To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The adult and metacercaria life stages of a new species of the microphallid genus Atriophallophorus Deblock & Rosé, 1964 are described from specimens collected at Lake Alexandrina (South Island, New Zealand). In addition to molecular analyses of ribosomal and mitochondrial genes, metacercariae of Atriophallophorus winterbourni n. sp. from the snail host Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) were grown in vitro to characterize internal and external morphology of adults using light and scanning electron microscopy and histological techniques. Atriophallophorus winterbourni n. sp. is readily distinguishable from Atriophallophorus coxiellae Smith, 1973 by having a different structure of the prostatic chamber, sub-circular and dorsal to genital atrium, rather than cylindrical, fibrous, elongate and placed between the seminal vesicle and the genital atrium. The new species is most similar to Atriophallophorus minutus (Price, 1934) with regards to the prostatic chamber and the morphometric data, but possesses elongate-oval testes and subtriangular ovary rather than oval and transversely oval in A. minutus. Phylogenetic analyses including sequence data for A. winterbourni n. sp. suggested a congeneric relationship of the new species to a hitherto undescribed metacercariae reported from Australia, both forming a strongly supported clade closely related to Microphallus and Levinseniella. In addition, we provide an amended diagnosis of Atriophallophorus to accommodate the new species and confirm the sinistral interruption of the outer rim of the ventral sucker caused by the protrusion of the dextral parietal atrial scale at the base of the phallus.
Resilience is the ability of an animal to return soon to its initial productivity after facing diverse environmental challenges. This trait is directly related to animal welfare and it plays a key role in fluctuations of livestock productivity. A divergent selection experiment for environmental variance of litter size has been performed successfully in rabbits over ten generations. The objective of this study was to analyse resilience indicators of stress and disease in the divergent lines of this experiment. The high line showed a lower survival rate at birth than the low line (−4.1%). After correcting by litter size, the difference was −3.2%. Involuntary culling rate was higher in the high than in the low line (+12.4%). Before vaccination against viral haemorrhagic disease or myxomatosis, concentration of lymphocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), complement C3, serum bilirubin, triglycerides and cholesterol were higher in the high line than in the low line (difference between lines +4.5%, +5.6 µg/ml, +4.6 mg/ml, +7.9 mmol/l, +0.3 mmol/l and +0.4 mmol/l). Immunological and biochemical responses to the two vaccines were similar. After vaccination, the percentage of lymphocytes and CRP concentration were higher in the low line than in the high one (difference between lines +4.0% and +13.1 µg/ml). The low line also showed a higher increment in bilirubin and triglycerides than the high line (+14.2 v. +8.7 mmol/l for bilirubin and +0.11 v. +0.01 mmol/l for triglycerides); these results would agree with the protective role of bilirubin and triglycerides against the larger inflammatory response found in this line. In relation to stress, the high line had higher basal concentration of cortisol than the low line (+0.2ng/ml); the difference between lines increased more than threefold after the injection of ACTH 1 to 24, the increase being greater in the high line (+0.9 ng/ml) than in the low line (+0.4 ng/ml). Selection for divergent environmental variability of litter size leads to dams with different culling rate for reproductive causes and different kits’ neonatal survival. These associations suggest that the observed fitness differences are related to differences in the inflammatory response and the corticotrope response to stress, which are two important components of physiological adaptation to environmental aggressions.
Completed suicide (CS) is a leading cause of death worldwide and its rates are available for most developed countries. On the other hand, attempted suicide (AS) is a risk factor for CS but there are limited data on its rates in various countries. In constructing a ratio for AS/CS rates, most would agree that for CS, the denominator should be the annual suicide rate (per 100 000). As for the ratio's numerator (AS) per 100 000, there are three possible calculations: (1) annual prevalence from population surveys, (2) annual prevalence from national clinical registers or (3) lifetime prevalence from population surveys. We think that the first possibility would probably be the best choice but, unfortunately, surveys providing the annual prevalence of AS are lacking for most countries. Annual prevalence from national registers is also lacking for most countries and is contaminated by under-reporting. Therefore, in this editorial, we are left with only the last option, a ratio for lifetime prevalence of AS (per 100 000) divided by annual rate of CS (per 100 000). This ratio for AS/CS rates appears to differ substantially across countries worldwide but presents no big regional differences other than two remarkable exceptions, one per continent. In Europe, Spain and France had greater ratios (174.4 and 152.5, respectively) than Italy (64.1). In Asia/Pacific, New Zealand has a higher ratio (345.9) compared with China (75.8) and Japan (76.9). The ratio for AS/CS rates could be a good index for implementing evidence-informed decision-making regarding suicidal behaviour (SB) among health service managers, and for helping them in the allocation of health resources for the prevention of SB.
A divergent selection experiment on litter size variability (high and low lines) was performed in rabbits over seven generations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlated responses to selection in body condition and fat reserves mobilisation. Litter size variability was estimated as phenotypic variance of litter size within female after correcting for the year-season and the parity-lactation status effects. A total of 226 females were used in this study, of which 158 females were used to measure body condition and energy mobilisation. Body condition was measured as BW and perirenal fat thickness. Females were stimulated with the adrenergic isoproterenol. Mobilisation capacity of fat reserves was measured by the lipolytic potential, defined as the increment in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels from basal concentration until adrenergic stimulation at mating, delivery and 10 days after delivery of the second reproductive cycle. Females were classified as survivor or non-survivor when they were culled for sanitary reasons or died before the third kindling. Data were analysed using Bayesian methodology. Survivor females presented higher BW than the non-survivor females at delivery (238 g, P=1.00) and 10 days after delivery (276 g, P=1.00). They also showed higher perirenal fat thickness at 10 days after delivery (0.62 mm, P=1.00). At delivery, basal NEFA levels was lower in survivor than non-survivor females (−0.18 mmol/l, P=1.00), but their lipolytic potential (∆NEFA) was higher (0.08 mmol/l, P=0.94). Body weight was similar between lines in survivor females. Perirenal fat thickness was lower in the high line than in the low line at delivery (−0.23 mm, P=0.90) and 10 days after delivery (−0.28 mm, P=0.92). The high line exhibited higher NEFA (0.10 mmol/l, P=0.93) and lower ∆NEFA (−0.08 mmol/l, P=0.92) than the low line at delivery. The low line showed a favourable correlated response to selection on body condition and fat reserves mobilisation. In conclusion, the low line selected for litter size variability seems to adapt better to adverse conditions, as it has a greater capacity to mobilise energy reserves at delivery than the high line. Females that adequately manage their body reserves and perform energy mobilisation correctly have a lower risk of dying or being culled.
Research suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents have a higher risk of suicidal behaviours than their heterosexual peers, but little is known about specific risk factors.
To assess sexual orientation as a risk factor for suicidal behaviours, and to identify other risk factors among LGB adolescents and young adults.
A systematic search was made of six databases up to June 2015, including a grey literature search. Population-based longitudinal studies considering non-clinical populations aged 12–26 years and assessing being LGB as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour compared with being heterosexual, or evaluating risk factors for suicidal behaviour within LGB populations, were included. Random effect models were used in meta-analysis.
Sexual orientation was significantly associated with suicide attempts in adolescents and youths (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.60–3.20). Gay or bisexual men were more likely to report suicide attempts compared with heterosexual men (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.21–4.04). Based on two studies, a non-significant positive association was found between depression and suicide attempts in LGB groups.
Sexual orientation is associated with a higher risk of suicide attempt in young people. Further research is needed to assess completed suicide, and specific risk factors affecting the LGB population.
The AMIGA project carries out a multiwavelength study of the largest catalogue of isolated galaxies from the Local Universe (CIG, Karachentseva 1973). Compared to any other sample —field galaxies included— and using highly strict isolation criteria (unperturbed for at least ~3 Gyr, Verdes-Montenegro et al. 2005), all the results show that these galaxies have the lowest values of the physical magnitudes expected to be enhanced by interactions. This strongly supports isolated galaxies as ideal laboratories for the study of galaxy formation and evolution. Despite CIG galaxies show the lowest HI integrated profile asymmetry level when compared to any other sample, some cases present up to 50% HI asymmetry (Espada et al. 2011b). We aim to shed light over the causes and sources of such asymmetries with our deep radiointerferometric and optical observations of CIG targets. Since major mergers are ruled out by the isolation criteria, in this work we are addressing whether minor mergers, internal processes or primordial gas accretion are responsible for such asymmetries.
Area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs assume that offspring reduction of the target population correlates with the mating success of the sterile males released. However, there is a lack of monitoring tools to prove the success of these programs in real-time. Field-cage tests were conducted under the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean coast of Spain to estimate: (a) the mating success of sterile Vienna-8 (V8) Ceratitis capitata males using molecular markers and (b) their efficacy to reduce C. capitata populations under six release ratios of wild females to wild males to V8 males (1:0:0, 1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10, and 1:1:20). Statistical models were developed to predict: (a) the number of females captured in traps, (b) sperm ID (sterile or not) in spermathecae of the trapped females, and (c) the viable offspring produced, using release ratio and temperature as predictors. The number of females captured was affected by relative humidity. However, its influence in the model was low. Female captures were significantly higher in ratios 1:0:0 compared to ratios where V8 males were released. The proportion of V8 sperm in spermathecae increased with temperature and with the number of V8 males released, but leveled off between ratios 1:1:10 and 1:1:20. In all seasons, except winter (no offspring), viable offspring increased with temperature and was lowest for ratio 1:1:20. For the first time, a strong negative relationship between proportion of V8 sperm detected by molecular tools and C. capitata offspring was established. The models obtained should contribute to enhance the efficacy of SIT programs against this pest.
Although white-matter abnormalities have been reported in middle-aged patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), few data are available on treatment-resistant MDD and the influence of relevant variables related to clinical burden of illness is far from being well established.
The present study examined white-matter microstructure in a sample of 52 patients with MDD in different stages (treatment-resistant/chronic MDD, n = 18; remitted-recurrent MDD, n = 15; first-episode MDD, n = 19) and 17 healthy controls, using diffusion tensor imaging with a tract-based spatial statistics approach. Groups were comparable in age and gender distribution, and results were corrected for familywise error (FWE) rate.
Widespread significant reductions of fractional anisotropy (FA) – including the cingulum, corpus callosum, superior and inferior longitudinal fascicule – were evident in treatment-resistant/chronic MDD compared with first-episode MDD and controls (p < 0.05, FWE-corrected). Decreased FA was observed within the ventromedial prefrontal region in treatment-resistant/chronic MDD even when compared with the remitted-recurrent MDD group (p < 0.05, FWE-corrected). Longer duration of illness (β = –0.49, p = 0.04) and higher depression severity (at a trend level: β = –0.26, p = 0.06) predicted lower FA in linear multiple regression analysis at the whole-brain level. The number of previous episodes and severity of symptoms were significant predictors when focused on the ventromedial prefrontal area (β = −0.28, p = 0.04; and β = −0.29, p = 0.03, respectively). Medication effects were controlled for in the analyses and results remained unaltered.
Our findings support the notion that disruptions of white-matter microstructure, particularly in fronto-limbic networks, are associated with resistance to treatment and higher current and past burden of depression.
Findings of brain structural changes in major depressive disorder are still inconsistent, partly because some crucial clinical variables have not been taken into account.
To investigate the effect of major depressive disorder on grey matter volumes.
Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare 66 patients with depression at different illness stages (22 each with first-episode, remitted-recurrent and treatment resistant/chronic depression) with 32 healthy controls. Brain volumes were correlated with clinical variables.
Voxel-based morphometry showed a significant group effect in right superior frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus and left cingulate gyrus (P<0.05, family wise error-corrected). Patients whose condition was treatment resistant/chronic exhibited the smallest volumes in frontotemporal areas. Longer illness duration was negatively correlated with decreases in right medial frontal cortex and left insula.
Frontotemporolimbic areas are smaller in the patients with severe depression and are associated with duration of illness, but not with medication patterns, suggesting negative effects of long-lasting major depressive disorder on grey matter.
Serrana de Teruel is an endangered cattle breed raised traditionally in the mountainous areas of Southern Aragon (Spain). With the aim of recovering the breed, a characterization was carried out to determine the morphology, husbandry and genetic values of the Serrana de Teruel breed. Individuals showed a medium to high degree of homogeneity and harmony, most of the animals being of straight profile, and eumetrical and sublongilineal individuals, although smaller in size than other phylogenetically proximate breeds. Biodiversity studies showed good diversity values despite the breed's low effective population size (240 individuals in 2010). These studies provided the basis for a sustainable programme of genetic conservation. In order to guarantee long-term maintenance, germplasm banks contain 6400 doses of semen and 74 embryos. Concurrently, the commercial viability of the breed was studied by means of an analysis of carcass and meat quality from three commercial categories – yearling, bull and steer (castrated at 9 months old) – with ages at slaughter of 12, 22 and 22 months and live weights of 470, 720 and 660 kg,, respectively. Good performances and high-quality products with no commercial constraints in the beef market were obtained. Finally, a prospective study for a new beef quality product labelled ‘Serrana de Teruel’ was performed, according to the opinions of experts. These studies provide the standard requirements for the alternative production of a labelled beef product that might create an incentive for the production of the Serrana de Teruel breed among other breeds, and thus favour the conservation of the breed in the medium term.
We applied a combined molecular and morphological approach to resolve the taxonomic status of Saccocoelium spp. parasitizing sympatric mullets (Mugilidae) in the Mediterranean. Eight morphotypes of Saccocoelium were distinguished by means of multivariate statistical analyses: 2 of Saccocoelium obesum ex Liza spp.; 4 of S. tensum ex Liza spp.; and 2 (S. cephali and Saccocoelium sp.) ex Mugil cephalus. Sequences of the 28S and ITS2 rRNA gene regions were obtained for a total of 21 isolates of these morphotypes. Combining sequence data analysis with a detailed morphological and multivariate morphometric study of the specimens allowed the demonstration of cryptic diversity thus rejecting the hypothesis of a single species of Saccocoelium infecting sympatric mullets in the Mediterranean. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 4 unique genotypes, thus corroborating the distinct species status of Saccocoelium obesum, S. tensum and S. cephali and a new cryptic species ex Liza aurata and L. saliens recognized by its consistent morphological differentiation and genetic divergence. However, in spite of their sharp morphological difference the 2 morphotypes from M. cephalus showed no molecular differentiation and 4 morphotypes of S. tensum were genetically identical. This wide intraspecific morphological variation within S. tensum and S. cephali suggests that delimiting species of Saccocoelium using solely morphological criteria will be misleading.
We report the isolation and characterization of ten strains showing an increase in the minimal inhibitory concentrations to penicillin (MICs > 0·1 μg/ml), and describe the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features.
The susceptibility of 3432 meningococcal strains isolated from patients in the recent epidemic wave (1978–86) in Spain, to several antimicrobial agents used in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of meningococcal infection has been tested. Most were resistant to sulphadiazine but sensitive to other antibiotics.
The possible existence of a new pattern of behaviour of meningococcal to penicillin is discussed.
We introduce the spaces Vℬp(X) (respectively 𝒱ℬp(X)) of the vector measures ℱ:Σ→X of bounded (p,ℬ)-variation (respectively of bounded (p,ℬ)-semivariation) with respect to a bounded bilinear map ℬ:X×Y →Z and show that the spaces Lℬp(X) consisting of functions which are p-integrable with respect to ℬ, defined in by Blasco and Calabuig [‘Vector-valued functions integrable with respect to bilinear maps’, Taiwanese Math. J. to appear], are isometrically embedded in Vℬp(X). We characterize 𝒱ℬp(X) in terms of bilinear maps from Lp′×Y into Z and Vℬp(X) as a subspace of operators from Lp′(Z*) into Y*. Also we define the notion of cone absolutely summing bilinear maps in order to describe the (p,ℬ)-variation of a measure in terms of the cone-absolutely summing norm of the corresponding bilinear map from Lp′×Y into Z.
Robinia aurata n. g., n. sp. is described from Liza aurata (Mugilidae), the golden grey mullet, from the Ebro Delta, Spanish Mediterranean. The new genus differs from all other hemiurid genera in the combined possession of muscular flanges and a vestigial ecsoma. Within the Bunocotylinae, which currently accommodates 2 genera, Bunocotyle and Saturnius, the new genus exhibits a unique combination of blind caeca, Juel's organ, post-ovarian bulk of the uterus in the hind-body, and tegumental papillae surrounding the oral and ventral sucker apertures. Furthermore, Robinia n. g. differs from both Bunocotyle and Saturnius in the nature of the muscular extensions around the oral sucker, with the shape of a muscular belt in the latter and numerous muscular papillae in the former. The phylogenetic hypothesis for the Bunocotylinae developed from sequence data analyses based on partial lsrDNA and complete ssrDNA combined (22 species) and V4 domain of the ssrRNA gene (37 species) supports the erection of the new genus and confirms its position within the Hemiuroidea. Both molecular analyses confirmed the monophyly of the Hemiuroidea, its division into 2 major clades and the polyphyly of the Derogenidae, as in previous studies, and suggest that the Gonocercinae (with 2 genera, Gonocerca and Hemipera), may require a distinct familial status. Finally, there was poor support for the distinct status of the Lecithasteridae and Hemiuridae, following previous suggestions based on different sequence data sets. A key to genera of the Bunocotylinae is presented.
PARTNeR is the acronym for Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope
at Robledo. The 34-m antenna in Robledo de Chavela is used by high
schools, universities and amateur astronomers to learn about
radioastronomy, physics and to get interested in science. The main
project we develop is the observations of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries. The high-school teachers joining our program take a training
course to learn the basis of radioastronomy. Some practical lessons to
teach the children the physical fundamentals of radioastronomy are
also given to them. The operational phase of the project started in 2004, and 25 high
schools, 5 universities and 4 societies of amateur astronomers have
been involved in the project.
Clay materials play a key role in determining the retention capacity of a soil, and are widely used in waste treatments. One of the most commonly used clays is palygorskite. The aim of this research is to determine the chemical species formed by Zn when retained in a palygorskitic clay material. Adsorption isotherm analysis is useful in studying the retention process, because it provides a macroscopic view of the retention phenomena. Complementary techniques are needed in order to study the different retention processes. Sorption isotherms of Zn on palygorskitic clay were carried out; the supernatant was analysed by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the residues by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive angle X-ray (SEM-EDAX)analysis and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Isotherm analysis shows that the global retention process could be due to the sum of two separate processes, adsorption and surface precipitation via solid-solution. This is supported by DLS, which shows that ζ potential increases as the Zn(II) is retained onto clay surfaces but remains constant during the precipitation process. The XRD pattern corresponding to the Zn-clay system showed weak new peaks, probably from zincite. The microanalysis by X-ray fluorescence of several spots selected for their different electronic densities indicated that the retained Zn was randomly distributed across the clay surface. Analysis by EXAFS supports the hypothesis of retention via adsorption and solid-solution surface precipitation.
To compare the sensitivity and specificity of two retrospective active surveillance methods based on review of the medical record and review of the discharge form in identifying nosocomial infection, taking the prospective surveillance method as the reference standard.
Blind comparison of three active nosocomial infection surveillance methods.
Department of General Surgery of a tertiary-care hospital with a referral population of 266,000 people.
All operated patients admitted to the Department of Surgery for more than 24 hours and discharged from January 1, 1994, to December 31, 1994, were included. Prospective surveillance consisted of daily review of the patient's record during hospitalization. Retrospective surveillance consisted of review of the medical record and the discharge form. Sensitivity and specificity of both retrospective methods were calculated.
Of the 1,514 patients included in the study, 1,476 (97.5%) were reviewed by means of the retrospective surveillance system. A total of 20, 8, and 4 hours per week was needed for the active prospective system, review of the medical record, and review of the hospital discharge form, respectively. The documented cumulative incidence of nosocomial infection was 21.8% for the prospective system, 19.6% for review of the medical record, and 12.6% for review of the discharge form. The overall sensitivity of review of the medical record was 88% and of the discharge form 56%, with a specificity of 99%. For review of the medical record, the highest sensitivity was 93%, for urinary tract infections; for review of the discharge form, the highest was 57%, for surgical-wound infection.
The retrospective method of review of the medical record was the most efficient active surveillance strategy in detecting nosocomial infection in surgical patients
The relationship between total number born (TNB), ovulation rate (CL) and prenatal survival was analysed in a French Large White population. The left ovary had a significantly (P < 0·01) higher ovulation rate (7·9) than the right ovary (6·9). Prenatal survival showed an ovum wastage of 35 or 37% depending on whether referred to total number born or number born alive. No differences between parities were found in these traits. There was a negative relationship between ovulation rate at both sides (v = −0·34). There was a negative relationship between CL and prenatal survival (r = −0·37), a low correlation between CL and TNB (i = 0·19), and a high positive correlation between prenatal survival and TNB (i = 0·82). Litter size showed a quadratic relationship with ovulation rate, and the individual variation for each class of ovulation rate was found to be high. The relationship between prenatal survival and ovulation rate was found to be linear, and a high individual variation for each class of litter size was also found. The relationships between prenatal survival and litter size were quadratic, but depended much less on individual variation.
Uterine capacity was estimated in Chinese Meishan (MS), Large White (LW) and crossbred (LW × MS) sows, using unilateral liysterectomy-ovariectomy (UHO) methods. In the first two parities, 20 sows of each genotype, whose left uterine horn and ovary had been removed in the post-pubertal period, were mated, their ovulation rate recorded by laparoscopy and allowed to farrow normally. In the third parity the mated sows were slaughtered at around 30 days of pregnancy and ovarian, uterine and embryo traits were recorded. The ovulation rate in UHO females was similar to that observed previously in intact females of the same population, MS sows producing 4·2 (s.e. 1·0) more ova at parities 1 and 2 and 7·0 (s.e. 1·9) more ova at parity 3 than LW sows. At parity 3, MS sows had 5·9 (s.e. 2·0) more viable embryos at 30 days of pregnancy than LW sows. Crossbred sows were intermediate for both ovulation rate and the number of viable embryos at 30 days. At the first two parities, litter size was higher in the MS by 1·0 (s.e. 0·8) piglets per litter than in the LW, while the crossbred sows exceeded the mid-breed mean by 1·7 (s.e. 0·7) piglets. Uterine capacity, estimated as twice the number of piglets carried to term in a single horn, was 12 foetuses in the LW, 14 in the MS and 16 in the crossbred sow. Piglets born to MS sows were 0·4 (s.e. 0·1) kg lighter than those born to LW sows, with a significantly lower (MS: LW = 0-68, P < 0·01) within-Utter standard deviation, which was found to be independent of the smaller mean weight. At parity 3, MS sows were found to have uteri of similar length with both lighter (-0·36 (s.e. 0·14) g) and shorter (-1·54 (s.e. 0·76) mm) embryos with smaller spaces (-7·8 (s.e. 2·7) cm) between embryo sites than LW sows. Within-Utter standard deviations for embryo size traits were lower in MS than in LW sows, especially for the distance between embryo sites (MS: LW = 0·45, P<0·01). The reduced variability of embryo traits in litters in MS sows was independent of their smaller litter means. Third parity litters from crossbred sows were similar to the mid-breed mean for means and variability of embryo traits but crossbred sows had significantly longer uteri (48·5 (s.e. 18·5) cm) than the mid-breed mean, being longer than either pure breed. It was concluded that differences between the pure breeds in uterine capacity may have arisen through better within-uterus organization, whereas the observed heterosis effects may result in part from physically longer uteri in crossbred sows and that uterine capacity contributes to the genotype differences in prenatal survival and prolificacy, especially in crossbred sows.
A comparison of several solution syntheses with a solid-state route to the lead-containing high Tc phase of the Bi–Sr–Ca–Cu–O system has been performed using DSC, TGA, x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, magnetic ac susceptibility, and critical-current measurements. A novel polymer solution synthesis route is shown to yield an increased percentage of the 2223 high Tc phase when sintering is performed at the low temperature end of this phase's stability range. Under the best preparative conditions given in the literature, however, the properties of samples obtained with the different synthetic methods described in the present study are shown to be similar. Samples derived from solution syntheses have been found to contain higher amounts of carbon precipitates, while samples derived from conventional solid-state synthesis contain CuO precipitates, according to energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses.