Oesophagostomum bifurcum larvae, cultured from human stools collected in northern Ghana, were used to establish experimental infections in monkeys. A patent infection was established in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) and this infection was used to generate larvae to inoculate additional monkeys. In all, 17 animals were inoculated. Thirteen of 15 animals developed antibodies to the infection between 19 and 62 days post inoculation (PI); two animals had a positive response before inoculation. Four of ten animals developed patent infections between 88 and 134 days and passed eggs in the faeces. Egg shedding was consistent in only one animal, but at low levels of one or two eggs per 2 mg direct smear, and extended over a 400 day period. In the other three animals, egg shedding was sporadic and of only 2–4 weeks duration. In seven animals necropsied between 19 and 22 days PI, one to 17 early fourth-stage larvae were recovered from nodules in the bowel wall; in an eighth animal examined at 314 days, six immature adult worms (early fifth stage) were recovered from nodules in the bowel wall. The morphological features and growth of these recovered larvae are described. Three animals were inoculated with larvae that had been dried for one week at 28°C; two animals began shedding eggs at 128 and 134 days PI, respectively. The present results suggest that the parasite obtained from humans is poorly adapted to lower primate hosts, and supports the concept that Oesophagostomum bifurcum found in humans and monkeys in the same geographical region of northern Ghana and Togo are distinct and that the infections in humans are not likely to represent zoonotic infections acquired from monkeys.