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The scaling of turbulent motions is investigated by considering the flow in the eigenframe of the local strain-rate tensor. The flow patterns in this frame of reference are evaluated using existing direct numerical simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence over a Reynolds number range from
up to 1131, and also with reference to data for inhomogeneous, anisotropic wall turbulence. The average flow in the eigenframe reveals a shear layer structure containing tube-like vortices and a dissipation sheet, whose dimensions scale with the Kolmogorov length scale,
. The vorticity stretching motions scale with the Taylor length scale,
, while the flow outside the shear layer scales with the integral length scale,
. Furthermore, the spatial organization of the vortices and the dissipation sheet defines a characteristic small-scale structure. The overall size of this characteristic small-scale structure is
in all directions based on the coherence length of the vorticity. This is considerably larger than the typical size of individual vortices, and reflects the importance of spatial organization at the small scales. Comparing the overall size of the characteristic small-scale structure with the largest flow scales and the vorticity stretching motions on the scale of
shows that transitions in flow structure occur where
and 250. Below these respective transitional Reynolds numbers, the small-scale motions and the vorticity stretching motions are progressively less well developed. Scale interactions are examined by decomposing the average shear layer into a local flow, which is induced by the shear layer vorticity, and a non-local flow, which represents the environment of the characteristic small-scale structure. The non-local strain is
in width and height, which is consistent with observations in high Reynolds number flow of a
wide instantaneous shear layer with many
-scale vortical structures inside (Ishihara et al., Flow Turbul. Combust., vol. 91, 2013, pp. 895–929). In the average shear layer, vorticity aligns with the intermediate principal strain at small scales, while it aligns with the most stretching principal strain at larger scales, consistent with instantaneous turbulence. The length scale at which the alignment changes depends on the Reynolds number. When conditioning the flow in the eigenframe on extreme dissipation, the velocity is strongly affected over large distances. Moreover, the associated peak velocity remains Reynolds number dependent when normalized by the Kolmogorov velocity scale. It signifies that extreme dissipation is not simply a small-scale property, but is associated with large scales at the same time.
Increased marine 14C reservoir ages from the surface water of the North Atlantic are documented for the Younger Dryas period. We use terrestrial and marine AMS 14C dates from the time of deposition of the Icelandic Vedde Ash to examine the marine 14C reservoir age. This changed from its modem North Atlantic value of ca. 400 yr to ca. 700 yr during the Younger Dryas climatic event. The increased marine reservoir age has implications for both comparing climatic time series dated by 14C and understanding palaeoceanographic changes that generated the increase.
Since the last General Assembly in Patras, Greece, we have held three meetings of the Working Group. The 10th Meeting was held in Mzkheta, the ancient capital of Georgia, USSR, hosted by their Academy of Sciences on April 3-7, 1984. All members except one, who was represented by a member of his Task Group, were present at the very productive meeting.
During past three years from 1982 to 1984 we saw the further progress in the planets and satellites research by the space and ground-based technique, in the analysis and interpretation of the observational data. Inspite of some decrease of the activity in the planetary spacecrafts launches during this period (except of two Soviet missions to Venus) many important scientific results were obtained from the continued reduction and analysis of the measurements which were performed by Mariner 10 (Mercury), Pioneer Venus, Venera 13 and 14, Viking (Mars), Pioneer 10 and 11, and Voyager 1 and 2.
The physical study of planets and satellites is probably one of the more active fields of research of the second half of this century. This is due to space exploration by spacecraft, but also to the use of modern detectors, of large ground-based telescopes, and of powerful computers by active researchers. Planetary research (or planetology) is a pluridisciplinary domain, which requires not only the competence of astronomers, but also of geophysicists, of mineralogists, of climatologists, of biologists, of chemists, of physicists, of “pure„ mathematicians, and many other scientists. Many results are at the boundary of those of other commissions such as the 15, 20, 7, 19, 33, 40, 44, 49 and 51 ones. The study of the main results obtained during this last triennum shows a perfect complementarity between space and ground-based observations. It should be arbitrary to separate space and ground-based scientists. The have the same goal and they study the same objects. Quite often, the same individuals use both techniques, depending on the most efficient one for the problem under study. It is remarkable to see that space data collected more than ten years ago are still analysed in connection with ground-based observations. The same remarks can apply for ground-based data. In addition to that, new theoretical models, new numerical simulations and new laboratory experiments have ben recently developed. They all contribute to a better understanding of planets and satellites physics.
The Australia Telescope Compact Array has been used for observations, with arcsecond resolution, of the HII region N159 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Images at 5 GHz reveal a second compact continuum component which has no obvious counterpart at optical and infrared wavelengths. Observations of HI 10α recombination-line emission, and HI and H2CO absorption, suggest that the object is a compact HII region embedded in a dense obscuring cloud on the edge of N159.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
NGC 4945 is with D ~3-4 Mpc one of the nearest starburst galaxies known and a goldmine for molecular cloud research. A multi-line mm-wave study has been carried out towards its nuclear region with the Swedish-ESO Sub-millimetre Telescope (SEST). The study covers the frequency range from 82 GHz to 354 GHz and includes 80 transitions of 19 molecules, including rare isotope-bearing species. Applying a Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) code to the data, H2 densities and column densities of 22 molecular species are calculated. Many of these species indicate the presence of a prominent high density interstellar gas component characterized by nH2 ~105cm-3. Abundances of molecular species are calculated and compared with abundances observed toward the starburst galaxies NGC 253 and M 82 and galactic sources. Apparent is an ‘overabundance’ of HNC and CN in the nuclear environment of NGC 4945. NGC 4945 is the second known starburst galaxy with an HNC/HCN abundance ratio ≥1. Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotope ratios are also determined. The data indicate that high 18O/17O, low 16O/18O and 14N/15N and perhaps also low 32S/34S ratios (6.4±0.3, 195±45, 105±25 and 13.5±2.5, respectively) are characteristic properties of a starburst environment in an advanced evolutionary stage.
Over 4 million patients suffer nosocomial infections annually in the European Union. This study aimed to estimate the healthcare burden associated with healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) following surgery in France, and explore the potential impact of infection control strategies and interventions on the clinical and economic burden of disease. Data on the frequency of HAIs were gathered from the 2010 Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d'Information (PMSI), and cost data were taken from the 2009 Echelle Nationale de Coûts à Méthodologie Commune (ENCC). It was estimated that 3% of surgical procedures performed in 2010 in France resulted in infection, resulting in an annual cost of €57 892 715. Patients experiencing a HAI had a significantly increased mortality risk (4·15-fold) and an increased length of hospital stay (threefold). Scenario analysis in which HAI incidence following surgery was reduced by 8% (based on a study of the effectiveness of triclosan-coated sutures), suggested that, annually, 20 205 hospital days and €4 588 519 could be saved. Analyses of 20% and 30% reductions in incidence (based on an estimate of the number of preventable nosocomial infections) suggested that annual savings of €11 548 057 and €17 334 696, respectively, could be made. New infection control interventions which reduce HAI incidence during hospitalization for surgery have the potential to provide valuable cost savings to healthcare providers.
Chromium-spinels have been widely used as petrogenetic indicators to infer parent melt compositions and the tectonic setting of their formation. This study integrates petrographic, quantitative textural and geochemical analyses of Cr-spinel seams within the Dawros Peridotite, NW Connemara, Ireland to determine the composition of their parental magmas. Calculation of Cr no. (Cr/(Cr + Al)) (0.50–0.77) values and TiO2 (0.18–0.36 wt%) contents of the Cr-spinel seams, coupled with an estimation of the Al2O3 and TiO2 contents (~11.86 wt% and ~0.39 wt%, respectively) of their parental melts, indicates that they probably formed from boninitic melts sourced from a highly depleted mantle. This implies that the Cr-spinel seams formed in a supra-subduction zone undergoing high degrees of partial melting. The Cr-spinel data support tectonic models for the formation of the Dawros Peridotite (and Connemara Metagabbro-Gneiss Complex) during island arc collision, immediately prior to Grampian orogenesis at ~470 Ma. The occurrence of the Dawros chromitite seams at the approximate transition between the lower harzburgite sequence and the upper lherzolite sequence bears marked similarities to the positions of such seams in larger anorogenic layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions, and implies that the Dawros Peridotite behaved as an open-system magma chamber.
Mass casualty triage is the process of prioritizing multiple victims when resources are not sufficient to treat everyone immediately. No national guideline for mass casualty triage exists in the United States. The lack of a national guideline has resulted in variability in triage processes, tags, and nomenclature. This variability has the potential to inject confusion and miscommunication into the disaster incident, particularly when multiple jurisdictions are involved. The Model Uniform Core Criteria for Mass Casualty Triage were developed to be a national guideline for mass casualty triage to ensure interoperability and standardization when responding to a mass casualty incident. The Core Criteria consist of 4 categories: general considerations, global sorting, lifesaving interventions, and individual assessment of triage category. The criteria within each of these categories were developed by a workgroup of experts representing national stakeholder organizations who used the best available science and, when necessary, consensus opinion. This article describes how the Model Uniform Core Criteria for Mass Casualty Triage were developed.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:129-137)
Long-term processes of cathodoluminescence degradation of thin film phosphors Zn2SiO4:Ti and Zn2GeO4:Mn were investigated in a wide range of e-beam energies, current and power densities. The time dependencies describing the decreasing of emission intensity have been found. At higher current densities of e-beam irradiation, the specific behavior of long-term degradation processes was observed, which is characterized by rapid initial degradation and a slower long term decrease. The most probable mechanisms are proposed for long-term processes of degradation in the investigated phosphors.
In 1979 Philip W. Kuchel published a paper  in the Mathematical Gazette on using curved mirrors as a means of demonstrating the transformation known as inversion in a circle. He called the mirrors ‘anamorphoscopes’ since he came to the idea as a special case of the conical mirror anamorphosis which was a popular optical toy from the seventeenth century onwards . In this paper we revisit his ideas with current technology and provide some extensions to Kuchel's derivation.
Single crystal NiSi2 films of type A and type B orientations with thicknesses ranging from 70–600Å have been grown on (111), n-type Si substrates. TEM and channeling measurements indicate that these films are of excellent epitaxial quality with uniform orientations over the entire range of observation. HRTEM studies show regular and atomically abrupt interfaces for both NiSi2 orientations with occasional localized planar defects. I-V and photoresponse measurements of the Schottky barrier heights(SBH) of the type A films yield consistent values of 0.62±.01eV. However, for type B films I-V measurements give a SBH of 0.69±.01eV while the photoresponse results give 0.77±.05eV. This discrepancy can be explained quantitatively by a phenomenological model in which a small percentage of low barrier height regions is incorporated into the type B films.
IBS of buried α and β iron suicide layers was achieved by the implantation of 2 MeV 56Fe+ ions into (100) single crystal silicon substrates over a dose range of 3 × 1017 to 1 × 1018 cm“-2followed by a high temperature anneal. No photoluminescence was observed from the as-implanted samples which contained a discontinuous layer of βFeSi2 precipitates approximately 1.5 μm below the silicon surface. Upon annealing at 700°C, a 200 nm polycrystalline βFeSi2 layer was formed which gave a PL signal centred at 1.55 μm. After a 900°C anneal, the layer transformed to αFeSix with a resistivity of approximately 280μΩcm.
Electron tunneling spectroscopy experiments have been performed on single-crystal epitaxial silicide films grown on (111)-oriented (off 4 °) Si:As. 250 Å-thick films of CoSi2, and type-A and -B NiSi2 on degenerate substrates (Nd = 2 × 1019 cm−3) have been studied. All spectra show forward bias peaks at energies corresponding to k-conserving bulk Si phonons while in reverse bias only the Si TA phonon is observed for NiSi2 /Si structures. Plots of dV/dI vs. V for CoSi2 /Si structures yield maxima at a forward bias of 39meV, indicating an enhancement in n-type dopant concentration within ˜ 100 Å or more of the silicide-silicon interface.