unruptured aneuryms on CTA and presumed traumatic LP (determined by treating neurosurgeon); 1 missed by the radiologist on the initial interpretation; 1 dural vein fistula (i.e. non-aneuyrsmal); and 1 profoundly anemic (Hgb 63g/L). Conclusion: The Ottawa SAH Strategy is highly sensitive and can be used routinely when SAH is being considered in alert and neurologically intact headache patients. Its implementation was associated with a decrease in LPs and admissions to hospital.
Improving neurocognitive outcomes following treatment for brain metastases have become increasingly important. We propose that a brief telephone-based neurocognitive assessment may improve follow-up cognitive assessments in this palliative population. Aim: To prospectively assess the feasibility and reliability of a telephone based brief neurocognitive assessment compared to the same tests delivered face-to-face. Methods: Brain metastases patients to be treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) were assessed using a brief validated neurocognitive battery at baseline, at 1 month and 3 months following WBRT (in person and over the phone). The primary outcome was feasibility and inter-procedural (in person versus telephone) reliability. The secondary objective was to evaluate the change in neurocognitive function before and after WBRT. Results: Out of 39 patients enrolled, 82% of patients completed the baseline in-person and telephone neurocognitive assessments. However, at 1 month, only 41% of enrolled patients completed the in-person and telephone cognitive assessments and at 3 months, only 10% of patients completed them. Results pertaining to reliability and change in neurocognitive function will be updated. Conclusion: The pre-defined definition of feasibility (at least 80% completion for face to face and telephone neurocognitive assessments) was met at baseline. However, a large proportion of participants did not complete either telephone or in person neurocognitive follow-up at 1 month and at 3 months post-WBRT. Attrition remained a challenge for neurocognitive testing in this population even when a telephone-based brief assessment was used.
National efforts to reduce low birth weight (LBW) and child malnutrition and mortality prioritise economic growth. However, this may be ineffective, while rising gross domestic product (GDP) also imposes health costs, such as obesity and non-communicable disease. There is a need to identify other potential routes for improving child health. We investigated associations of the Gender Inequality Index (GII), a national marker of women's disadvantages in reproductive health, empowerment and labour market participation, with the prevalence of LBW, child malnutrition (stunting and wasting) and mortality under 5 years in 96 countries, adjusting for national GDP. The GII displaced GDP as a predictor of LBW, explaining 36% of the variance. Independent of GDP, the GII explained 10% of the variance in wasting and stunting and 41% of the variance in child mortality. Simulations indicated that reducing GII could lead to major reductions in LBW, child malnutrition and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. Independent of national wealth, reducing women's disempowerment relative to men may reduce LBW and promote child nutritional status and survival. Longitudinal studies are now needed to evaluate the impact of efforts to reduce societal gender inequality.
There is a need for simple proxies of health status, in order to improve monitoring of chronic disease risk within and between populations, and to assess the efficacy of public health interventions as well as clinical management. This review discusses how, building on recent research findings, body composition outcomes may contribute to this effort. Traditionally, body mass index has been widely used as the primary index of nutritional status in children and adults, but it has several limitations. We propose that combining information on two generic traits, indexing both the ‘metabolic load’ that increases chronic non-communicable disease risk, and the homeostatic ‘metabolic capacity’ that protects against these diseases, offers a new opportunity to improve assessment of disease risk. Importantly, this approach may improve the ability to take into account ethnic variability in chronic disease risk. This approach could be applied using simple measurements readily carried out in the home or community, making it ideal for M-health and E-health monitoring strategies.
The terminal lake systems of central Australia are key sites for the reconstruction of late Quaternary paleoenvironments. Paleoshoreline deposits around these lakes reflect repeated lake filling episodes and such landforms have enabled the establishment of a luminescence-based chronology for filling events in previous studies. Here we present a detailed documentation of the morphology and chemistry of soils developed in four well-preserved beach ridges of late Pleistocene and mid-to-late Holocene age at Lake Callabonna to assess changes in dominant pedogenic processes. All soil profiles contain evidence for the incorporation of eolian-derived material, likely via the formation of desert pavements and vesicular horizons, and limited illuviation due to generally shallow wetting fronts. Even though soil properties in the four studied profiles also provide examples of parent material influence or site-specific processes related to the geomorphic setting, there is an overall trend of increasing enrichment of eolian-derived material since at least ~ 33 ka. Compared to the Holocene profiles, the derived average accumulation rates for the late Pleistocene profiles are significantly lower and may suggest that soils record important regional changes in paleoenvironments and dust dynamics related to shifts in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies.
Altered levels of selenium and copper have been linked with altered cardiovascular disease risk factors including changes in blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels. However, it is unclear whether this can be observed prenatally. This cross-sectional study includes 274 singleton births from 2004 to 2005 in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured umbilical cord serum selenium and copper using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We evaluated exposure levels vis-à-vis umbilical cord serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations in multivariable regression models adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, race, parity, smoking, prepregnancy body mass index, n-3 fatty acids and methyl mercury. The percent difference in triglycerides comparing those in the highest v. lowest quartile of selenium was 22.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.1, 39.7). For copper this was 43.8% (95% CI: 25.9, 64.3). In multivariable models including both copper and selenium as covariates, copper, but not selenium, maintained a statistically significant association with increased triglycerides (percent difference: 40.7%, 95% CI: 22.1, 62.1). There was limited evidence of a relationship of increasing selenium with increasing total cholesterol. Our findings provide evidence that higher serum copper levels are associated with higher serum triglycerides in newborns, but should be confirmed in larger studies.
The emergence of invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) in combat casualties led to development of a combat trauma-specific IFI case definition and classification. Prospective data were collected from 1133 US military personnel injured in Afghanistan (June 2009–August 2011). The IFI rates ranged from 0·2% to 11·7% among ward and intensive care unit admissions, respectively (6·8% overall). Seventy-seven IFI cases were classified as proven/probable (n = 54) and possible/unclassifiable (n = 23) and compared in a case-case analysis. There was no difference in clinical characteristics between the proven/probable and possible/unclassifiable cases. Possible IFI cases had shorter time to diagnosis (P = 0·02) and initiation of antifungal therapy (P = 0·05) and fewer operative visits (P = 0·002) compared to proven/probable cases, but clinical outcomes were similar between the groups. Although the trauma-related IFI classification scheme did not provide prognostic information, it is an effective tool for clinical and epidemiological surveillance and research.
High performance and cost effective multi-junction III-V solar cells are attractive for satellite applications. High performance multi-junction solar cells are based on a triple-junction design that employs an InGaP top-junction, a GaAs middle-junction, and a bottom-junction consisting of a 1.0 – 1.25 eV-material. The most attractive 1.0 – 1.25 eV-material is the lattice-matched dilute nitride such as InGaAsN(Sb). A record efficiency of 43.5% was achieved from multi-junction solar cells including dilute nitride materials . In addition, cost effective manufacturing of III-V triple-junction solar cells can be achieved by employing full-wafer epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technology, which enables multiple substrate re-usages. We employed time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) techniques to study carrier dynamics in both pre- and post-ELO processed GaAs double heterostructures (DHs) as well as in MOVPE-grown bulk dilute nitride layers lattice matched to GaAs substrates.
In paediatric practice, mean reference energy requirements for groups are often used to predict individual infant energy requirements. References from the FAO/WHO/United Nations University are based on infants not fed according to the current infant feeding recommendations. The objective of the present study was to measure total energy expenditure (TEE) and determine energy requirements using criterion methods, and validate the use of TEE prediction equation and mean energy requirement references for predicting individual TEE and energy requirements, respectively, in infants who were exclusively breast-fed (EBF) to 6 months of age. EBF infants were included from Greater Glasgow for measurements at 3·5 (n 36) and 6 (n 33) months of age. TEE was measured using doubly labelled water and energy requirements were determined using the factorial approach. TEE and energy requirements were also predicted using equations based on body weight. Relationships between criterion methods and predictions were assessed using correlations. Paired t tests and Bland–Altman plots were used to assess agreement. At the population level, predicted and measured TEE were similar. The energy requirement reference significantly underestimated energy requirements by 7·2 % at 3·5 months at the population level, but there was no bias at 6 months. Errors at individual levels were large and energy requirements were underestimated to a larger extent for infants with higher energy requirements. This indicates that references presently used in clinical practice to estimate energy requirements may not fully account for the different growth pattern of EBF infants. More studies in infants EBF to 6 months of age are needed to understand how growth of EBF infants influences energy requirements.
Official suicide statistics for England are based on deaths given suicide verdicts and most cases given an open verdict following a coroner's inquest. Previous research indicates that some deaths given accidental verdicts are considered to be suicides by clinicians. Changes in coroners' use of different verdicts may bias suicide trend estimates. We investigated whether suicide trends may be over- or underestimated when they are based on deaths given suicide and open verdicts.
Possible suicides assessed by 12 English coroners in 1990/91, 1998 and 2005 and assigned open, accident/misadventure or narrative verdicts were rated by three experienced suicide researchers according to the likelihood that they were suicides. Details of all suicide verdicts given by these coroners were also recorded.
In 1990/91, 72.0% of researcher-defined suicides received a suicide verdict from the coroner, this decreased to 65.4% in 2005 (ptrend < 0.01); equivalent figures for combined suicide and open verdicts were 95.4% (1990/91) and 86.7% (2005). Researcher-defined suicides with a verdict of accident/misadventure doubled over that period, from 4.6% to 9.1% (p < 0.01). Narrative verdict cases rose from zero in 1990/91 to 25 in 2005 (4.2% of researcher-defined suicides that year). In 1998 and 2005, 50.0% of the medicine poisoning deaths given accidental/misadventure verdicts were rated as suicide by the researchers.
Between 1990/91 and 2005, the proportion of researcher-defined suicides given a suicide verdict by coroners decreased, largely due to an increased use of accident/misadventure verdicts, particularly for deaths involving poisoning. Consideration should be given to the inclusion of ‘accidental’ deaths by poisoning with medicines in the statistics available for monitoring suicides rates.
Prior research on whether marriage is equally beneficial to the mental health of men and women is inconsistent due to methodological variation. This study addresses some prior methodological limitations and investigates gender differences in the association of first marriage and being previously married, with subsequent first onset of a range of mental disorders.
Cross-sectional household surveys in 15 countries from the WHO World Mental Health survey initiative (n=34493), with structured diagnostic assessment of mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Discrete-time survival analyses assessed the interaction of gender and marital status in the association with first onset of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders.
Marriage (versus never married) was associated with reduced risk of first onset of most mental disorders in both genders; but for substance use disorders this reduced risk was stronger among women, and for depression and panic disorder it was confined to men. Being previously married (versus stably married) was associated with increased risk of all disorders in both genders; but for substance use disorders, this increased risk was stronger among women and for depression it was stronger among men.
Marriage was associated with reduced risk of the first onset of most mental disorders in both men and women but there were gender differences in the associations between marital status and onset of depressive and substance use disorders. These differences may be related to gender differences in the experience of multiple role demands within marriage, especially those concerning parenting.