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Review findings on the role of dietary patterns in preventing depression are inconsistent, possibly due to variation in assessment of dietary exposure and depression. We studied the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in six population-based cohorts and meta-analysed the findings using a standardised approach that defined dietary exposure, depression assessment and covariates.
Included were cross-sectional data from 23 026 participants in six cohorts: InCHIANTI (Italy), LASA, NESDA, HELIUS (the Netherlands), ALSWH (Australia) and Whitehall II (UK). Analysis of incidence was based on three cohorts with repeated measures of depressive symptoms at 5–6 years of follow-up in 10 721 participants: Whitehall II, InCHIANTI, ALSWH. Three a priori dietary patterns, Mediterranean diet score (MDS), Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were investigated in relation to depressive symptoms. Analyses at the cohort-level adjusted for a fixed set of confounders, meta-analysis used a random-effects model.
Cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed statistically significant inverse associations of the three dietary patterns with depressive symptoms (continuous and dichotomous). In cross-sectional analysis, the association of diet with depressive symptoms using a cut-off yielded an adjusted OR of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.84–0.91) for MDS, 0.93 (0.88–0.98) for AHEI-2010, and 0.94 (0.87–1.01) for DASH. Similar associations were observed prospectively: 0.88 (0.80–0.96) for MDS; 0.95 (0.84–1.06) for AHEI-2010; 0.90 (0.84–0.97) for DASH.
Population-scale observational evidence indicates that adults following a healthy dietary pattern have fewer depressive symptoms and lower risk of developing depressive symptoms.
Mood disorders and adiposity are major public health challenges. Few studies have investigated the bidirectional association of weight and waist circumference (WC) change with psychological distress in middle age, while taking into account the potential U-shape of the association. The aim of this study was to examine the bidirectional association between psychological distress and categorical change in objectively measured weight and WC.
We analysed repeated measures (up to 17 522 person-observations in adjusted analyses) of psychological distress, weight and WC from the Whitehall II cohort. Participants were recruited at age 35–55 and 67% male. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire. We used random-effects regressions to model the association between weight and WC changes and psychological distress, with and without a 5-year lag period.
Psychological distress was associated with weight and WC gain over the subsequent 5 years but not the second 5-year period. Weight gain and loss were associated with increased odds for incident psychological distress in models with and without time-lag [odds ratio (OR) for incident psychological distress after 5-year time-lag: loss 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–1.43; gain>5% 1.20, 95% CI 1.02–1.40]. WC changes were only associated with psychological distress in models without time-lag (OR for incident psychological distress: loss 1.29, 95% CI 1.02–1.64; gain>5% 1.33, 95% CI 1.11–1.58).
Weight gain and loss increase the odds for psychological distress compared with stable weight over subsequent 10 years. In contrast, the association between psychological distress and subsequent weight and WC changes was limited to the first 5 years of follow-up.
The present study investigates whether the reversal of the social gradient in obesity, defined as a cross-over to higher obesity prevalence among groups with lower education level, has occurred among men and women in urban and rural areas of Mexico.
Cross-sectional series of nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, 2012 and 2016). The association between education and obesity was investigated over the period 1988–2016. Effect modification of the education–obesity association by household wealth was tested.
Women (n 54 816) and men (n 20 589) aged 20–49 years.
In both urban and rural areas, the association between education and obesity in women varied by level of household wealth in the earlier surveys (1988, 1999 and 2006; interaction P<0·001). In urban areas in 1988, one level lower education was associated (prevalence ratio; 95 % CI) with 45 % higher obesity prevalence among the richest women (1·45; 1·24, 1·69), whereas among the poorest the same education difference was protective (0·84; 0·72, 0·99). In the latest surveys (2012, 2016), higher education was protective across all wealth groups. Among men, education level was not associated with obesity in urban areas; there was a direct association in rural areas. Wealth did not modify the association between education and obesity.
The reversal of the educational gradient in obesity among women occurred once a threshold level of household wealth was reached. Among men, there was no evidence of a reversal of the gradient. Policies must not lose sight of the populations most vulnerable to the obesogenic environment.
Many women experience both vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS) and depressed mood at midlife, but little is known regarding the prospective bi-directional relationships between VMS and depressed mood and the role of sleep difficulties in both directions.
A pooled analysis was conducted using data from 21 312 women (median: 50 years, interquartile range 49−51) in eight studies from the InterLACE consortium. The degree of VMS, sleep difficulties, and depressed mood was self-reported and categorised as never, rarely, sometimes, and often (if reporting frequency) or never, mild, moderate, and severe (if reporting severity). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the bi-directional associations adjusted for within-study correlation.
At baseline, the prevalence of VMS (40%, range 13–62%) and depressed mood (26%, 8–41%) varied substantially across studies, and a strong dose-dependent association between VMS and likelihood of depressed mood was found. Over 3 years of follow-up, women with often/severe VMS at baseline were more likely to have subsequent depressed mood compared with those without VMS (odds ratios (OR) 1.56, 1.27–1.92). Women with often/severe depressed mood at baseline were also more likely to have subsequent VMS than those without depressed mood (OR 1.89, 1.47–2.44). With further adjustment for the degree of sleep difficulties at baseline, the OR of having a subsequent depressed mood associated with often/severe VMS was attenuated and no longer significant (OR 1.13, 0.90–1.40). Conversely, often/severe depressed mood remained significantly associated with subsequent VMS (OR 1.80, 1.38–2.34).
Difficulty in sleeping largely explained the relationship between VMS and subsequent depressed mood, but it had little impact on the relationship between depressed mood and subsequent VMS.
Precise applying of PPP (Plant Protection Products) in orchards and vineyards requires new kinds of sprayer technologies and new methods of sensor data evaluation. In this paper a selective electrical driven sprayer, carried by the autonomous robotic platform elWObot, is introduced. A 3D-Simulation environment and the framework ROS (Robot Operating System) helps developing and testing the interaction between the sprayer and the robot. The calculated leaf wall area (LWA) and the distance from the sprayer to the leaves in the spray region, control the flow-rate and the air-assist of eight adjustable sprayers individually. First field trials showed that the adaption of the software from the simulation to the hardware worked as expected.
This study investigates gender differences in trajectories of support from close relationships among adults in the transition from middle to old age, taking into account stability and change in the identity of the closest persons. Multi-level modelling was used to estimate gendered age-trajectories in three dimensions of support: emotional support, practical support and negative encounters, which were repeatedly measured over ten years amongst 6,718 Whitehall II participants. Men were more likely than women to nominate their partner as their closest person throughout follow-up; whereas women drew support from a wider range of sources. Gender differences were only evident in age-related trajectories of emotional support, and were contingent on stability and change in the closest relationships. Men reported increased emotional support from closest relationships with age, except for those who transitioned out of a partnership. For women, emotional support was stable among those whose closest person remained consistent, but decreased among those who changed their closest person. Further, emotional support increased with age for all married men, which was only the case for married women who nominated their partner as their closest person. Our analysis highlights gender-specific trajectories of perceived support from adults’ closest relationships in late life, and indicate more pronounced socio-emotional selectivity in older men than women.
Designing and implementing the Science Archive for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Gunn et. al 1992) has presented several unique architectural obstacles. First, the final archive will be large; the cumulative data products will exceed tens of Terabytes. Second, the data will be complex; extracted parameter catalogs will contain links to images, spectra, and objects in other wavelength catalogs. Third, the archive will be widely distributed allowing transparent world-wide access to the available data. Finally, the archive is expected to remain viable well into the next century.
Higher variety of recommended foods, identified arbitrarily based on dietary guidelines, has been associated with better health status. Nutrient profiling is designed to identify objectively, based on nutrient content, healthier foods whose consumption should be encouraged. The objective was to assess the prospective associations between total food variety (food variety score, FVS) and variety from selected recommended and non-recommended foods (RFV and NRFV, respectively) and risk of chronic disease and mortality. In 1991–3, 7251 participants of the Whitehall II study completed a 127-item FFQ. The FVS was defined as the number of foods consumed more than once a week. (N)RFV(Ofcom) and (N)RFV(SAIN,LIM) were similarly derived selecting healthier (or less healthier) foods as defined by the UK Ofcom and French SAIN,LIM nutrient profile models, respectively. Multi-adjusted Cox regressions were fitted with incident CHD, diabetes, CVD, cancer and all-cause mortality (318, 754, 137, 251 and 524 events, respectively – median follow-up time 17 years). RFV and NRFV scores were mutually adjusted. The FVS (fourth v. first quartile) was associated with a 39 and 26 % reduction of prospective CHD and all-cause mortality risk, respectively. The RFV(Ofcom) (third v. first quartile) was associated with a 27 and 35 % reduction of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality risk, respectively; similar associations were suggested, but not significant for the RFV(SAIN,LIM). No prospective associations were observed with NRFV scores. The results strengthen the rationale to promote total food variety and variety from healthy foods. Nutrient profiling can help in identifying those foods whose consumption should be encouraged.
The dependence of the In-incorporation efficiency and the optical properties of MOVPE-grown GaInN/GaN-heterostructures on various growth parameters has been investigated. A significant improvement of the In-incorporation rate could be obtained by increasing the growth rate and reducing the H2-partial pressure in the MOVPE reactor. However, GaInN layers with a high In-content typically show an additional low energy photoluminescence peak, whose distance to the band-edge increases with increasing In-content. For GaInN/GaN quantum wells with an In-content of approximately 12%, an increase of the well thickness is accompanied by a significant line broadening and a large increase of the Stokes shift between the emission peak and the band edge determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy. With a further increase of the thickness of the GaInN layer, a second GaInN-correlated emission peak emerges. To elucidate the nature of these optical transitions, power-dependent as well as time-resolved photoluminescence measurements have been performed and compared to the results of scanning transmission electron microscopy.
PECVD growth of the microcrystalline silicon junction on a highly textured amorphous top cell often leads to defective absorber layers and finally to low quality bottom cell. This paper reports on the current status of using an innovative smoothening/reflective layer (SRL) as alternative intermediate reflector between top and bottom cell of a Micromorph tandem device deposited on as-grown highly textured LPCVD ZnO layer. Manufacturing of the SRL layer is realized by “liquid phase” deposition technologies. Optical and electrical properties, smoothening effect and photoelectrical results of Micromorph tandem devices are discussed. The implementation of our novel SRL results in the growth of a crack-free bottom cell and to an efficient current transfer from the bottom to the top cell.
Few prospective studies have examined the effects of different types of dairy food on the risks of type 2 diabetes, CHD and mortality. We examined whether intakes of total dairy, high-fat dairy, low-fat dairy, milk and fermented dairy products were related to these outcomes in the Whitehall II prospective cohort study. At baseline, dairy consumption was assessed by FFQ among 4526 subjects (72 % men) with a mean age 56 (sd 6) years. Death certificates and medical records were used to ascertain CHD mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Incident diabetes was detected by the oral glucose tolerance test or self-report. Incidence data were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for lifestyle and dietary factors. During approximately 10 years of follow-up, 273 diabetes, 323 CHD and 237 all-cause mortality cases occurred. In multivariable models, intakes of total dairy and types of dairy products were not significantly associated with incident diabetes or CHD (all P values for trend >0·1). Fermented dairy products was inversely associated with overall mortality (hazard ratios approximately 0·7 in the middle and highest tertiles; P for trend < 0·01) but not with incident CHD or diabetes (P>0·3). In conclusion, intakes of total dairy and types of dairy products showed no consistent relationship with incident diabetes, CHD or all-cause mortality.
Lake-level and palaeoecological evidence from Africa, Arabia and southern Asia for 9000 yBP suggests an intensification and increased poleward penetration of the northern monsoons. The vegetation belts shifted north by 4–6° latitude on the south side of the Sahara. In contrast, the monsoon over southern Africa was weaker than today. Calculations based on the new palaeogeographical map of Mali by Petit-Maire et al. (1988) indicated that the areaaveraged surface albedo decreased by 0·10–0·14 in the zone 16–24°N and that total annual precipitation increased by 150–320 mm north of the inland delta of the Niger (20–24° 15′N). Experiments with atmospheric general-circulation models suggest that this asymmetrical pattern of anomalies in the strength of the tropical monsoons can be explained in broad terms by the different orbital configuration of the Earth at 9000 yBP. Here, we describe a hitherto unpublished sensitivity experiment with the low-resolution (5° × 7·5°) version of the U.K. Meteorological Office 11-layer model, in which the albedo over Africa and Arabia between 15 and 30°N was reduced by between 0·04 and 0·06 to simulate the increase in vegetation cover at 9000 yBP. The results indicate that the surface-albedo change provides a significant positive feedback enhancing the direct climatic effects of Milankovitch forcing in the tropics.