To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Anecdotal evidence suggests the use of bolus tube feeding is increasing in long term home enteral tube feed (HETF) patients. A cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of bolus tube feeding and to characterise these patients was undertaken. Dietitians from 10 centres across the UK collected data on all adult HETF patients on the dietetic caseload receiving bolus tube feeding, (n=604, 60% male, age 58years). Demographic data, reasons for tube and bolus feeding, tube and equipment types, feeding method and patients’ complete tube feeding regimens were recorded. Over a third of patients receiving HETF used bolus feeding (37%). Patients were long-term tube fed (4.1years tube feeding, 3.5years bolus tube feeding), living at home (71%) and sedentary (70%). The majority were head and neck cancer patients (22%) who were significantly more active (79%) and lived at home (97%), while those with cerebral palsy (12%) were typically younger (age 31years) but sedentary (94%). Most patients used bolus feeding as their sole feeding method (46%), because it was quick and easy to use, as a top up to oral diet or to mimic meal times. Importantly, oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were used for bolus feeding in 85% of patients, with 51% of these being compact-style ONS (2.4kcal/ml, 125ml). This survey shows that bolus tube feeding is common amongst UK HETF patients, is used by a wide variety of patient groups and can be adapted to meet the needs of a variety of patients, clinical conditions, nutritional requirements and lifestyles.
Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes) are taxonomically and ecologically diverse, with a wide range of social complexity, nesting preferences, floral associations, and biogeographic restrictions. A Canadian bee checklist, greatly assisted by the gene-assisted approach of DNA barcoding, is nearing completion. Previous evaluation of bee diversity in Canada, assisted by DNA barcoding, was restricted to Nova Scotia, which contains about 25% of the bee species in the country. Here, we summarise efforts to date to build a comprehensive DNA barcode library supporting bee taxonomic studies in Canada, consisting of more than 12 500 barcode-compliant sequences yielding 811 distinct barcode index numbers (BINs). This appears to represent ~95% of the 856 bee species presently recorded from Canada, but comparison with known morphological species in each genus shows that some genera are still under-sampled or may contain cryptic taxa, with much taxonomic work still to be done on bees in Canada. This is particularly true within the taxonomically difficult genera Andrena Fabricius (Andrenidae), Hylaeus Fabricius (Colletidae), Melissodes Latreille (Apidae), Nomada Scopoli (Apidae), Osmia Panzer (Megachilidae), and Sphecodes Latreille (Halictidae). DNA analysis will likely be a key asset in resolving bee taxonomic issues in Canada in the future, and to date has even assisted studies of well-known bee taxa. Here we present summaries of our results, and discuss the use of DNA barcoding to assist future taxonomic work, faunal lists, and ecological studies.
In Ramsey theory one wishes to know how large a collection of objects can be while avoiding a particular substructure. A problem of recent interest has been to study how large subsets of the natural numbers can be while avoiding three-term geometric progressions. Building on recent progress on this problem, we consider the analogous problem over quadratic number fields. We first construct high-density subsets of the algebraic integers of an imaginary quadratic number field that avoid three-term geometric progressions. When unique factorization fails, or over a real quadratic number field, we instead look at subsets of ideals of the ring of integers. Our approach here is to construct sets ‘greedily’, a generalization of the greedy set of rational integers considered by Rankin. We then describe the densities of these sets in terms of values of the Dedekind zeta function. Next, we consider geometric-progression-free sets with large upper density. We generalize an argument by Riddell to obtain upper bounds for the upper density of geometric-progression-free subsets, and construct sets avoiding geometric progressions with high upper density to obtain lower bounds for the supremum of the upper density of all such subsets. Both arguments depend critically on the elements with small norm in the ring of integers.
The effectiveness of individually administered cognitive processing therapy (CPT) when compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in a community sexual assault centre was tested. Trauma survivors with acute stress disorder (ASD) following sexual assault were randomised to either CPT (n = 25) or TAU (n = 22), and assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Both groups demonstrated large reductions in PTSD and depression symptoms following treatment, and these gains were maintained over the course of follow-ups (Cohen's ds for PTSD symptom reductions ranging between 0.76 to 1.45). Although smaller and not always consistent, between-group effect sizes typically favoured CPT. Effect sizes (d) ranged between 0.13–0.50 for posttraumatic stress and 0.13–0.41 for depression over the course of follow-ups. Independent assessment of PTSD severity indicated more CPT participants reached good end-state functioning at 12-month follow-up (50%) than TAU (31%). Although both treatments were effective, there were some indications that CPT led to better outcomes relative to therapists delivering their usual therapy. The present study demonstrates that evidence-based, trauma-focused therapy such as CPT can be effective when delivered as an early intervention in a routine mental health setting.
This paper explores the complexities of how to get our families who are often in a chaotic state of surviving (emotionally, psychologically, and physiologically) to the point where they can process psychoeducation, develop parenting skills, and implement strategies to care for children in enduring ways and to feel successful in their everyday lives. This exploration led us to ponder two questions:
1.What are “good” working relationships?
2.How do these relationships benefit the families we work with?
To explore these questions further, we turn to a fuller body of research on Attachment Theory and Polyvagal Theory that gives a better understanding and comprehension of incorporating these theories into practice. This paper attempts to illustrate how the workers in the North-West Early Start Therapeutic Support programme delivered by Anglicare Tasmania develop good working relationships with families and how this translates to providing enduring care for their children.
Aerobic exercise training has been shown to attenuate cognitive decline and reduce brain atrophy with advancing age. The extent to which resistance exercise training improves cognition and prevents brain atrophy is less known, and few studies include long-term follow-up cognitive and neuroimaging assessments. We report data from a randomized controlled trial of 155 older women, who engaged in 52 weeks of resistance training (either once- or twice-weekly) or balance-and-toning (twice-weekly). Executive functioning and memory were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up (i.e., immediately post-intervention), and 2-year follow-up. A subset underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at those time points. At 2-year follow-up, both frequencies of resistance training promoted executive function compared to balance-and-toning (standardized difference [d]=.31–.48). Additionally, twice-weekly resistance training promoted memory (d=.45), reduced cortical white matter atrophy (d=.45), and increased peak muscle power (d=.27) at 2-year follow-up relative to balance-and-toning. These effects were independent of one another. These findings suggest resistance training may have a long-term impact on cognition and white matter volume in older women. (JINS, 2015, 21, 745–756)
We describe the cases of two children who both presented in infancy with recurrent severe pulmonary hypertensive crises. Exhaustive clinical work-up failed to identify an underlying aetiology. The patients had no clinical response to steroids, immunoglobulins, or pulmonary vasodilators. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive invasive pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis. There was no evidence of pulmonary venous occlusive disease. Given the lethal nature of this condition, early consideration of referral to a lung transplant centre should be considered in selected patients.
Mathematical and computational neuroscience have contributed to the brain sciences by the
study of the dynamics of individual neurons and more recently the study of the dynamics of
electrophysiological networks. Often these studies treat individual neurons as points or
the nodes in networks and the biochemistry of the brain appears, if at all, as some
intermediate variables by which the neurons communicate with each other. In fact, many
neurons change brain function not by communicating in one-to-one fashion with other
neurons, but instead by projecting changes in biochemistry over long distances. This
biochemical network is of crucial importance for brain function and it influences and is
influenced by the more traditional electrophysiological networks. Understanding how
biochemical networks interact with electrophysiological networks to produce brain function
both in health and disease poses new challenges for mathematical neuroscience.
In the lead-up to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project, several next-generation radio telescopes and upgrades are already being built around the world. These include APERTIF (The Netherlands), ASKAP (Australia), e-MERLIN (UK), VLA (USA), e-EVN (based in Europe), LOFAR (The Netherlands), MeerKAT (South Africa), and the Murchison Widefield Array. Each of these new instruments has different strengths, and coordination of surveys between them can help maximise the science from each of them. A radio continuum survey is being planned on each of them with the primary science objective of understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies over cosmic time, and the cosmological parameters and large-scale structures which drive it. In pursuit of this objective, the different teams are developing a variety of new techniques, and refining existing ones. To achieve these exciting scientific goals, many technical challenges must be addressed by the survey instruments. Given the limited resources of the global radio-astronomical community, it is essential that we pool our skills and knowledge. We do not have sufficient resources to enjoy the luxury of re-inventing wheels. We face significant challenges in calibration, imaging, source extraction and measurement, classification and cross-identification, redshift determination, stacking, and data-intensive research. As these instruments extend the observational parameters, we will face further unexpected challenges in calibration, imaging, and interpretation. If we are to realise the full scientific potential of these expensive instruments, it is essential that we devote enough resources and careful study to understanding the instrumental effects and how they will affect the data. We have established an SKA Radio Continuum Survey working group, whose prime role is to maximise science from these instruments by ensuring we share resources and expertise across the projects. Here we describe these projects, their science goals, and the technical challenges which are being addressed to maximise the science return.
Dwarf (Kogia sima) and pygmy (K. breviceps) sperm whales occur in pelagic waters around southern Africa. Here we report the first record of K. sima from Namibia and provide information on the basic morphometrics and diet of that record and of two recent strandings of K. breviceps. All known records (N = 29) of K. breviceps from Namibia are also collated. Eight families of cephalopod were identified in the stomach contents of the K. sima but no fish remains and few crustacean parts were present. Nine and ten families of cephalopod were identified in the stomachs of the two K. breviceps specimens respectively. This report expands the known range of K. sima by more than 1000 km from previous published records in the region. The sparsely populated nature of the Namibian coast and bias of records towards centres of human habitation suggest Kogia strandings are under reported. The low number of stranded specimens of K. sima from Namibia and west South Africa, in comparison to K. breviceps suggests that K. sima occur rarely or at very low densities in the area influenced by the Benguela current ecosystem. Specimens from Namibia are valuable due to uncertainties about taxomony of kogiids in the region.
Excavations at Tinney's Lane, Sherborne in 2002 uncovered extensive evidence for Late Bronze Age settlement and pottery production, dating from a short time period probably within the 12th or 11th century cal bc. Well-preserved deposits of burnt stone, broken vessels, and burnt sherds, together with resulting debris redeposited in associated pits, were accompanied by a series of post-hole structures interpreted as round-houses and four-post settings. Environmental evidence in the form of charcoal, charred plant remains, and molluscs has provided important information concerning sources of fuel and water for pottery production as well as allowing a reconstruction of the local vegetation. Finds of fired clay, metal, stone, shale, flint, and bone include items from distant sources, informing topics such as site status and exchange, and include many categories of tools and equipment that would have been used within the pottery-making processes. Analysis of the spatial distribution of these finds amongst the structures and surviving layers of burning has allowed the definition of a series of industrial activity areas, each comprising one or more round-houses, a four-post structure, bonfire bases or pits used for firing, and other pits with specific related functions. Altogether the site has provided some of the best evidence for pottery production within prehistoric Britain.
Shepherd's beaked whale Tasmacetus shepherdi is one of the most poorly known cetaceans, whose diet has created some speculation given that its dentition differs greatly from that of most other beaked whales that are primarily teuthophagous. The few stomachs examined previously have given seemingly conflicting dietary information. In this paper the stomach contents of a freshly stranded adult female on Tristan da Cunha have been examined through identification of trace elements and genetic analysis of soft parts. At least 13 cephalopod and 8 fish species were identified from beaks and otoliths respectively, but only undigested fish remains were present in the stomach and identified genetically as Beryx splendens. Reconstituted masses totaled 8809 g for cephalopods and 17,554 g for fish, with four species (Histioteuthis atlantica, Taningia danae, Ommastrephes bartrami and Pholidoteuthis ‘A’) comprising 78.6% of the cephalopods and one species (B. splendens) comprising 87.4% of the fish eaten. It is concluded that Tasmacetus may alternately exploit fish and cephalopods, depending on the time of day and access to seamount or continental slope areas.
Protecting communications networks against attacks where the aim is to steal information, disrupt order, or harm critical infrastructure can require the collection and analysis of staggering amounts of data. The ability to detect and respond to threats quickly is a paramount concern across sectors, and especially for critical government, utility, and financial networks. Yet detecting emerging or incipient threats in immense volumes of network traffic requires new computational and analytic approaches. Network security increasingly requires cooperation between human analysts able to spot suspicious events through means such as data visualization and automated systems that process streaming network data in near real-time to triage events so that human analysts are best able to focus their work.
This chapter presents a pair of network traffic analysis tools coupled to a computational architecture that enables the high-throughput, real-time visual analysis of network activity. The streaming data pipeline towhich these tools are connected is designed to be easily extensible, allowing newtools to subscribe to data and add their own in-stream analytics. The visual analysis tools themselves – Correlation Layers for Information Query and Exploration (CLIQUE) and Traffic Circle – provide complementary views of network activity designed to support the timely discovery of potential threats in volumes of network data that exceed what is traditionally visualized. CLIQUE uses a behavioral modeling approach that learns the expected activity of actors (such as IP addresses or users) and collections of actors on a network, and compares current activity to this learned model to detect behavior-based anomalies.
Species co-occurrence is an important ecological research area. Mark-and-recapture studies of mammals allow identification of coexisting species, a necessary step in determining mechanisms enabling habitat sharing. Using data from five 1-ha grids in January 2004 in tropical dry deciduous forest of coastal Colima, Mexico, we detected significantly more interspecific overlap than expected between seven species pairs. Oryzomys couesi shared more stations than expected with Sigmodon mascotensis, Baiomys musculus and Peromyscus perfulvus. Baiomys musculus was associated positively with S. mascotensis and Reithrodontomys fulvescens. Heteromys pictus shared fewer stations than expected with O. couesi and S. mascotensis. For species collectively, there was non-random community structuring, with two grids displaying more species aggregation than expected. While two grids had non-random co-occurrence patterns, three grids did not differ from random, which differs from that reported for mammalian taxa on average. Other small-mammal studies have documented species segregation, while this study detected more positive than negative associations. Similarities in preference and habitat use (or diet) are likely explanations for interspecific overlap patterns at stations and co-occurrence patterns among grids. Simultaneously evaluating associations of species pairs and all species on a grid collectively is novel methodology as applied to mammals, adding to understanding of species co-occurrence.
Serum and cervical secretions were collected from patients with cervical dysplasia, carcinoma-in-situ (CIS), squamous cell carcinoma (cervical SCC), and controls with normal cervices, attending clinics within the West Lambeth Health District, London. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to examine cervical secretory IgA (sIgA) and serum IgG and IgA antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV). Sexual and demographic factors were considered during data analysis, which involved fitting multiple linear or multiple logistic regressions to HSV antibody levels. Prevalence of sIgA-HSV and levels of serum antibodies to HSV in all groups were compared with those of gynaecology controls. Caucasian women with mild dysplasia had a significantly higher prevalence of sIgA-HSV. Serum IgG levels to HSV (IgG-HSV) were significantly elevated in women with mild dysplasia and severe dysplasia/ClS. Serum IgA levels to HSV1 (IgG-HSV1) were significantly higher in women with cervical SCC (after adjusting for smoking habits) and other genital tumours. Significantly higher levels of serum IgA to HSV2 (IgA-HSV2) were also found among Caucasian women with cervical SCC. The possible role of HSV as a co-factor in cervical carcinogenesis is discussed.