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The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
A small-scale excavation, undertaken in advance of building works at Faraday Road, Newbury, Berkshire, encountered an apparently intact Early Mesolithic layer containing abundant worked flint directly associated with animal bones. The site lay on the floodplain of the River Kennet in an area already well-known for Mesolithic remains and certainly represents an extension of the site found at nearby Greenham Dairy Farm in 1963. The flint assemblage was dominated by obliquely-blunted microlithic forms accompanied by a restricted range of other items. The animal bones were, unusually, dominated by wild pig with clear evidence of both primary butchery and food waste. Spatial analysis of the bone and flint assemblages indicated discrete activity areas, possibly associated with hearths. Both pollen and molluscan data were recovered which, together with the results of soil micromorphological examination, confirmed an Early Holocene date for the formation of the Mesolithic layer. Radiocarbon dates place the site in the late 10th–early 9th millennium BP. The paper re-examines the nature of known Early Mesolithic activity in this part of the Kennet valley, with particular reference to the specific environmental conditions that seem to have prevailed. It is concluded that the Faraday Road site represents one part of a continuum of Early Mesolithic occupation that stretches along a considerable length of the floodplain, with each focus of activity witnessing repeated, but intermittent, occupation spanning a period of more than a millennium.
We sought to estimate mortality and associated factors in HIV-hepatitis co-infected individuals in Michigan using a retrospective cohort study. For the study period of 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009, all HIV-infected individuals were matched to hepatitis B and C cases. In the final Cox proportional hazards regression model, individuals of other [hazard ratio (HR) 2·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·4–3·2] and black (HR 1·3, 95% CI 1·1–1·6) race had decreased survival compared to white race. Similarly, injecting drug users (IDUs) (HR 2·1, 95% CI 1·6–2·6), men who have sex with men (MSM)/IDUs (HR 1·5, 95% CI 1·1–2·2), individuals with undetermined risk (HR 1·5, 95% CI 1·2–1·9) and heterosexual practices (HR 1·4, 95% CI 1·1–1·8) had decreased survival compared to MSM. Additionally, an interaction was found between current HIV status and co-infection. Mortality in HIV-hepatitis co-infected individuals remains a continuing problem. Our study can help in planning interventions to reduce mortality in HIV-infected individuals.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009 in Michigan to estimate the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis co-infection and identify associated factors. The prevalence of co-infection was 4·1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3·8–4·5]. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between co-infection and being male and: of Black race [odds ratio (OR) 2·0, 95% CI 1·2–3·6] and of Other race (OR 3·5, 95% CI 1·7–7·0) compared to Hispanic race. A significant association was found between co-infection and risk categories of blood products (OR 11·1, 95% CI 6·2–20·2), injecting drug user (IDU) (OR 3·6, 95% CI 2·7–4·8) and men who have sex with men/IDU (OR 3·4, 95% CI 2·4–4·9) in addition to two interactions; one between sex and current HIV status and the other between current HIV status and age at HIV diagnosis. Our results document the changing epidemiology of HIV–hepatitis co-infection which can guide preventive measures and interventions to reduce the prevalence of hepatitis co-infection.
A total of 72 male weaned pigs were used in a 110-day study to investigate the effect of feeding genetically modified (GM) Bt MON810 maize on selected growth and health indicators. It was hypothesised that in pigs fed Bt maize, growth and health are not impacted compared with pigs fed isogenic maize-based diets. Following a 12-day basal period, pigs (10.7 ± 1.9 kg body weight (BW); ∼40 days old) were blocked by weight and ancestry and randomly assigned to treatments: (1) non-GM maize diet for 110 days (non-GM), (2) GM maize diet for 110 days (GM), (3) non-GM maize diet for 30 days followed by GM maize diet up to day 110 (non-GM/GM) and (4) GM maize diet for 30 days followed by non-GM maize diet up to day 110 (GM/non-GM). BW and daily feed intake were recorded on days 0, 30, 60 and 110 (n = 15). Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (n = 10) on day 80. Following slaughter on day 110, organs and intestines were weighed and sampled for histological analysis and urine was collected for biochemical analysis (n = 10). Serum biochemistry analysis was performed on days 0, 30, 60, 100 and 110. Growth performance and serum biochemistry were analysed as repeated measures with time and treatment as main factors. The slice option of SAS was used to determine treatment differences at individual time points. There was no effect of feeding GM maize on overall growth, body composition, organ and intestinal weight and histology or serum biochemistry on days 60 and 100 and on urine biochemistry on day 110. A treatment × time interaction was observed for serum urea (SU; P < 0.05), creatinine (SC; P < 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; P < 0.05). On day 30, SU was lower for the non-GM/GM treatment compared with the non-GM, GM and GM/non-GM treatments (P < 0.05). On day 110, SC was higher for the non-GM/GM and GM/non-GM treatments compared with non-GM and GM treatments (P < 0.05). Overall, serum total protein was lower for the GM/non-GM treatment compared with the non-GM/GM treatment (P < 0.05). The magnitude of change observed in some serum biochemical parameters did not indicate organ dysfunction and the changes were not accompanied by histological lesions. Long-term feeding of GM maize to pigs did not adversely affect growth or the selected health indicators investigated.
Polcrystalline BaTiO3 films have been grown on NdGaO3 , SrTiO3  and Si  substrates by reduced pressure CVD. The substrate temperature was 1000°C and the total pressure during growth was 4 torr. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate highly textured films on the NdGa03 substrate. The orientation was predominantly , accompanied by small quantities of various TiO crystalline phases.
Ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO3 are notable for their nonlinear optical and electrical properties. Optical frequency doubling in thin films integrated with compact semiconductor laser pumped solid state lasers is an attractive candidate for high efficiency generation of blue light. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a single liquid source has been used to grow BaTiO3 films on MgO. X-ray diffraction in the pole figure configuration indicates the films to be epitaxial, and rocking curves had FWHM ≈ 0.7°. An optical scatterometer (λ = 633 nm.) has been used to identify deposition conditions that result in the lowest scatter losses. This paper describes these results as well as waveguide designs to enhance the second harmonic generation efficiency in epitaxial BaTiO3 films on MgO.
Raman microscopy, using a novel line focus configuration, has been used here to study boron concentration distributions and depth profiles in silicon for two different sources of dopant. Changes in the Raman phonon peak frequency for boron doped silicon have been calibrated against concentration by comparison with SIMS data and a relationship between Raman shift and lattice strain has been obtained.
Le comportement atypique des fissures courtes peut être, pour une large part, expliqué
par l’effet de la fermeture. Toutefois, la détection du niveau de contrainte correspondant
à l’ouverture s’avère généralement difficile sinon impossible pour les fissures de petite
dimension. Cette étude porte sur la fermeture des fissures courtes 2D dans un acier
inoxydable 304L. Pour optimiser la détection des variations de complaisance, une méthode
automatique a été développée pour analyser les signaux numériques grâce à des méthodes de
filtrage. Il est montré que cet outil permet d’obtenir une mesure précise de la charge
d’ouverture même pour des fissures ayant une profondeur de l’ordre de 0,1 mm. Les
résultats obtenus permettent de définir l’évolution de la contribution de la fermeture en
fonction de la profondeur de la fissure.
Massive post-partum haemorrhage continues to be one of the world’s leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Any new treatment that potentially helps at risk parturients should be thoroughly investigated. Recombinant factor VIIa (rVIIa) is increasingly being used in the treatment of massive haemorrhage. We performed a case-matched analysis of its use since 2003 in the treatment of massive post-partum haemorrhage at our hospital.
Twenty-eight cases of massive post-partum haemorrhage were identified over a 3-yr period since 2003. In six of these cases, rVIIa was used as part of their management. Six case-matched controls were sought. The six women with the greatest requirement for packed red cell transfusion who also had a deranged prothrombin time were included. The groups were then compared for differences. The worst prothrombin time in each group was noted as was the best prothrombin time within 6 h, this was used as our measure of response to treatment.
There was no statistical difference in age, gestation, parity, transfusion requirements, mode of delivery or the severity of the coagulopathy between the two groups. In both groups the prothrombin time improved with management. There was no significant difference in either the magnitude of the improvement in the value of the prothrombin time or the absolute value of the best prothrombin time (P = 0.09). Five out of the six women in the rFVIIa group had normal or low prothrombin times within 6 h yet only one woman who did not receive rFVIIa had a normal prothrombin time within 6 h though this was not significant (P = 0.08).
This case-matched analysis supports the management of massive post-partum haemorrhage with appropriate resuscitation, surgical intervention and use of blood and blood products. This study does not support the routine use of rFVIIa in the management of massive obstetric haemorrhage. rFVIIa may have a role to play in this management but further studies and analyses will be required.
Numbers of great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo feeding in inland waters during winter have increased throughout Europe resulting in concerns over their impacts on fisheries. Loch Leven is a world-renowned sport fishery for trout and supports a nationally important population of wintering cormorants. The relationships between brown trout stocking, regional cormorant numbers and cormorants counted during winter on Loch Leven were examined. Stocked brown trout were fin-clipped before release and gut contents from a sample of 96 cormorants shot under scientific licence were analysed. The data suggest that the number of cormorants at this site is influenced by both the stocking policy and the regional population level. Cormorant diet varied with the sex and age of birds. Overall, trout made up c. 85% of the total content by weight. Brown trout predominated in the diet, making up c. 70%, while rainbow trout occurred less frequently, making up c. 6%. Trout which could not be identified to species, made up the remainder (c. 9%). There was no significant difference in the ratios of wild and stocked brown trout sampled from the loch and from cormorant stomachs in winter. A model was constructed to investigate the likely loss of trout to cormorants roosting on the loch. It was estimated that over a 7-month period cormorants consumed 80 803 (41 617–128 248) brown and 5213 (830–12 454) rainbow trout. These estimates compared to average annual fishery catches of 5828 brown and 12 815 rainbow trout (1996–2000). Comparison with published estimates of trout populations in Loch Leven indicated a high potential for competition between the birds and the fisheries for available fish. It is suggested that stocking has led to an increase in cormorant numbers and the subsequent increase in predation may have prevented any increase in the trout population or in fishery catches.
Background and objective: Epidural vein cannulation has long been recognized as a problem in parturients due to distension of epidural veins. Epidural vein engorgement is maximal when the pregnant woman is in the supine position and minimal in the lateral position. Following an initial observation of an apparently high incidence of epidural vein cannulation in the sitting position, a randomized trial was conducted to document whether such an association existed.
Methods: A total of 209 term parturients were randomized to either the sitting or lateral position (107 left lateral, 102 sitting). Epidural catheter placement was achieved using a loss of resistance to air technique with an 18-G Tuohy needle. A data sheet was completed for each patient recording patient position, patient characteristics data, stage in labour and the incidence of epidural vein cannulation. Poor labour analgesia was defined as a visual analogue scale (VAS) >40 mm on a 0–100 mm pain intensity VAS.
Results: The risk of epidural vein cannulation was significantly higher in the sitting group (16 of 102 = 15.7%) compared with the lateral position group (4 of 107 = 3.7%), P = 0.011. There was a significant association between epidural vein cannulation and poor analgesia (P = 0.006). These two variables remained independently significant on multiple regression analysis (position, P = 0.009; analgesia, P = 0.006).
Conclusions: We conclude that there is a direct correlation between the incidence of epidural vein cannulation and patient posture during epidural catheter insertion in parturients.
Burow’s solution (13 per cent aluminium acetate) has been found to inhibit in vitro the growth of most commonly occurring bacteria found in the discharging ear. An in vitro study has shown that the minimum inhibitory concentration of Burow’s solution for these organisms lies between a 1:80 and a 1:160 dilution. This paper reports on a clinical trial that incorporated 67 discharging ears to establish the most effective strength of aluminium acetate solution. There was no statistical difference in the effectiveness of full strength Burow’s solution compared to 3.25 per cent aluminium acetate solution (a quarter strength Burow’s solution). Response rates of 80.8 per cent and 75 per cent respectively following a two-week treatment period were achieved using these two solutions. A 1.3 per cent aluminium acetate solution (1/10 strength Burow’s solution) was found to be markedly inferior. Bacteriological and audiological profiles were recorded for each patient.
The rather traditional division drawn here between the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age is simply one of convenience. It allows us to focus upon the development of round barrows, the construction of which show an essential continuity with developments during the previous period. However, henge monuments are no longer constructed in our area, and the barrows evidence a monumentality with an almost exclusive emphasis upon the dead. It is the changing emphasis in the practices associated with monumentality which is the issue here, rather than a simple technological division in the artefact sequence (Fig. 4.1).
Burgess has suggested a series of period divisions for the second millennium be (Table 4.1) in which his Mount Pleasant Period (c. 2150–1700 be) sees the introduction of copper, and then the full adoption of bronze metallurgy (metal Stages I-IV), along with most of the ‘steps’ of Beaker development (n.d. ; 1980, 71; 1986). Although there remain considerable doubts about the detail of the Beaker chronology in Britain (see Longworth in Wainwright 1979b, 90), it seems most likely that the main currency of this material pre-dates 1700 be. The Beaker and early metal finds from the region are discussed below and, although sparsely represented, they are likely to have been contemporary with the final history of the Wyke Down henge. It is also probable that they fall within the period of use of the Knowlton henges.
A case of acute schizophrenic psychosis developing during the treatment of hyper-thyroidism with carbimazole is described. The patient was clinically and biochemically euthyroid at the time the psychosis developed. It is suggested that an acute alteration in thyroid status, without necessarily producing hyper- or hypothyroidism, may be sufficient to induce a psychotic reaction.