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We study C1-robustly transitive and nonhyperbolic diffeomorphisms having a partially hyperbolic splitting with one-dimensional central bundle whose strong un-/stable foliations are both minimal. In dimension 3, an important class of examples of such systems is given by those with a simple closed periodic curve tangent to the central bundle. We prove that there is a C1-open and dense subset of such diffeomorphisms such that every nonhyperbolic ergodic measure (i.e. with zero central exponent) can be approximated in the weak* topology and in entropy by measures supported in basic sets with positive (negative) central Lyapunov exponent. Our method also allows to show how entropy changes across measures with central Lyapunov exponent close to zero. We also prove that any nonhyperbolic ergodic measure is in the intersection of the convex hulls of the measures with positive central exponent and with negative central exponent.
Intended to test broad hypotheses and arrive at unifying conclusions, meta-analysis is the process of extracting, assembling, and analyzing large quantities of data from multiple publications to increase statistical power and uncover explanatory patterns. This paper describes the ways in which meta-analysis has been applied to support claims and counter-claims regarding two topics widely debated in agricultural research, namely organic agriculture (OA) and conservation agriculture (CA). We describe the origins of debate for each topic and assess prominent meta-analyses considering data-selection criteria, research question framing, and the interpretation and extrapolation of meta-analytical results. Meta-analyses of OA and CA are also examined in the context of the political economy of development-oriented agricultural research. Does size matter? We suggest that it does, although somewhat ironically. While meta-analysis aims to pool all relevant studies and generate comprehensive databases from which broad insights can be drawn, our case studies suggest that the organization of many meta-analyses may affect the generalizability and usefulness of research results. The politicized nature of debates over OA and CA also appear to affect the divergent ways in which meta-analytical results may be interpreted and extrapolated in struggles over the legitimacy of both practices. Rather than resolving scientific contestation, these factors appear to contribute to the ongoing debate. Meta-analysis is nonetheless becoming increasingly popular with agricultural researchers attracted by the power for the statistical inference offered by large datasets. This paper consequently offers three suggestions for how scientists and readers of scientific literature can more carefully evaluate meta-analyses. First, the ways in which papers and data are collected should be critically assessed. Second, the justification of research questions, framing of farming systems, and the scales at which research results are extrapolated and discussed should be carefully evaluated. Third, when applied to strongly politicized topics situated in an arena of scientific debate, as is the case with OA and CA, more conservative interpretations of meta-analytical results that recognize the socially and politically embedded nature of agricultural research is are needed.
Several correction algorithms (Lachance & Traill (L-T), Rasberry & Heinrich (R-H), Lachance & Claisse (L-C) and Claisse & Quintin (C-Q) have been inter compared. All these algorithms assume that the effects of the matrixelements can be added in a linear way. Tertian, however, has shown that this is perfectly valid only when absorption is the only interelement effect to be taken into account. When enhancement is involved, corrections for crossed-effects are necessary. We have also evaluated the application of crossed-effect correction. Calculations were done, using theoretically calculated relative intensities. Influence coefficients were calculated by a regression method.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: More men than women develop urinary stones and their prevalence alters in women with menopause suggesting a steroidal influence. In men the incidence of stones is highest during July and August suggesting that environmental factors such as Vitamin D (VitD), a steroid, may affect stone formation. Previous studies have found differences in the development of stones between men and women; however, the reasons for sex differences in stone formation and type remain unclear. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We examined VitD levels in men and women (n = 18,753) that had no diseases based on a lack of an ICD-9 or ICD-10 code in their electronic medical record. We found that normal, healthy women had significantly higher levels of sera VitD compared to men (p = 6x10-6). We then examined whether sex differences existed for key endpoints/data from the Mayo Clinic Urinary Stone Disease (USD) Registry, which has around 1,600 urinary stone patients that are well-phenotyped according to sex, age and stone type. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Control women were found to have higher sera VitD levels than men, but the sex difference no longer exists in kidney stone disease patients. When we further separated by race, we found that differences in VitD levels reappeared; this suggests that race also plays a role in sera VitD variances. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We are developing a disease severity score, which we will use to correlate to sera VitD levels in patients according to sex, age and race. Future analyses will take into account whether subjects had VitD and calcium supplementation. This project begins to explore the mechanism behind the sex differences known to exist in urinary stone disease, which is critically needed to provide improved diagnosis and therapy for this debilitating disease.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: In the present study, we examined the functional consequences of 3α-PVA on OATP1B1-mediated PVA transport. To elucidate this, we determined the effect of SLCO1B1 genotype on PVA transport and the role of 3αPVA as a competitive inhibitor of OATP1B1, which could serve as another covariate that disrupts the systemic and hepatic exposure of pravastatin in children and adults. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Site directed mutagenesis was performed to generate SLCO1B1 genotypes of interest (*1a, *1b, *5, *15). Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were grown and plated at 200 000 cells per well in 24-well plates. Twenty-four hours later the cells were transfected with the aforementioned plasmids. Forty-eight hours later cell-based transport was performed with radiolabelled [3H]-pravastatin sodium salt. Non-radioactive pravastatin sodium salt and 3’α-iso-pravastatin sodium salt was used for PVA transport and 3αPVA studies, respectively. Cells were washed 3 times with warm uptake buffer, incubated for 1 minute with uptake solutions containing PVA and 3αPVA at varying concentrations. Transport was terminated by four 1-ml washes with ice-cold uptake buffer. Cells were lysed with 300 µl 1% Triton X-100 in PBS at room temperature for 30 minutes prior to analysis. Radioactivity was measured in a MicroBeta2 liquid scintillation counter. The remaining cell lysates were transferred to 96-well plates to determine total protein concentration using the bicinchonic acid protein assay. All transport measurements were corrected by the total protein concentration. All experiments were performed 3 to 4 times independently with 2-3 determinations. Data were analyzed for significant differences amongst genotype groups using ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. IC50 and kinetic parameters were calculated using non-linear regression analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Pravastatin transport in SLCO1B1 variants (*5, *15) was significantly decreased compared to the reference genotype *1a and *1b (Km [µM]: *1a 18.2 ± 0.9; *1b 17.9 ± 3.3; *5 34.2 ± 9.7; *15 34.1 ± 6.1; p≤0.05; Vmax [pmol/mg/min]: *1a 104.9 ± 13.1; *1b 93.7 ± 16.7; *5 44.8 ± 15.9; *15 62.3 ± 22.5; p≤0.05). *1a and *1b were not significantly different with respect to pravastatin transport. Intrinsic clearance was diminished nearly 4 to 5-fold in SLCO1B1 variants compared to reference genotypes (Vmax/Km [µl/min/mg]: *1a 5.8 ± 0.8; *1b 5.7 ± 1.9; *5 1.3 ± 0.2; *15 1.8 ± 0.3; p≤0.01). Pravastatin transport was inhibited by 3αPVA for all genotypes. However, there was more pronounced inhibition in the SLCO1B1 variant genotypes compared to reference genotypes (IC50 [µM]: *1a 15.9 ± 1.9; *1b 18.6 ± 5.7; *5 3.9 ± 2.0; *15 4.4 ± 0.8; p≤0.01; Ki: *1a 15.0 ± 1.8; *1b 17.5 ± 5.4; *5 3.8 ± 2.9; *15 4.3 ± 0.8; p≤0.01). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In vitro PVA transport is altered according to SLCO1B1 genotype, consistent with previous in vitro and human experience. Our data suggest that the significantly different maximal transport velocity (Vmax) in variant versus non-variant genotypes is consistent with decreased membrane expression of OATP1B1 with the variant c.521T>C allele. However, in contrast to data involving typical model substrates (e.g. estrone-3-sulfate), the PVA binding affinity (Km) was significantly different between variant and non-variant genotypes, consistent with altered binding of the substrate to OATP1B1. Collectively, we conclude that decreased OATP1B1 expression and function in variant genotypes influence altered transport for PVA. Finally, the functional consequences of 3αPVA formation on PVA transport was confirmed in our study. Mechanistically, we confirmed our observation in humans that 3αPVA inhibits OATP1B1 transport. However, this effect is more pronounced in variant genotypes as shown by lower IC50 values compared to the reference genotypes. This highlights another source of variation that must be taken into consideration when trying to optimize the pravastatin dose-exposure relationship in humans.
Nakayama proposed to classify finite-dimensional algebras R over a field according to how long an exact sequence
of projective and injective R-R-bimodules Xi they allow. He conjectured that if there exists an infinite sequence of this type, then R must be quasi-Frobenius; and he proved this when R is generalized uniserial (17).
A contra variant category-equivalence between categories of right R-modules and left S-modules (all rings have units, all modules are unitary) that contain RR, SS and are closed under submodules and factor modules, is naturally equivalent to a functor Horn (–, U) with a bimodule SUR such that SU, UR are injective cogenerators with S = End UR and R = End SU, and all modules in are [U-reflexive. Conversely, for any SSUR, Hom(–, U) is a contravariant category equivalence between the categories of [U-reflexive modules, and if U has the properties just stated, then these categories are closed under submodules, factor modules, and finite direct sums and contain RR, UR,SS, and SU. Such a functor will be called a (Morita) duality between R and S induced by U (see (5)).
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Replacing a portion of a glucose challenge with whole eggs (EGG) or egg whites (WHITE) was shown to protect against glucose-induced impairments in vascular function. We hypothesised in the present study that previously observed vasoprotection following co-ingestion of EGG or WHITE with glucose was attributed to limiting postprandial hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress that improves NO∙ bioavailability. Prediabetic men completed a randomised, cross-over study in which they ingested isoenergetic meals containing 100 g glucose (GLU), or 75 g glucose with 1·5 EGG, seven WHITE or two egg yolks (YOLK). At 30 min intervals for 3 h, we assessed plasma NO∙ metabolites, the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde, antioxidants, arginine and its methylated metabolites (asymmetric dimethylarginine and symmetric dimethylarginine), tetrahydrobiopterin redox status, vasoconstrictors and inflammatory markers. Compared with GLU, malondialdehyde was lower and NO∙ metabolites were greater in EGG and WHITE, but YOLK was not different from GLU. Malondialdehyde was inversely correlated with NO∙ metabolites and vascular function, whereas NO∙ metabolites were positively correlated with vascular function. Compared with GLU, arginine was greater, but asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine and angiotensin-II were lower in all egg-based meals. Antioxidants, tetrahydrobiopterin redox status and inflammatory markers did not differ among treatments. Thus, while each egg-based meal improved arginine metabolism, only EGG and WHITE limited lipid peroxidation. This suggests that vasoprotection mediated by EGG and WHITE likely occurs in an NO∙-dependent manner by improving arginine metabolism and attenuating oxidative stress that otherwise limit NO∙ biosynthesis and bioavailability to the vascular endothelium.
Based on self-determination theory, this study examined the relationship between leisure activities, motivation, and adjustment to institutional living by older adults who live in nursing homes. We hypothesized that motivational profiles with higher levels of self-determined motivation represent the optimal profiles regarding participation in leisure activities, adaptation to nursing home living, and satisfaction with life. Participants completed questionnaires assessing motivation, leisure activity participation, life satisfaction, and adaptation to the nursing home. Results showed a relationship between the latter three factors. A latent profile analysis based on the different forms of motivation indicated four distinct profiles. Although no differences were found between the high self-determined profile (high self-determined motivation and low non-self-determined motivation) and the additive profile (high self-determined motivation and non-self-determined motivation), participants with a moderate profile and a low self-determined profile reported the lowest levels in leisure activity participation, adaptation to the nursing home, and satisfaction with life.
Monitoring vectors is relevant to ascertain transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF). This may require the best sampling method that can capture high numbers of specific species to give indication of transmission. Gravid anophelines are good indicators for assessing transmission due to close contact with humans through blood meals. This study compared the efficiency of an Anopheles gravid trap (AGT) with other mosquito collection methods including the box and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention gravid, light, exit and BioGent-sentinel traps, indoor resting collection (IRC) and pyrethrum spray catches across two endemic regions of Ghana. The AGT showed high trapping efficiency by collecting the highest mean number of anophelines per night in the Western (4.6) and Northern (7.3) regions compared with the outdoor collection methods. Additionally, IRC was similarly efficient in the Northern region (8.9) where vectors exhibit a high degree of endophily. AGT also showed good trapping potential for collecting Anopheles melas which is usually difficult to catch with existing methods. Screening of mosquitoes for infection showed a 0.80–3.01% Wuchereria bancrofti and 2.15–3.27% Plasmodium spp. in Anopheles gambiae. The AGT has shown to be appropriate for surveying Anopheles populations and can be useful for xenomonitoring for both LF and malaria.
Because the 14C calibration curves IntCal and SHCal are based on data from temperate latitudes, it remains unclear which curve is more suitable for archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from tropical South America. A review of climate dynamics reveals a significant influx of Northern Hemisphere air masses and moisture over a substantial part of the continent during the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM). Areas affected by the SASM receive unknown amounts of input from both hemispheres, where an argument could be made for either curve. Until localized tree-ring data can resolve this, we suggest using a mixed calibration curve, which accounts for inputs from both hemispheres, as a third calibration option. We present a calibration example from a crucial period of environmental and cultural change in the southern Lake Titicaca. Given our current lack of data on past ∆14C variation in South America, our calibrations and chronologies will likely change in the future. We hope this paper spurs new research into this topic and encourages researchers to make an informed and explicit choice of which curve to use, which is particularly relevant in research on past human–environmental relationships.
Eggs attenuate postprandial hyperglycaemia (PPH), which transiently impairs vascular endothelial function (VEF). We hypothesised that co-ingestion of a glucose challenge with egg-based meals would protect against glucose-induced impairments in VEF by attenuating PPH and oxidative stress. A randomised, cross-over study was conducted in prediabetic men (n 20) who ingested isoenegertic meals (1674 kJ (400 kcal)) containing 100 g glucose (GLU), or 75 g glucose with 1·5 whole eggs (EGG), seven egg whites (WHITE) or two egg yolks (YOLK). At 30 min intervals for 3 h, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin (CCK), lipids (total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol; TAG), F2-isoprostanes normalised to arachidonic acid (F2-IsoPs/AA), and methylglyoxal were assessed. In GLU, FMD decreased at 30–60 min and returned to baseline levels by 90 min. GLU-mediated decreases in FMD were attenuated at 30–60 min in EGG and WHITE. Compared with GLU, FMDAUC was higher in EGG and WHITE only. Relative to baseline, glucose increased at 30–120 min in GLU and YOLK but only at 30–90 min in EGG and WHITE. GlucoseAUC and insulinAUC were also lower in EGG and WHITE only. However, CCKAUC was higher in EGG and WHITE compared with GLU. Compared with GLU, F2-IsoPs/AAAUC was lower in EGG and WHITE but unaffected by YOLK. Postprandial lipids and methylglyoxal did not differ between treatments. Thus, replacing a portion of a glucose challenge with whole eggs or egg whites, but not yolks, limits postprandial impairments in VEF by attenuating increases in glycaemia and lipid peroxidation.
Goats have played a key role as source of nourishment for humans in their expansion all over the world in long land and sea trips. This has guaranteed a place for this species in the important and rapid episode of livestock expansion triggered by Columbus’ arrival in the Americas in the late 1400s. The aims of this study are to provide a comprehensive perspective on genetic diversity in American goat populations and to assess their origins and evolutionary trajectories. This was achieved by combining data from autosomal neutral genetic markers obtained in more than two thousand samples that encompass a wide range of Iberian, African and Creole goat breeds. In general, even though Creole populations differ clearly from each other, they lack a strong geographical pattern of differentiation, such that populations of different admixed ancestry share relatively close locations throughout the large geographical range included in this study. Important Iberian signatures were detected in most Creole populations studied, and many of them, particularly the Cuban Creole, also revealed an important contribution of African breeds. On the other hand, the Brazilian breeds showed a particular genetic structure and were clearly separated from the other Creole populations, with some influence from Cape Verde goats. These results provide a comprehensive characterisation of the present structure of goat genetic diversity, and a dissection of the Iberian and African influences that gave origin to different Creole caprine breeds, disentangling an important part of their evolutionary history. Creole breeds constitute an important reservoir of genetic diversity that justifies the development of appropriate management systems aimed at improving performance without loss of genomic diversity.
Marginal stability arguments are used to describe the rotation number dependence of torque in Taylor–Couette (TC) flow for radius ratios
and shear Reynolds number
. With an approximate representation of the mean profile by piecewise linear functions, characterised by the boundary-layer thicknesses at the inner and outer cylinder and the angular momentum in the centre, profiles and torques are extracted from the requirement that the boundary layers represent marginally stable TC subsystems and that the torque at the inner and outer cylinder coincide. This model then explains the broad shoulder in the torque as a function of rotation number near
. For rotation numbers
the TC stability conditions predict boundary layers in which the shear Reynolds numbers are very large. Assuming that the TC instability is bypassed by some shear instability, a second narrower maximum in torque appears, in very good agreement with numerical simulations. The results show that marginal stability theory, despite its shortcomings in other cases, can explain quantitatively the non-monotonic torque variation with rotation number for both the broad maximum as well as the narrow maximum.
Parents are a major supplier of alcohol to adolescents, yet there is limited research examining the impact of this on adolescent alcohol use. This study investigates associations between parental supply of alcohol, supply from other sources, and adolescent drinking, adjusting for child, parent, family and peer variables.
A cohort of 1927 adolescents was surveyed annually from 2010 to 2014. Measures include: consumption of whole drinks; binge drinking (>4 standard drinks on any occasion); parental supply of alcohol; supply from other sources; child, parent, family and peer covariates.
After adjustment, adolescents supplied alcohol by parents had higher odds of drinking whole beverages [odds ratio (OR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33–2.45] than those not supplied by parents. However, parental supply was not associated with bingeing, and those supplied alcohol by parents typically consumed fewer drinks per occasion (incidence rate ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.77–0.96) than adolescents supplied only from other sources. Adolescents obtaining alcohol from non-parental sources had increased odds of drinking whole beverages (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.86–3.45) and bingeing (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.53–4.87).
Parental supply of alcohol to adolescents was associated with increased risk of drinking, but not bingeing. These parentally-supplied children also consumed fewer drinks on a typical drinking occasion. Adolescents supplied alcohol from non-parental sources had greater odds of drinking and bingeing. Further follow-up is necessary to determine whether these patterns continue, and to examine alcohol-related harm trajectories. Parents should be advised that supply of alcohol may increase children's drinking.
The collective response of electrons in an ultrathin foil target irradiated by an ultraintense (
) laser pulse is investigated experimentally and via 3D particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that if the target is sufficiently thin that the laser induces significant radiation pressure, but not thin enough to become relativistically transparent to the laser light, the resulting relativistic electron beam is elliptical, with the major axis of the ellipse directed along the laser polarization axis. When the target thickness is decreased such that it becomes relativistically transparent early in the interaction with the laser pulse, diffraction of the transmitted laser light occurs through a so called ‘relativistic plasma aperture’, inducing structure in the spatial-intensity profile of the beam of energetic electrons. It is shown that the electron beam profile can be modified by variation of the target thickness and degree of ellipticity in the laser polarization.
Herbivorous and deposit-feeding gastropods are a major component of archaeological shell middens worldwide. They provide a wealth of information about subsistence, economy, environment, and climate, but are generally considered to be less than ideal for radiocarbon dating because they can ingest sediment while they graze, inadvertently consuming terrestrial carbon in the process. However, few studies of 14C activity in herbivores or deposit-feeding gastropods have been conducted into this diverse range of animals that inhabit many environmental niches. Here, we present results investigating 14C variability in shells belonging to the families Strombidae and Potamididae from the Bogi 1 archaeological site, Caution Bay, southern coastal Papua New Guinea (PNG). These shells make up 39.3% of the shell MNI in the excavation units studied and some of these species are the most common taxa of neighboring sites. It would therefore be advantageous to establish if there are any 14C offsets associated with such animals, and identify those that can give reliable calendar ages. Our methodology combines a high-resolution excavation protocol, selection of short-lived samples identified to species level, and a triisotope approach using 14C, δ13C, and δ18O to evaluate the source of variability in shells. Our results indicate that considerable variation exists between different species of Strombidae with some inhabiting muddier environments that act as sinks for limestone-derived sediments with depleted 14C content. The magnitude of variation is, however, overshadowed by that measured in the mudwhelk, Cerithidea largillierti, which has the largest spread in 14C of any shellfish studied so far at Caution Bay. This animal ingests sediment within the estuary that contains 14C derived from both enriched and depleted sources.
The analysis of morphological disparity and of morphospace occupation through the macroevolutionary history of clades is now a major research program in paleobiology, and increasingly so in organismal and comparative biology. Most studies have focused on the relationship between taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity, and on ecological or developmental controls. However, the geographic context of diversification has remained understudied. Here we address geography quantitatively. Diversity, disparity, and paleogeographic dispersion are used to describe the evolutionary history of an extinct echinoderm clade, the class Stylophora (cornutes, mitrates), from the Middle Cambrian to the Middle Devonian (about 128 Myr subdivided into 12 stratigraphic intervals). Taxonomic diversity is estimated from a representative sample including 73.3% of described species and 92.4% of described genera. Stylophoran morphology is quantified on the basis of seven morphometric parameters derived from image analysis of homologous skeletal regions. Three separate principal coordinates analyses (PCO) are performed for thecal outlines, plates from the lower thecal surface, and plates from the upper thecal surface, respectively. PCO scores from these three separate analyses are then used as variables for a single, global, meta-PCO. For each time interval, disparity is calculated as the sum of variance in the multidimensional morphospace defined by the meta-PCO axes. For each time interval, a semiquantitative index of paleogeographic dispersion is calculated, reflecting both global (continental) and local (regional) aspects of dispersion.
Morphospace occupation of cornutes and mitrates is partly overlapping, suggesting some morphologic convergences between the two main stylophoran clades, probably correlated to similar modes of life (e.g., symmetrical cornutes and primitive mitrocystitids). Hierarchical clustering allowed the identification of three main morphological sets (subdivided into 11 subsets) within the global stylophoran morphospace. These morphological sets are used to analyze the spatiotemporal variations of disparity. The initial radiation of stylophorans is characterized by a low diversity and a rapid increase in disparity (Middle Cambrian–Tremadocian). The subsequent diversification involved filling and little expansion of morphospace (Arenig–Middle Ordovician). Finally, both stylophoran diversity and disparity decreased relatively steadily from the Late Ordovician to the Middle Devonian, with the exception of a second (lower) peak in the Early Devonian. Such a pattern is comparable to that of other Paleozoic marine invertebrates such as blastozoans and orthid brachiopods. During the Lower to Middle Ordovician, the most dramatic diversification of stylophorans took place with a paleogeographic dispersion essentially limited to the periphery of Gondwana. In the Late Ordovician, stylophorans steadily extended toward lower paleolatitudes, and new environmental conditions, where some of them radiated, and finally survived the end-Ordovician mass extinction (e.g., anomalocystitids). This pattern of paleobiogeographic dispersion is comparable to that of other examples of Paleozoic groups of marine invertebrates, such as bivalve mollusks.