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Our experience using Mo Kα radiation in coal related research indicates that minerals can be detected and quantitatively measured at the 0.2% level in an amorphous substance such as coal. Since the linear absorption coefficient for most elements is about a factor of eight lower for Mo radiation than it is for Cu radiation, the matrix affect is greatly reduced and the intensity is a more linear function of concentration.
Although there is considerable overlapping of peaks when complex mixtures are analyzed using Mo radiation, the use of second derivative techniques to locate peaks, and least squares techniques to fit peaks can resolve many of these problems. The reduced time needed to collect a diffraction pattern, and the increased intensity obtained more than compensate for the extra computer time needed to analyze the data.
The Main Karoo Basin of South Africa contains a near-continuous sequence of continental deposition spanning ~80 Myr from the mid-Permian to the Early Jurassic. The terrestrial vertebrates of this sequence provide a high-resolution stratigraphic record of regional origination and extinction, especially for the mid–late Permian. Until now, data have only been surveyed at coarse stratigraphic resolution using methods that are biased by nonuniform sampling rates, limiting our understanding of the dynamics of diversification through this important time period. Here, we apply robust methods (gap-filler and modified gap-filler rates) for the inference of patterns of species richness, origination rates, and extinction rates to a subset of 1321 reliably-identified fossil occurrences resolved to approximately 50 m stratigraphic intervals. This data set provides an approximate time resolution of 0.3–0.6 Myr and shows that extinction rates increased considerably in the upper 100 m of the mid-Permian Abrahamskraal Formation, corresponding to the latest part of the Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone (AZ). Origination rates were only weakly elevated in the same interval and were not sufficient to compensate for these extinctions. Subsampled species richness estimates for the lower part of the overlying Teekloof Formation (corresponding to the Pristerognathus and Tropidostoma AZs) are low, showing that species richness remained low for at least 1.5–3 million years after the main extinction pulse. A high unevenness of the taxon abundance–frequency distribution, which is classically associated with trophically unstable postextinction faunas, in fact developed shortly before the acme of elevated extinction rates due to the appearance and proliferation of the dicynodont Diictodon. Our findings provide strong support for a Capitanian (“end-Guadalupian”) extinction event among terrestrial vertebrates and suggest that further high-resolution quantitative studies may help resolve the lack of consensus among paleobiologists regarding this event.
Bringing together a team of renowned international scholars, this volume provides a wide-ranging collection of historical and state-of-the-art perspectives on language regard, particularly in the context of language variation and language change, and importantly, highlights the range of new methodologies being used by linguists to explore and evaluate it. The importance of language regard to the inquiry of language variation and change in the field of sociolinguistics is increasingly being recognized, yet misunderstandings about its nature and importance continue to exist. This volume provides scholars and students of sociolinguistics, with the tools and theory to pursue such inquiry. Contributions and research come from Europe, North America, and Asia, and language varieties such as Spanish, Dutch, Danish, and American Sign Language are discussed.