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La non-adhésion diminue largement l’efficacité des antidépresseurs [1,2], dont la représentation évolue dans un contexte particulièrement défiant et médiatiquement tendu.
L’objectif de cette étude est de :
– évaluer l’adhésion aux antidépresseurs chez des patients hospitalisés pour épisode dépressif majeur ;
– explorer les représentations que les patients ont des antidépresseurs et de la dépression, ainsi que la perception de la stigmatisation aux troubles mentaux ;
– analyser la relation entre les attitudes face aux antidépresseurs et des paramètres sociodémographiques et cliniques.
L’adhérence était évaluée chez 40 patients en utilisant la version courte du Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10), complétée par un questionnaire mesurant les connaissances, craintes, impact des média et stigmatisation liés aux antidépresseurs. Des entretiens d’investigation étaient ensuite menés à l’aide de celui-ci.
L’âge moyen de l’échantillon est de 43 ans, dont 27 % d’homme. Il s’agit d’un premier épisode pour 40 % des patients. La médiane du DAI est de 3,5 (échelle de −10 à +10), et 30 % des patients ne sont pas adhérents. Les hommes de l’échantillon ont une plus mauvaise représentation des antidépresseurs (−2 VS 4 ; U de Mann-Whitney = 90,50 ; p = 0,0035). Soixante-dix pour cent des patients ont des craintes par rapport à leur antidépresseur (prise de poids et dépendance au premier rang). Vingt pour cent des patients n’ont pas dit à leur entourage qu’ils prenaient des médicaments contre la dépression.
Une intervention à de multiples niveaux pourrait augmenter les connaissances des patients ainsi que de l’opinion publique . Une collaboration spécifique entre journalistes et psychiatres permettrait une meilleure connaissance et une diffusion plus représentative des enjeux de santé mentale dans les média . Des actions de santé publique et initiatives citoyennes pourraient aussi être profitables aux patients.
L’adhérence aux antidépresseurs peut largement être améliorée, la stigmatisation restant une barrière aux traitements et à la prise en charge.
The introduction of 2,4-D–resistant soybean and cotton provided growers a new POST active ingredient to include in weed management programs. The technology raises concerns regarding potential 2,4-D off-target movement to sensitive vegetation, and spray droplet size is the primary management factor focused on to reduce spray particle drift. The objective of this study was to investigate the droplet size distribution, droplet velocity, and particle drift potential of glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline pre-mixture (Enlist Duo®) applications with two commonly used venturi nozzles in a low-speed wind tunnel. Applications with the TDXL11004 nozzle had larger DV0.1 (291 µm), DV0.5 (544 µm), and DV0.9 (825 µm) values compared with the AIXR11004 nozzle (250, 464, and 709 µm, respectively), and slower average droplet velocity (8.1 m s−1) compared with the AIXR11004 nozzle (9.1 m s−1). Nozzle type had no influence on drift deposition (P = 0.65), drift coverage (P = 0.84), and soybean biomass reduction (P = 0.76). Although the TDXL11004 nozzle had larger spray droplet size, the slower spray droplet velocity could have influenced the nozzle particle drift potential. As a result, both TDXL11004 and AIXR11004 nozzles had similar spray drift potential. Further studies are necessary to understand the impact of droplet velocity on drift potential at field scale and test how different tank solutions, sprayer configurations, and environmental conditions could influence the droplet size and velocity dynamics and consequent drift potential in pesticide applications.
The Late Formative period immediately precedes the emergence of Tiwanaku, one of the earliest South American states, yet it is one of the most poorly understood periods in the southern Lake Titicaca Basin (Bolivia). In this article, we refine the ceramic chronology of this period with large sets of dates from eight sites, focusing on temporal inflection points in decorated ceramic styles. These points, estimated here by Bayesian models, index specific moments of change: (1) cal AD 120 (60–170, 95% probability): the first deposition of Kalasasaya red-rimmed and zonally incised styles; (2) cal AD 240 (190–340, 95% probability): a tentative estimate of the final deposition of Kalasasaya zonally incised vessels; (3) cal AD 420 (380–470, 95% probability): the final deposition of Kalasasaya red-rimmed vessels; and (4) cal AD 590 (500–660, 95% probability): the first deposition of Tiwanaku Redwares. These four modeled boundaries anchor an updated Late Formative chronology, which includes the Initial Late Formative phase, a newly identified decorative hiatus between the Middle and Late Formative periods. The models place Qeya and transitional vessels between inflection points 3 and 4 based on regionally consistent stratigraphic sequences. This more precise chronology will enable researchers to explore the trajectories of other contemporary shifts during this crucial period in Lake Titicaca Basin's prehistory.
Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been associated with the development of metabolic syndrome-related diseases in offspring. According to epidemiological studies, father’s transmission of environmental effects in addition to mother’s can influence offspring health. Moreover, maternal prenatal dietary folic acid (FA) may beneficially impact offspring health. The objective is to investigate whether prenatal FA supplementation can overcome the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to POPs on lipid homeostasis and inflammation in three generations of male rat descendants through the paternal lineage. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (F0) were exposed to a POPs mixture (or corn oil) +/− FA supplementation for 9 weeks before and during gestation. F1 and F2 males were mated with untreated females. Plasma and hepatic lipids were measured in F1, F2, and F3 males after 12-h fast. Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines was determined by qPCR in epididymal adipose tissue. In F1 males, prenatal POPs exposure increased plasma lipids at 14 weeks old and hepatic lipids at 28 weeks old and prenatal FA supplementation decreased plasma total cholesterol at 14 weeks old. Prenatal POPs exposure decreased plasma triglycerides at 14 weeks old in F2 males. No change was observed in inflammatory markers. Our results show an impact of the paternal lineage on lipid homeostasis in rats up to the F2 male generation. FA supplementation of the F0 diet, regardless of POPs exposure, lowered plasma cholesterol in F1 males but failed to attenuate the deleterious effects of prenatal POPs exposure on plasma and hepatic lipids in F1 males.
We study C1-robustly transitive and nonhyperbolic diffeomorphisms having a partially hyperbolic splitting with one-dimensional central bundle whose strong un-/stable foliations are both minimal. In dimension 3, an important class of examples of such systems is given by those with a simple closed periodic curve tangent to the central bundle. We prove that there is a C1-open and dense subset of such diffeomorphisms such that every nonhyperbolic ergodic measure (i.e. with zero central exponent) can be approximated in the weak* topology and in entropy by measures supported in basic sets with positive (negative) central Lyapunov exponent. Our method also allows to show how entropy changes across measures with central Lyapunov exponent close to zero. We also prove that any nonhyperbolic ergodic measure is in the intersection of the convex hulls of the measures with positive central exponent and with negative central exponent.
The VISCACHA (VIsible Soar photometry of star Clusters in tApii and Coxi HuguA†) Survey is an ongoing project based on deep and spatially resolved photometric observations of Magellanic Cloud star clusters, collected using the SOuthern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope together with the SOAR Adaptive Module Imager. So far we have used >300h of telescope time to observe ∼150 star clusters, mostly with low mass (M < 104M⊙) on the outskirts of the LMC and SMC. With this high-quality data set, we homogeneously determine physical properties using deep colour-magnitude diagrams (ages, metallicities, reddening, distances, mass, luminosity and mass functions) and structural parameters (radial density profiles, sizes) for these clusters which are used as a proxy to investigate the interplay between the Magellanic Clouds and their evolution. We present the VISCACHA survey and its initial results, based on our first two papers. The project’s long term goals and expected legacy to the community are also addressed.
We present preliminary results of the wide-field photometric study of the isolated elliptical galaxy NGC 1172, and its globular cluster system. Our data was obtained with the GMOS camera mounted on the Gemini South telescope, in the g′, r′, i′ and z′ bands. The aim of this work is to further our understanding of the evolution of NGC 1172, and to look for possible explanations for its unusual high specific frequency.
We present an analysis of the globular cluster system (GCS) of the galaxy NGC 3613, an intrinsically bright elliptical galaxy (MV = −21.5) in a low density environment (it is the central galaxy of a group of a dozen galaxies). Based on Gemini/GMOS photometry of NGC 3613 we obtained the following properties for this GCS. A ‘blue tilt’ is detected in the colour-magnitude diagram. The colour distribution is bimodal, presenting the two classical globular cluster (GC) sub-populations. The spatial and azimuthal projected distributions show that red sub-population correlates with the stellar component of the host galaxy.
Intended to test broad hypotheses and arrive at unifying conclusions, meta-analysis is the process of extracting, assembling, and analyzing large quantities of data from multiple publications to increase statistical power and uncover explanatory patterns. This paper describes the ways in which meta-analysis has been applied to support claims and counter-claims regarding two topics widely debated in agricultural research, namely organic agriculture (OA) and conservation agriculture (CA). We describe the origins of debate for each topic and assess prominent meta-analyses considering data-selection criteria, research question framing, and the interpretation and extrapolation of meta-analytical results. Meta-analyses of OA and CA are also examined in the context of the political economy of development-oriented agricultural research. Does size matter? We suggest that it does, although somewhat ironically. While meta-analysis aims to pool all relevant studies and generate comprehensive databases from which broad insights can be drawn, our case studies suggest that the organization of many meta-analyses may affect the generalizability and usefulness of research results. The politicized nature of debates over OA and CA also appear to affect the divergent ways in which meta-analytical results may be interpreted and extrapolated in struggles over the legitimacy of both practices. Rather than resolving scientific contestation, these factors appear to contribute to the ongoing debate. Meta-analysis is nonetheless becoming increasingly popular with agricultural researchers attracted by the power for the statistical inference offered by large datasets. This paper consequently offers three suggestions for how scientists and readers of scientific literature can more carefully evaluate meta-analyses. First, the ways in which papers and data are collected should be critically assessed. Second, the justification of research questions, framing of farming systems, and the scales at which research results are extrapolated and discussed should be carefully evaluated. Third, when applied to strongly politicized topics situated in an arena of scientific debate, as is the case with OA and CA, more conservative interpretations of meta-analytical results that recognize the socially and politically embedded nature of agricultural research is are needed.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: More men than women develop urinary stones and their prevalence alters in women with menopause suggesting a steroidal influence. In men the incidence of stones is highest during July and August suggesting that environmental factors such as Vitamin D (VitD), a steroid, may affect stone formation. Previous studies have found differences in the development of stones between men and women; however, the reasons for sex differences in stone formation and type remain unclear. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We examined VitD levels in men and women (n = 18,753) that had no diseases based on a lack of an ICD-9 or ICD-10 code in their electronic medical record. We found that normal, healthy women had significantly higher levels of sera VitD compared to men (p = 6x10-6). We then examined whether sex differences existed for key endpoints/data from the Mayo Clinic Urinary Stone Disease (USD) Registry, which has around 1,600 urinary stone patients that are well-phenotyped according to sex, age and stone type. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Control women were found to have higher sera VitD levels than men, but the sex difference no longer exists in kidney stone disease patients. When we further separated by race, we found that differences in VitD levels reappeared; this suggests that race also plays a role in sera VitD variances. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We are developing a disease severity score, which we will use to correlate to sera VitD levels in patients according to sex, age and race. Future analyses will take into account whether subjects had VitD and calcium supplementation. This project begins to explore the mechanism behind the sex differences known to exist in urinary stone disease, which is critically needed to provide improved diagnosis and therapy for this debilitating disease.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: In the present study, we examined the functional consequences of 3α-PVA on OATP1B1-mediated PVA transport. To elucidate this, we determined the effect of SLCO1B1 genotype on PVA transport and the role of 3αPVA as a competitive inhibitor of OATP1B1, which could serve as another covariate that disrupts the systemic and hepatic exposure of pravastatin in children and adults. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Site directed mutagenesis was performed to generate SLCO1B1 genotypes of interest (*1a, *1b, *5, *15). Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were grown and plated at 200 000 cells per well in 24-well plates. Twenty-four hours later the cells were transfected with the aforementioned plasmids. Forty-eight hours later cell-based transport was performed with radiolabelled [3H]-pravastatin sodium salt. Non-radioactive pravastatin sodium salt and 3’α-iso-pravastatin sodium salt was used for PVA transport and 3αPVA studies, respectively. Cells were washed 3 times with warm uptake buffer, incubated for 1 minute with uptake solutions containing PVA and 3αPVA at varying concentrations. Transport was terminated by four 1-ml washes with ice-cold uptake buffer. Cells were lysed with 300 µl 1% Triton X-100 in PBS at room temperature for 30 minutes prior to analysis. Radioactivity was measured in a MicroBeta2 liquid scintillation counter. The remaining cell lysates were transferred to 96-well plates to determine total protein concentration using the bicinchonic acid protein assay. All transport measurements were corrected by the total protein concentration. All experiments were performed 3 to 4 times independently with 2-3 determinations. Data were analyzed for significant differences amongst genotype groups using ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. IC50 and kinetic parameters were calculated using non-linear regression analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Pravastatin transport in SLCO1B1 variants (*5, *15) was significantly decreased compared to the reference genotype *1a and *1b (Km [µM]: *1a 18.2 ± 0.9; *1b 17.9 ± 3.3; *5 34.2 ± 9.7; *15 34.1 ± 6.1; p≤0.05; Vmax [pmol/mg/min]: *1a 104.9 ± 13.1; *1b 93.7 ± 16.7; *5 44.8 ± 15.9; *15 62.3 ± 22.5; p≤0.05). *1a and *1b were not significantly different with respect to pravastatin transport. Intrinsic clearance was diminished nearly 4 to 5-fold in SLCO1B1 variants compared to reference genotypes (Vmax/Km [µl/min/mg]: *1a 5.8 ± 0.8; *1b 5.7 ± 1.9; *5 1.3 ± 0.2; *15 1.8 ± 0.3; p≤0.01). Pravastatin transport was inhibited by 3αPVA for all genotypes. However, there was more pronounced inhibition in the SLCO1B1 variant genotypes compared to reference genotypes (IC50 [µM]: *1a 15.9 ± 1.9; *1b 18.6 ± 5.7; *5 3.9 ± 2.0; *15 4.4 ± 0.8; p≤0.01; Ki: *1a 15.0 ± 1.8; *1b 17.5 ± 5.4; *5 3.8 ± 2.9; *15 4.3 ± 0.8; p≤0.01). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In vitro PVA transport is altered according to SLCO1B1 genotype, consistent with previous in vitro and human experience. Our data suggest that the significantly different maximal transport velocity (Vmax) in variant versus non-variant genotypes is consistent with decreased membrane expression of OATP1B1 with the variant c.521T>C allele. However, in contrast to data involving typical model substrates (e.g. estrone-3-sulfate), the PVA binding affinity (Km) was significantly different between variant and non-variant genotypes, consistent with altered binding of the substrate to OATP1B1. Collectively, we conclude that decreased OATP1B1 expression and function in variant genotypes influence altered transport for PVA. Finally, the functional consequences of 3αPVA formation on PVA transport was confirmed in our study. Mechanistically, we confirmed our observation in humans that 3αPVA inhibits OATP1B1 transport. However, this effect is more pronounced in variant genotypes as shown by lower IC50 values compared to the reference genotypes. This highlights another source of variation that must be taken into consideration when trying to optimize the pravastatin dose-exposure relationship in humans.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Replacing a portion of a glucose challenge with whole eggs (EGG) or egg whites (WHITE) was shown to protect against glucose-induced impairments in vascular function. We hypothesised in the present study that previously observed vasoprotection following co-ingestion of EGG or WHITE with glucose was attributed to limiting postprandial hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress that improves NO∙ bioavailability. Prediabetic men completed a randomised, cross-over study in which they ingested isoenergetic meals containing 100 g glucose (GLU), or 75 g glucose with 1·5 EGG, seven WHITE or two egg yolks (YOLK). At 30 min intervals for 3 h, we assessed plasma NO∙ metabolites, the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde, antioxidants, arginine and its methylated metabolites (asymmetric dimethylarginine and symmetric dimethylarginine), tetrahydrobiopterin redox status, vasoconstrictors and inflammatory markers. Compared with GLU, malondialdehyde was lower and NO∙ metabolites were greater in EGG and WHITE, but YOLK was not different from GLU. Malondialdehyde was inversely correlated with NO∙ metabolites and vascular function, whereas NO∙ metabolites were positively correlated with vascular function. Compared with GLU, arginine was greater, but asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine and angiotensin-II were lower in all egg-based meals. Antioxidants, tetrahydrobiopterin redox status and inflammatory markers did not differ among treatments. Thus, while each egg-based meal improved arginine metabolism, only EGG and WHITE limited lipid peroxidation. This suggests that vasoprotection mediated by EGG and WHITE likely occurs in an NO∙-dependent manner by improving arginine metabolism and attenuating oxidative stress that otherwise limit NO∙ biosynthesis and bioavailability to the vascular endothelium.
Based on self-determination theory, this study examined the relationship between leisure activities, motivation, and adjustment to institutional living by older adults who live in nursing homes. We hypothesized that motivational profiles with higher levels of self-determined motivation represent the optimal profiles regarding participation in leisure activities, adaptation to nursing home living, and satisfaction with life. Participants completed questionnaires assessing motivation, leisure activity participation, life satisfaction, and adaptation to the nursing home. Results showed a relationship between the latter three factors. A latent profile analysis based on the different forms of motivation indicated four distinct profiles. Although no differences were found between the high self-determined profile (high self-determined motivation and low non-self-determined motivation) and the additive profile (high self-determined motivation and non-self-determined motivation), participants with a moderate profile and a low self-determined profile reported the lowest levels in leisure activity participation, adaptation to the nursing home, and satisfaction with life.
Monitoring vectors is relevant to ascertain transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF). This may require the best sampling method that can capture high numbers of specific species to give indication of transmission. Gravid anophelines are good indicators for assessing transmission due to close contact with humans through blood meals. This study compared the efficiency of an Anopheles gravid trap (AGT) with other mosquito collection methods including the box and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention gravid, light, exit and BioGent-sentinel traps, indoor resting collection (IRC) and pyrethrum spray catches across two endemic regions of Ghana. The AGT showed high trapping efficiency by collecting the highest mean number of anophelines per night in the Western (4.6) and Northern (7.3) regions compared with the outdoor collection methods. Additionally, IRC was similarly efficient in the Northern region (8.9) where vectors exhibit a high degree of endophily. AGT also showed good trapping potential for collecting Anopheles melas which is usually difficult to catch with existing methods. Screening of mosquitoes for infection showed a 0.80–3.01% Wuchereria bancrofti and 2.15–3.27% Plasmodium spp. in Anopheles gambiae. The AGT has shown to be appropriate for surveying Anopheles populations and can be useful for xenomonitoring for both LF and malaria.
Because the 14C calibration curves IntCal and SHCal are based on data from temperate latitudes, it remains unclear which curve is more suitable for archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from tropical South America. A review of climate dynamics reveals a significant influx of Northern Hemisphere air masses and moisture over a substantial part of the continent during the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM). Areas affected by the SASM receive unknown amounts of input from both hemispheres, where an argument could be made for either curve. Until localized tree-ring data can resolve this, we suggest using a mixed calibration curve, which accounts for inputs from both hemispheres, as a third calibration option. We present a calibration example from a crucial period of environmental and cultural change in the southern Lake Titicaca. Given our current lack of data on past ∆14C variation in South America, our calibrations and chronologies will likely change in the future. We hope this paper spurs new research into this topic and encourages researchers to make an informed and explicit choice of which curve to use, which is particularly relevant in research on past human–environmental relationships.
Eggs attenuate postprandial hyperglycaemia (PPH), which transiently impairs vascular endothelial function (VEF). We hypothesised that co-ingestion of a glucose challenge with egg-based meals would protect against glucose-induced impairments in VEF by attenuating PPH and oxidative stress. A randomised, cross-over study was conducted in prediabetic men (n 20) who ingested isoenegertic meals (1674 kJ (400 kcal)) containing 100 g glucose (GLU), or 75 g glucose with 1·5 whole eggs (EGG), seven egg whites (WHITE) or two egg yolks (YOLK). At 30 min intervals for 3 h, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin (CCK), lipids (total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol; TAG), F2-isoprostanes normalised to arachidonic acid (F2-IsoPs/AA), and methylglyoxal were assessed. In GLU, FMD decreased at 30–60 min and returned to baseline levels by 90 min. GLU-mediated decreases in FMD were attenuated at 30–60 min in EGG and WHITE. Compared with GLU, FMDAUC was higher in EGG and WHITE only. Relative to baseline, glucose increased at 30–120 min in GLU and YOLK but only at 30–90 min in EGG and WHITE. GlucoseAUC and insulinAUC were also lower in EGG and WHITE only. However, CCKAUC was higher in EGG and WHITE compared with GLU. Compared with GLU, F2-IsoPs/AAAUC was lower in EGG and WHITE but unaffected by YOLK. Postprandial lipids and methylglyoxal did not differ between treatments. Thus, replacing a portion of a glucose challenge with whole eggs or egg whites, but not yolks, limits postprandial impairments in VEF by attenuating increases in glycaemia and lipid peroxidation.
Goats have played a key role as source of nourishment for humans in their expansion all over the world in long land and sea trips. This has guaranteed a place for this species in the important and rapid episode of livestock expansion triggered by Columbus’ arrival in the Americas in the late 1400s. The aims of this study are to provide a comprehensive perspective on genetic diversity in American goat populations and to assess their origins and evolutionary trajectories. This was achieved by combining data from autosomal neutral genetic markers obtained in more than two thousand samples that encompass a wide range of Iberian, African and Creole goat breeds. In general, even though Creole populations differ clearly from each other, they lack a strong geographical pattern of differentiation, such that populations of different admixed ancestry share relatively close locations throughout the large geographical range included in this study. Important Iberian signatures were detected in most Creole populations studied, and many of them, particularly the Cuban Creole, also revealed an important contribution of African breeds. On the other hand, the Brazilian breeds showed a particular genetic structure and were clearly separated from the other Creole populations, with some influence from Cape Verde goats. These results provide a comprehensive characterisation of the present structure of goat genetic diversity, and a dissection of the Iberian and African influences that gave origin to different Creole caprine breeds, disentangling an important part of their evolutionary history. Creole breeds constitute an important reservoir of genetic diversity that justifies the development of appropriate management systems aimed at improving performance without loss of genomic diversity.
Marginal stability arguments are used to describe the rotation number dependence of torque in Taylor–Couette (TC) flow for radius ratios
and shear Reynolds number
. With an approximate representation of the mean profile by piecewise linear functions, characterised by the boundary-layer thicknesses at the inner and outer cylinder and the angular momentum in the centre, profiles and torques are extracted from the requirement that the boundary layers represent marginally stable TC subsystems and that the torque at the inner and outer cylinder coincide. This model then explains the broad shoulder in the torque as a function of rotation number near
. For rotation numbers
the TC stability conditions predict boundary layers in which the shear Reynolds numbers are very large. Assuming that the TC instability is bypassed by some shear instability, a second narrower maximum in torque appears, in very good agreement with numerical simulations. The results show that marginal stability theory, despite its shortcomings in other cases, can explain quantitatively the non-monotonic torque variation with rotation number for both the broad maximum as well as the narrow maximum.