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Commonly observed distortions in decision-making among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may emerge from impaired reward processing and cognitive biases toward negative events. There is substantial theoretical support for the hypothesis that MDD patients overweight potential losses compared with gains, though the neurobiological underpinnings of this bias are uncertain.
Twenty-one unmedicated patients with MDD were compared with 25 healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) together with an economic decision-making task over mixed lotteries involving probabilistic gains and losses. Region-of-interest analyses evaluated neural signatures of gain and loss coding within a core network of brain areas known to be involved in valuation (anterior insula, caudate nucleus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex).
Usable fMRI data were available for 19 MDD and 23 HC subjects. Anterior insula signal showed negative coding of losses (gain > loss) in HC subjects consistent with previous findings, whereas MDD subjects demonstrated significant reversals in these associations (loss > gain). Moreover, depression severity further enhanced the positive coding of losses in anterior insula, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and caudate nucleus. The hyper-responsivity to losses displayed by the anterior insula of MDD patients was paralleled by a reduced influence of gain, but not loss, stake size on choice latencies.
Patients with MDD demonstrate a significant shift from negative to positive coding of losses in the anterior insula, revealing the importance of this structure in value-based decision-making in the context of emotional disturbances.
Human toxocarosis is a chronic tissue parasitosis most often caused by Toxocara canis. The seroprevalence can reach up to 50%, especially among children and adolescents. The anthelmintics used in the treatment have moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of quinones and their derivatives against T. canis larvae and the cytotoxicity of the larvicidal compounds. The compounds were evaluated at 1 mg mL−1 concentration in microculture plates containing third stage larvae in an Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 h. Five naphthoxiranes were selected for the cytotoxicity analysis. The cell viability evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays using murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice revealed that the naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) were less cytotoxic at a concentration of 0·05 mg mL−1. The efficacy of naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) was examined in murine toxocarosis also. The anthelmintic activity was examined by evaluating the number of larvae in the brain, carcass, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and eyes. Compound (3) demonstrated anthelmintic activity similar to that of albendazole by decreasing the number of larvae in the organs of mice and thus could form the basis of the development of a new anthelmintic drug.
In this contribution, we briefly describe how an observed mid-infrared (5.5-14 μm) spectrum can be used to trace key physical conditions along a given line of sight, such as the UV radiation field, the ionization parameter and the dust column density. These parameters are often difficult to determine independently from PDR models. The PAHTAT toolbox offers the opportunity to analyze mid-IR spectra using a limited number of parameters, that are associated with the physical properties of the dust and gas being observed.
To examine differences in overweight and obesity of second-generation Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese migrants v. first-generation migrants and the ethnic Dutch. We also studied the influence of sociodemographic factors on this association.
Data were collected in 2008 in a cross-sectional postal and online health survey.
Four major Dutch cities.
In the survey 42 686 residents aged 16 years and over participated. Data from Dutch (n 3615) and second/first-generation Surinamese (n 230/139), Turkish (n 203/241) and Moroccan (n 172/187) participants aged 16–34 years were analysed using logistic regression with overweight (BMI ≥ 25·0 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30·0 kg/m2) as dependent variables. BMI was calculated from self-reported body height and weight. Sociodemographic variables included sex, age, marital status, educational level, employment status and financial situation.
After controlling for age, overweight (including obesity) was more prevalent in most second-generation migrant subgroups compared with the Dutch population, except for Moroccan men. Obesity rates among second-generation migrant men were similar to those among the Dutch. Second-generation migrant women were more often obese than Dutch women. Ethnic differences were partly explained by the lower educational level of second-generation migrants. Differences in overweight between second- and first-generation migrants were only found among Moroccan and Surinamese men.
We did not find a converging trend for the overweight and obesity prevalence from second-generation migrants towards the Dutch host population. Therefore, preventive interventions should also focus on second-generation migrants to stop the obesity epidemic.
Young people with self-experienced cognitive thought and perception deficits (basic symptoms) may present with an early initial prodromal state (EIPS) of psychosis in which most of the disability and neurobiological deficits of schizophrenia have not yet occurred.
To investigate the effects of an integrated psychological intervention (IPI), combining individual cognitive–behavioural therapy, group skills training, cognitive remediation and multifamily psychoeducation, on the prevention of psychosis in the EIPS.
A randomised controlled, multicentre, parallel group trial of 12 months of IPI v. supportive counselling (trial registration number: NCT00204087). Primary outcome was progression to psychosis at 12- and 24-month follow-up.
A total of 128 help-seeking out-patients in an EIPS were randomised. Integrated psychological intervention was superior to supportive counselling in preventing progression to psychosis at 12-month follow-up (3.2% v. 16.9%; P = 0.008) and at 24-month follow-up (6.3% v. 20.0%; P = 0.019).
Integrated psychological intervention appears effective in delaying the onset of psychosis over a 24-month time period in people in an EIPS.
New images of the interstellar medium provided by Herschel and Planck bring spectacular evidence of the intricate and filamentary structure of the interstellar medium, betraying its turbulent nature. Although turbulence is a subject of interest in astronomy, little is know about the origin of turbulence in the interstellar medium. We suggest that part of the turbulence in the Orion molecular cloud be due to the decay of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.
Within the Herschel key project “The Warm And Dense ISM” (WADI) we systematically observe
a number of prominent photon-dominated regions (PDRs) to measure the impact of varying UV
fields on the energy balance, the chemical and dynamical structure of heated molecular
We report the analysis of the mid-infrared spectral maps observed by Spitzer/IRS toward star-forming regions where the Herschel key program WADI has observed / will observe with HIFI and PACS. The IRS spectra are fitted using 4 components of small grains: PAH0, PAH+, PAHx, and evaporating VSG, and the spatial distributions of these components are derived.
The analysis of mid-IR emission suggests that a population of PAH-related very small
grains containing a few hundreds of atoms are present in the deep regions of molecular
clouds, although no specific species has been identified yet. In this review, we discuss
several candidates for these grains: neutral and ionised PAH clusters and complexes of
PAHs with Si atoms. The theoretical modelling of the properties of such molecular
complexes or nanograins is a challenging task. We first present an overview of quantum
chemistry derived models which can be efficiently used on-the-fly in extensive sampling of
the potential energy surfaces, as required by structural optimization, classical molecular
dynamics or Monte Carlo algorithms. From the simulations, various observables can be
determined, such as the binding energies, finite temperature IR spectra, nucleation and
evaporation rates. We discuss the relevance of those candidates in the molecular clouds
photodissociation regions and propose constrains and perspectives for the nature and size
of those very small grains.
We have been investigating the possibility that the presence or absence of hydrogen may influence the electrical properties of the high TQ superconductor YBa2Cu3O7−x. Samples were prepared sintering in wet and dry oxygen, ana have been loaded by exposure to a plasma discharge of hydrogen gas. The hydrogen concentration near the surface was monitored by the H(15N, αγ) C reaction, and the four point method was used for the electrical measurements. The tentative results are that hydrogen content has little effect on either the transition temperature or the sharpness of the transition, although higher concentration may increase the normal state resistivity.
Observations using the HIFI and PACS instruments aboard the Herschel
satellite provide a unique way to study the chemical inventory,
the dynamics, and the energy balance in dense interstellar clouds heated by
UV radiation. We propose a comprehensive observing program to reveal
the details of the interaction of massive young stars with their
parental molecular clouds.