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Despite consistent public health efforts, the burden of viral disease in India remains high. The present study was undertaken to understand the aetiology, frequency and distribution of viral disease outbreaks in the state of Odisha between 2010 and 2019. This was a prospective study conducted at the Virology Research and Diagnostic Laboratory located at ICMR-Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, wherein all the outbreaks of viral aetiologies were investigated and analysed to provide a comprehensive picture of the state of viral disease outbreaks in the region. A total of 191 suspected viral outbreaks were investigated by the team from VRDL during September 2010 and September 2019 reported from all the 30 districts of Odisha. Annual number of suspected cases ranged from 185 to 1002. The most commonly suspected outbreaks were of viral hepatitis (55 outbreaks; 1223 cases) followed by dengue (45 outbreaks; 1185 cases), chickenpox (30 outbreaks; 421 cases), viral encephalitis (27 outbreaks; 930 cases), measles (23 outbreaks; 464 cases), chikungunya (10 outbreaks; 593 cases) and rubella (1 outbreak; 60). The outbreaks peaked in frequency and intensity during the months of July and September. The epidemiology of viral disease outbreaks in the region is presented in the study. Health system preparedness based on evidence is essential for early detection and adequate response to such viral outbreaks.
Measurements of oscillation frequencies of the Sun and stars can provide important independent constraints on their internal structure and dynamics. Seismic models of these oscillations are used to connect structure and rotation of the star to its resonant frequencies, which are then compared with observations, the goal being that of minimizing the difference between the two. Even in the case of the Sun, for which structure models are highly tuned, observed frequencies show systematic deviations from modeled frequencies, a phenomenon referred to as the “surface term.” The dominant source of this systematic effect is thought to be vigorous near-surface convection, which is not well accounted for in both stellar modeling and mode-oscillation physics. Here we bring to bear the method of homogenization, applicable in the asymptotic limit of large wavelengths (in comparison to the correlation scale of convection), to characterize the effect of small-scale surface convection on resonant-mode frequencies in the Sun. We show that the full oscillation equations, in the presence of temporally stationary 3D flows, can be reduced to an effective “quiet-Sun” wave equation with altered sound speed, Brünt–Väisäla frequency, and Lamb frequency. We derive the modified equation and relations for the appropriate averaging of 3D flows and thermal quantities to obtain the properties of this effective medium. Using flows obtained from 3D numerical simulations of near-surface convection, we quantify their effect on solar oscillation frequencies and find that they are shifted systematically and substantially. We argue therefore that consistent interpretations of resonant frequencies must include modifications to the wave equation that effectively capture the impact of vigorous hydrodynamic convection.
In this study, an in vitro blood-brain barrier model was developed using murine brain endothelioma cells (b.End3 cells). By comparing the permeability of FITC-Dextran at increasing exposure times in serum-free medium to such values in the literature, we confirm that the blood-brain barrier model was successfully established. After such confirmation, the permeability of five ferrofluid (FF) nanoparticle samples, GGB (ferrofluid synthesized using glycine, glutamic acid and BSA), GGC (glycine, glutamic acid and collagen), GGP (glycine, glutamic acid and PVA), BPC (BSA, PEG and collagen) and CPB (collagen, PVA and BSA), was determined using this model. In addition, all the five FF samples were characterized by zeta potential to determine their charge as well as TEM and dynamic light scattering for determining their hydrodynamic diameter. Results showed that FF coated with collagen had better permeability to the blood-brain barrier than FF coated with glycine and glutamic acid based on an increase of 4.5% in permeability. Through such experiments, magnetic nanomaterials, such as ferrofluids, that are less permeable to the blood brain barrier can be used to decrease neural tissue toxicity and magnetic nanomaterials with more permeable to the blood-brain barrier can be used for brain drug delivery.
An energy resource is the first step in the chain that supplies energy services (for a definition of energy services, see Chapter 1). Energy services are largely ignorant of the particular resource that supplies them; however, often the infrastructures, technologies, and fuels along the delivery chain are highly dependent on a particular type of resource. The availability and costs of bringing energy resources to the market place are key determinants to affordable and accessible energy services.
Energy resources pose no inherent limitation to meeting the rapidly growing global energy demand as long as adequate upstream investment is forthcoming – for exhaustible resources in exploration, production technology, and capacity (mining and field development) and, by analogy, for renewables in conversion technologies.
Hydrocarbons and Nuclear
Occurrences of hydrocarbons and fissile materials in the Earth's crust are plentiful – yet they are finite. The extent of the ultimately recoverable oil, natural gas, coal, or uranium is the subject of numerous reviews, yet still the range of values in the literature is large (Table 7.1). For example, the range for conventional oil is between 4900 exajoules (EJ) for reserves to 13,700 EJ (reserves plus resources) – a range that sustains continued debate and controversy. The large range is the result of varying boundaries of what is included in the analysis of a finite stock of an exhaustible resource, e.g., conventional oil only or conventional oil plus unconventional occurrences, such as oil shale, tar sands, and extra-heavy oils.
The Government has identified that the pharmacist should have greater involvement in the management of long-term conditions. The aim of this audit was to determine the adherence to National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for type 2 diabetes patients and identify whether there is a potential role for pharmacists in their long-term management. All prescribing, in 194 patients, was within guidance for anti-hyperglycaemics. In all, 87.4% of patients prescribed an anti-hypertensive were prescribed an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or equivalent. A large number of patients remain uncontrolled with respect to blood glucose or blood pressure. There are four potential reasons for this: patients require additional therapy; current therapy has not been optimised; current therapy is not working; or the patient is not fully adherent. Therefore, there may be a role for the pharmacist either in therapy optimisation or improving patient adherence to current therapy in order to support more patients reaching national targets.
When women have a history of anorexia nervosa (AN), the advice given about becoming pregnant, and about the management of pregnancies, has usually been cautious. This study compared the pregnancy outcomes of women with and without a history of AN.
Women with a confirmed diagnosis of AN who had presented to psychiatric services in North East Scotland from 1965 to 2007 were identified. Those women with a pregnancy recorded in the Aberdeen Maternal and Neonatal Databank (AMND) were each matched by age, parity and year of delivery of their first baby with five women with no history of AN. Maternal and foetal outcomes were compared between these two groups of women. Comparisons were also made between the mothers with a history of AN and all other women in the AMND.
A total of 134 women with a history of AN delivered 230 babies and the 670 matched women delivered 1144 babies. Mothers with AN delivered lighter babies but this difference did not persist after adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy. Standardized birthweight (SBW) scores suggested that the AN mothers were more likely to produce babies with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) [relative risk (RR) 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11–2.13]. AN mothers were more likely to experience antepartum haemorrhage (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.09–2.65).
Mothers with a history of AN are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The magnitude of these risks is relatively small and should be appraised holistically by psychiatric and obstetric services.
Electrical transport and microstructure of interfaces between nm-thick films of various perovskite oxides grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on TiO2- terminated SrTiO3 (STO) substrates are compared. LaAlO3/STO and KTaO3/STO interfaces become quasi-2DEG after a critical film thickness of 4 unit cell layers. The conductivity survives long anneals in oxygen atmosphere. LaMnO3/STO interfaces remain insulating for all film thicknesses and NdGaO3/STO interfaces are conducting but the conductivity is eliminated after oxygen annealing. Medium-energy ion spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy detect cationic intermixing within several atomic layers from the interface in all studied interfaces. Our results indicate that the electrical reconstruction in the polar oxide interfaces is a complex combination of different mechanisms, and oxygen vacancies play an important role.
In this paper, we report on the growth and fabrication of thin film Si photovoltaic devices on photonic structures which were fabricated on steel and PEN and Kapton substrates. Both amorphous Si and thin film nanocrystalline Si devices were fabricated. The 2 dimensional photonic reflector structures were designed using a scattering matrix theory and consisted of appropriately designed holes/pillars which were imprinted into a polymer layer coated onto PEN, Kapton and stainless steel substrates. The photonic structures were coated with a thin layer of Ag and ZnO. Both single junction and tandem junction (amorphous/amorphous and amorphous/nanocrystalline) cells were fabricated on the photonic layers. It was observed that the greatest increase in short circuit current and efficiency in these cells due to the use of photonic reflectors was in nanocrystalline Si cells, where an increase in current approaching 30% (compared to devices fabricated on flat substrates) was obtained for thin (∼ 1 micrometer thick i layers) films of nano Si deposited on steel structures. The photonic structures (which were nanoimprinted into a polymer) were shown to stand up to temperatures as large as 300 C, thereby making such structures practical when a steel (or glass) of kapton substrate is used. Detailed measurements and discussion of quantum efficiency and device performance for various photonic back reflector structures on steel, kapton and PEN substrates will be presented in the paper.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus is a disease that affects both humans and animals. In humans the disease is treated by surgery with a supplementary option of chemotherapy with a benzimidazole compound. During the present study heat-shock protein 60 (HSP 60) was identified as one of the most frequently expressed biomolecules by E. granulosus after albendazole treatment. Data were correlated with 14-3-3 protein signature, and overexpression of this molecule after albendazole induction was an indicator of cell survival and signal transduction during in vitro maintenance of E. granulosus for up to 72 h. This observation was further correlated with a uniform expression pattern of a housekeeping gene (actin II). Out of three β-tubulin gene isoforms of E. granulosus, β-tubulin gene isoform 2 showed a conserved point mutation indicative of benzimidazole resistance.
Recent technological advances including brain imaging (higher resolution in space and
time), miniaturization of integrated circuits (nanotechnologies), and acceleration of
computation speed (Moore’s Law), combined with interpenetration between neuroscience,
mathematics, and physics have led to the development of more biologically plausible
computational models and novel therapeutic strategies. Today, mathematical models of
irreversible medical conditions such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) are developed and
parameterised based on clinical data. How do these evolutions have a bearing on deep brain
stimulation (DBS) of patients with PD? We review how the idea of DBS, a standard
therapeutic strategy used to attenuate neurological symptoms (motor, psychiatric), has
emerged from past experimental and clinical observations, and present how, over the last
decade, computational models based on different approaches (phase oscillator models,
spiking neuron network models, population-based models) have started to shed light onto
DBS mechanisms. Finally, we explore a new mathematical modelling approach based on neural
field equations to optimize mechanisms of brain stimulation and achieve finer control of
targeted neuronal populations. We conclude that neuroscience and mathematics are crucial
partners in exploring brain stimulation and this partnership should also include other
domains such as signal processing, control theory and ethics.
In the present study viable protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus were exposed to in vitro anthelmintic treatment to observe efficacy against Indian buffalo isolates. Evaluation criteria included morphological changes, viability scores and expression of peptides as a product of prestressed protoscoleces. Protoscolex changes included presence of bladder-like structure and morphological distortion. Two peptides of relative molecular weight (Mr) 40 and 70 kDa were visualized when proteins were separated by discontinuous gel electrophoresis. These two peptides seemed to be products of prestressed protoscoleces.
The multilayers of ferroelectric (FE) Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) and ferromagnetic (FM) CoFe2O4 (CFO) thin films with 3, 5, and 9 layers having configurations PZT/CFO (PC) and CFO/PZT (CP) were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition technique. We have investigated the effect of inter-diffusion at the interface of multilayers (MLs) and reversing the order of FE and FM layers in the multilayers configuration on the electrical/magnetic properties. The TEM of the films showed that the layer structure was not maintained and the inter-diffusion of the CFO into PZT and vice verse were observed at the interface of MLs. Both the PC and CP configurations of multilayer films exhibited pseudo FE hysteresis loop and proper FM hysteresis loops at room temperature. Reversing the multilayer configuration from CP to PC resulted in increasing the pseudo remanent polarization, however this behavior was not observed in magnetic properties. The frequency and temperature dependences of the impedance and modulus spectroscopy of the multilayer PC and CP films were studied in the ranges of 102 to 106 Hz and 200 to 650 K respectively. The electrical response of all multilayer films investigated could be resolved into two contributions. We attributed these to the grain and grain boundary effects in impedance and modulus formalism. We found that the difference between the grain and grain boundary capacitive effect decreased due to increase of the number of layers.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
At heterojunctions between different oxide perovskite phases both lattice and electronic structure is modified by the junction. One interesting question that several groups have studied is just how far into the neighboring materials these perturbations extend. We have studied this for insulating phases as well as conducting phases. For insulating phases it appears that the lattice distortions are healed in a layer about one unit cell thick. By stacking different materials each of which is only a single unit cell thick we have obtained materials that exhibit new properties determined by the stacking architecture. For example, superlattices that lack inversion symmetry have a built-in polarization that is controlled by the direction of the strain asymmetry. For conducting phases, the electronic structure also seems to be modified mainly in a layer only a few unit cells thick. We have studied this in superlattices of SrTiO3 and LaMnO3 in which we vary the thickness of the layers. We use optical conductivity to probe the electronic structure in the near infrared to near ultraviolet spectral region. The conductivity is close to the average of the two constituents, but differs in certain spectral regions, especially for the films with the thinnest supercells.This work was supported by the Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences program at the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.