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Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among infectious diseases worldwide. Among the estimated cases of drug-resistant TB, approximately 60% occur in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). Among Brazilian states, primary and acquired multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) rates were the highest in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). This study aimed to perform molecular characterisation of MDR-TB in the State of RS, a high-burden Brazilian state. We performed molecular characterisation of MDR-TB cases in RS, defined by drug susceptibility testing, using 131 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) DNA samples from the Central Laboratory. We carried out MIRU-VNTR 24loci, spoligotyping, sequencing of the katG, inhA and rpoB genes and RDRio sublineage identification. The most frequent families found were LAM (65.6%) and Haarlem (22.1%). RDRio deletion was observed in 42 (32%) of the M.tb isolates. Among MDR-TB cases, eight (6.1%) did not present mutations in the studied genes. In 116 (88.5%) M.tb isolates, we found mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) resistance in rpoB gene, and in 112 isolates (85.5%), we observed mutations related to isoniazid resistance in katG and inhA genes. An insertion of 12 nucleotides (CCAGAACAACCC) at the 516 codon in the rpoB gene, possibly responsible for a decreased interaction of RIF and RNA polymerase, was found in 19/131 of the isolates, belonging mostly to LAM and Haarlem families. These results enable a better understanding of the dynamics of transmission and evolution of MDR-TB in the region.
The mechanisms involved in kidney disturbances during development, induced by vitamin D3 deficiency in female rats, that persist into adulthood were evaluated in this study. Female offspring from mothers fed normal (control group, n=8) or vitamin D-deficient (Vit.D-, n=10) diets were used. Three-month-old rats had their systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured and their blood and urine sampled to quantify vitamin D3 (Vit.D3), creatinine, Na+, Ca+2 and angiotensin II (ANGII) levels. The kidneys were then removed for nitric oxide (NO) quantification and immunohistochemical studies. Vit.D- pups showed higher SBP and plasma ANGII levels in adulthood (P<0.05) as well as decreased urine osmolality associated with increases in urinary volume (P<0.05). Decreased expression of JG12 (renal cortex and glomeruli) and synaptopodin (glomeruli) as well as reduced renal NO was also observed (P<0.05). These findings showed that renal disturbances in development in pups from Vit.D- mothers observed in adulthood may be related to the development of angiogenesis, NO and ANGII alterations.
Heavy weight gilts commonly show signs of oestrus during the late finishing phase, which results in a period of reduced feed intake and growth rate. Immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (IM, immunocastration) was developed for finishing boars and recently extrapolated to females. Immunocastration acts by suppressing reproductive activity and improving the growth potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of IM on growth performance, reproductive activity and carcass characteristics of late finishing gilts. Seventy-two gilts (63.49 ± 0.39 kg) were either injected with saline (Intact) or immunized against GnRH (Immunized). The study consisted of three experimental periods: between the first to second immunization (V1 to V2, 15 to 19 weeks of age), from the second immunization to the beginning of daily boar exposure (DBE) (V2 to DBE, 19 to 21 weeks of age) and from the beginning of DBE to slaughter (S) (DBE to S, 21 to 25 weeks of age). Immunized gilts showed an overall increase (from 15 to 25 weeks) of 3.90 kg (P < 0.05) of live weight, 56 g (P < 0.05) of average daily gain (ADG) and 250 g (P < 0.001) of average daily feed intake (ADFI). Immunized gilts had a greater ADFI (+240 g, P < 0.05) and worse feed conversion ratio (+0.26, P < 0.05) from 19 (V2) to 21 weeks of age (before DBE). Furthermore, those females had higher feed intake (+410 g; P < 0.001) plus greater daily weight gain (+92 g; P < 0.05) from V2 to S, and from DBE to S (+470 g of ADFI, P < 0.001; +129 g of ADG, P < 0.01, respectively). Immunocastration had no effect on backfat thickness, lean meat percentage and weight, cold carcass yield or loin depth (P > 0.05). Immunized gilts showed 4.4% increased cold carcass weight (P < 0.01) and 10.6% greater gross flank weight (P < 0.001). Immunization against GnRH did not influence shoulder, collar, loin, belly or ham weights. Nor did it influence belly fat thickness, or meat, skin plus fat and bones yields of cold ham (P > 0.05). Immunocastration reduced ovarian and uterine weights by 82% (P < 0.001) and 93% (P < 0.001), respectively, and suppressed oestrus manifestation in all gilts in the immunized group (P < 0.001). These results indicate that immunization against GnRH is a promising tool for stimulating growth performance with no detrimental effects on carcass quality of heavy weight finishing gilts, by means of oestrus suppression.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incubating semen for different periods (90, 270 or 450 min) with or without Trolox® (100 or 150 µM) on the quality of sperm from Saimiri collinsi. Sperm motility, vigour, and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) were evaluated in both fresh semen and semen incubated for different time periods, i.e. 90, 270 or 450 min of incubation. Supplementation of semen extender with Trolox® 100 µM improved sperm motility, vigour and PMI for up to 270 min of incubation.
Outbreaks of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) have significantly increased due to the conflicts in the Middle East, with most of the cases occurring in resource-limited areas such as refugee settlements. The standard methods of diagnosis include microscopy and parasite culture, which have several limitations. To address the growing need for a CL diagnostic that can be field applicable, we have identified five candidate neoglycoproteins (NGPs): Galα (NGP3B), Galα(1,3)Galα (NGP17B), Galα(1,3)Galβ (NGP9B), Galα(1,6)[Galα(1,2)]Galβ (NGP11B), and Galα(1,3)Galβ(1,4)Glcβ (NGP1B) that are differentially recognized in sera from individuals with Leishmania major infection as compared with sera from heterologous controls. These candidates contain terminal, non-reducing α-galactopyranosyl (α-Gal) residues, which are known potent immunogens to humans. Logistic regression models found that NGP3B retained the best diagnostic potential (area under the curve from receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.8). Our data add to the growing body of work demonstrating the exploitability of the human anti-α-Gal response in CL diagnosis.
Previous work has identified associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and general medical conditions (GMCs), but their temporal direction remains unclear as does the extent to which they are independent of comorbid mental disorders.
In total, 28 002 adults in 16 countries from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys were assessed for PEs, GMCs and 21 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders. Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate the associations between PEs and GMCs with various adjustments.
After adjustment for comorbid mental disorders, temporally prior PEs were significantly associated with subsequent onset of 8/12 GMCs (arthritis, back or neck pain, frequent or severe headache, other chronic pain, heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and peptic ulcer) with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–1.5] to 1.9 (95% CI 1.4–2.4). In contrast, only three GMCs (frequent or severe headache, other chronic pain and asthma) were significantly associated with subsequent onset of PEs after adjustment for comorbid GMCs and mental disorders, with ORs ranging from 1.5 (95% CI 1.2–1.9) to 1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.4).
PEs were associated with the subsequent onset of a wide range of GMCs, independent of comorbid mental disorders. There were also associations between some medical conditions (particularly those involving chronic pain) and subsequent PEs. Although these findings will need to be confirmed in prospective studies, clinicians should be aware that psychotic symptoms may be risk markers for a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Whether PEs are causal risk factors will require further research.
A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders.
In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18–100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction.
An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6–17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both.
CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental disorders, in high-income countries, and in persons receiving conventional care. Our findings support the notion of CAM as largely complementary but are in contrast to suggestions that this concerns person with only mild, transient complaints. There was no indication that persons were less satisfied by CAM visits than by receiving conventional care. We encourage health care professionals in conventional settings to openly discuss the care patients are receiving, whether conventional or not, and their reasons for doing so.
Traumatic events are associated with increased risk of psychotic experiences, but it is unclear whether this association is explained by mental disorders prior to psychotic experience onset.
To investigate the associations between traumatic events and subsequent psychotic experience onset after adjusting for post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders.
We assessed 29 traumatic event types and psychotic experiences from the World Mental Health surveys and examined the associations of traumatic events with subsequent psychotic experience onset with and without adjustments for mental disorders.
Respondents with any traumatic events had three times the odds of other respondents of subsequently developing psychotic experiences (OR=3.1, 95% CI 2.7–3.7), with variability in strength of association across traumatic event types. These associations persisted after adjustment for mental disorders.
Exposure to traumatic events predicts subsequent onset of psychotic experiences even after adjusting for comorbid mental disorders.
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient in livestock production, involved in most metabolic processes in the body, and with an impact on bone development and growth. Diet supplementation with P can improve productivity, but at excess levels the P utilization can be low, and the high P excretion will lead to environmental pollution (Tamminga, 2003). P supplementation also adds substantially to the cost of feed. Using the isotopic dilution technique (Vitti et al., 2000), we have studied the effect of different P levels in diet on P absorption and excretion in Brazilian sheep, and identified the level at which true P absorption saturates.
In Portugal there is an increasing interest in animal welfare studies directed mainly to the improvement of the housing systems. It is recognised that housing is an important factor that affect the behaviour, the production and the health of dairy cattle (Bowell et al., 2003). However, in Portugal few data on the welfare of dairy cattle are available. Therefore this study aimed to determine some housing, health and other welfare indicators in dairy farms in Northwest of Portugal.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the Southern region of the State of Bahia, evaluating the performance of alternative complementary methods for cervical lesion detection. Cervical samples from women who attended healthcare units were collected and diagnosed by visual inspection, cervical cytology and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Moreover, hemi-nested PCR was performed to detect different HPV genotypes. The prevalence of HPV infection was 47·7%, with genotype 16 detected in most cases. Infection was associated with dyspareunia and bleeding (P < 0·001, odds ratio (OR) 5·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·815–11·14) and hormonal contraceptive use (P = 0·007, OR 2·33, 95% CI 1·25–4·34). There was a positive correlation between positive PCR and positive visual inspection, cervical cytology and symptoms reported. Furthermore, visual inspection was twice as specific, and had a greater positive predictive value than cytology. We showed a high prevalence of HPV infection in Southern Bahia, with HPV 16 being the most common type, and visual inspection being most effective at detecting HPV lesions, corroborating the suggestion that it can be applied in routine gynecologic examinations for low-income populations.
Meat from lambs finished with high-starch diets often contains low concentration of vaccenic (t11-18:1) and rumenic (c9,t11-18:2) acids and high concentration of t10-18:1. We hypothesized that replacing cereals by dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) and the inclusion of tanniferous feed sources in oil supplemented diets might reduce the accumulation of t10-18:1 and increase the t11-18:1 and c9,t11-18:2 in lamb meat, without affecting the productive performance. In total, 32 lambs were assigned to four diets which combine two factors: basal diet (BD) (cereals v. DCP) and Cistus ladanifer (CL) (0 v. 150 g/kg dry matter). Feed intake, average daily weight gain and carcass traits were not affected by treatments, except for dressing percentage that was reduced with DCP (P=0.046). Both DCP and C. ladanifer reduced tenderness and juiciness of meat, and C. ladanifer also reduced (P<0.001) meat overall acceptability. Intramuscular fat and the concentration of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) were not affected (P>0.05) by diets. However, DCP increased the proportions of odd-chain FA (P=0.005) and several minor biohydrogenation (BH) intermediates in meat lipids. C. ladanifer had few effects on meat FA profile. The proportions of t11-18:1 and c9,t11-18:2 were high in all diets (5.4% and 1.5% of total FA, respectively) and were not influenced by the treatments. Basal diet and CL showed some significant interactions concerning FA composition of intramuscular fat. In diets without C. ladanifer, replacement of cereals by DCP increased the 18:0 (P<0.05) and decreased t10,c12-18:2 (P<0.05), t10-18:1 (P<0.10) and t10-/t11-18:1 ratio (P<0.10) with a large reduction of the individual variation for t10-18:1 and of t10-/t11-18:1 ratio. Combined with cereals, C. ladanifer increased 18:0 and reduced the BH intermediates in meat. Replacement of cereals by DCP seems to promote a more predictable FA profile in lamb meat, reducing the risk of t10-shifted BH pathways in the rumen.
Identifying youth who may engage in future substance use could facilitate early identification of substance use disorder vulnerability. We aimed to identify biomarkers that predicted future substance use in psychiatrically un-well youth.
LASSO regression for variable selection was used to predict substance use 24.3 months after neuroimaging assessment in 73 behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth aged 13.9 (s.d. = 2.0) years, 30 female, from three clinical sites in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study. Predictor variables included neural activity during a reward task, cortical thickness, and clinical and demographic variables.
Future substance use was associated with higher left middle prefrontal cortex activity, lower left ventral anterior insula activity, thicker caudal anterior cingulate cortex, higher depression and lower mania scores, not using antipsychotic medication, more parental stress, older age. This combination of variables explained 60.4% of the variance in future substance use, and accurately classified 83.6%.
These variables explained a large proportion of the variance, were useful classifiers of future substance use, and showed the value of combining multiple domains to provide a comprehensive understanding of substance use development. This may be a step toward identifying neural measures that can identify future substance use disorder risk, and act as targets for therapeutic interventions.
Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years.
The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1572) and non-students in the same age range (18–22 years; n = 4178), including non-students who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (four low/lower-middle income, five upper-middle-income, one lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioral and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders; 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders.
Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning.
Mathematical models are important tools to estimate nutritional requirements and animal growth. Very few calf models generated from other countries with different feeding programs, environment and production systems have been evaluated. The objective of this paper is to evaluate two calf models: (i) the National Research Council (NRC) in 2001 and (ii) the updates published by Van Amburgh and Drackley in 2005 and inputted into Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems (AMTS, version 3.5.8). Data from 16 previous studies involving 51 diets for dairy calves under tropical conditions (n=485 calves, initial BW 37.5±4.35 kg and weaning weight of 62.0±10.16 kg) were used. The calves were fed with whole milk, milk replacer or fermented colostrum, plus starter (20.9±1.78% of CP). The accuracy of the average daily gain (ADG) prediction was evaluated by mean bias, mean square prediction error (MSPE), concordance correlation coefficient, bias correction factor (Cb), and regression between the observed and predicted values. The ADG observed from birth to weaning was 0.452±0.121 kg/day. Calves fed with whole milk had greater ADG compared with calves fed milk replacer (0.477 v. 0.379 kg/day) during the milk-feeding period. When all data were pooled (n=51 diets), predictions had a mean bias of −0.019 and 0.068 kg/day for energy-allowable gain using NRC and AMTS models, respectively. The regression equation between observed and predicted values obtained from energy of diets showed an intercept different from zero (P<0.0001) and slope that differed from unity (P<0.0001). In a second evaluation, when calves were fed only milk replacer, the energy-allowable gain from AMTS showed the lowest mean bias (0.008 kg/day) and 82.1% of the MSPE value originated from random errors. The lowest MSPE, the higher Cb value and no significant slope bias (P>0.05) indicate that the AMTS growth model resulted in accurate predictions for calves fed with milk replacer. However, within these latter two approaches, the goodness of fit (R2) was low, representing low precision. The weight gain estimated by the energy available from the diet was overestimated by 19 g/day when calculated by the NRC and underestimated by 68 g/day when calculated by AMTS. The reasons for this discrepancy need to be understood, for only then new models could be developed and parameterized to estimate animal performance in tropical conditions more accurately and precisely.
Disk galaxies in cosmological numerical simulations grow by accreting gas from the cosmic web. This gas reaches the external disk, and then spirals in dragged along by tidal forces and/or disk instabilities. The importance of gas infall is as clear from numerical simulations as it is obscure to observations. Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies seem to be the best example we have of the gas accretion process at work. They have large off-center starbursts which show significant metallicity drop compared with the host galaxy. This observation is naturally explained as a gas accretion event caught in the act. We present preliminary results of the kinematical properties of the metal poor starbursts in XMPs, which suggest that the starbursts are kinematically decoupled entities within the host galaxy.
Accretion of metal-poor gas via cold accretion flows has been recently proposed as a means to trigger/sustain star formation in extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs), a scenario in agreement with theoretical predictions. We report on the tentative detection of CaII absorption used to trace the conditions of the gas clouds in the halo of the XMP UGCA 20.
Extracts and essential oils from plants are important natural sources of pesticides. These compounds are considered an alternative to control ectoparasites of veterinary importance. Schinus molle, an endemic species of Brazil, produces a high level of essential oil and several other compounds. The aim of this work was to determinate the chemical composition of extracts and essential oils of S. molle and further to evaluate the activity against eggs and adults of Ctenocephalides felis felis, a predominant flea that infests dogs and cats in Brazil. In an in vitro assay, the non-polar (n-hexane) extract showed 100% efficacy (800 µg cm−2; LD50 = 524·80 µg cm−2) at 24 and 48 h. Its major compound was lupenone (50·25%). Essential oils from fruits and leaves were evaluated, and had 100% efficacy against adult fleas at 800 µg cm−2 (LD50 = 353·95 µg cm−2) and at 50 µg cm−2 (LD50 = 12·02 µg cm−2), respectively. On the other hand, the essential oil from fruits and leaves was not active against flea eggs. This is the first study that reports the insecticidal effects of essential oils and extracts obtained from Schinus molle against Ctenocephalides felis felis.