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Growth mixture modeling with a sample of 749 Mexican heritage families identified parallel trajectories of adolescents’ and their mothers’ heritage cultural values and parallel trajectories of adolescents’ and their fathers’ heritage cultural values from Grades 5 to 10. Parallel trajectory profiles were then used to test cultural gap-distress theory that predicts increased parent–adolescent conflict and adolescent psychopathology over time when adolescents become less aligned with Mexican heritage values compared to their parents. Six similar parallel profiles were identified for the mother–youth and father–youth dyads, but only one of the six was consistent with the hypothesized problem gap pattern in which adolescents’ values were declining over time to become more discrepant from their parents. When compared to families in the other trajectory groups as a whole, mothers in the mother–adolescent problem gap trajectory group reported higher levels of mother–adolescent conflict in the 10th grade that accounted for subsequent increases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms assessed in 12th grade. Although the findings provided some support for cultural gap-distress predictions, they were not replicated with adolescent report of conflict nor with the father–adolescent trajectory group analyses. Exploratory pairwise comparisons between all six mother–adolescent trajectory groups revealed additional differences that qualified and extended these findings.
Sorted patterned ground refers to polygons, nets, or stripes defined by rocky borders which are the result of sorting in soil subjected to frost action. This paper presents a model in which convection cells, driven by unstable density stratification in the aqueous phase, result in uneven melting of the underlying ice front during thawing. The resulting undulatory ice front with regularly spaced peaks and troughs provides the pattern which results in the regularity observed for certain types of patterned ground. In addition, the model predicts the width to depth-of-sorting ratio for both polygons and stripes, and explains the characteristic hexagonal shape of sorted polygons, the transition from sorted polygons to sorted stripes on sloped terrain, and the formation of sorted polygons under water. The predicted ratio of width to depth-of-sorting of 3.81 for sorted polygons is compared with the ratio of width to depth-of-sorting of 3.57 found from a linear regression analysis of 18 field study data.
Gravitational lens surveys are of cosmological interest because they provide a way to measure the gravitational field of both luminous and dark matter. Many of the other methods used to detect the presence of dark matter, such as studies of galaxy rotation curves and cluster dynamics, require that there be luminous objects in the gravitational field that act as tracers of the mass. This may introduce a selection effect. In constrast, in studies of gravitational lenses, the beacon we observe can be far (at distances of order one thousand Mpc) from the gravitational field. In this paper we describe a VLA survey designed to detect gravitational lensing on sub-arc second and arc second scales. We also present a preliminary result of the radio data: we find that the density of matter in the form of a uniform, comoving number density of 1011 to 1012M⊙ compact objects, luminous or dark, must be substantially less than the critical density.
We positionally match sources observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey. Practically all 2MASS sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; ~11% of them are optically resolved galaxies and the rest are dominated by stars. About 1/3 of FIRST sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; ~80% of these are galaxies and the rest are dominated by quasars. Based on these results, we project that by the completion of these surveys the matched samples will include about 107 stars and 106 galaxies observed by both SDSS and 2MASS, and about 250,000 galaxies and 50,000 quasars observed by both SDSS and FIRST. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the optical, infrared and radio properties for the extragalactic sources from the matched samples. In particular, we find that the fraction of quasars with stellar colors missed by the SDSS spectroscopic survey is probably not larger than ~10%, and that the optical colors of radio-loud quasars are ~0.05 mag. redder (with 4σ significance) than the colors of radio-quiet quasars.
Semiconducting boron carbide overlayers, formed from the decomposition of orthocarborane and metacarborane have been studied by angle resolved photoemission. The incurrence of surface photovoltage and the photovoltaic process, from the photoemission experiment, reveal band offsets in the orthocarborane multilayer configurations that are invereted relative to single layer configurations. Defect induced gap states which trap charge at the heterostructure interface is used as one explanation of these results. The role of defects is also used to help illuminate why opposite semiconducting type materials are formed from the decomposition of isomer carborane molecules.
Major advances in our understanding of the Universe have historically come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. The astrometric observations obtained by modern digital sky surveys are enabling unprecedentedly massive and robust studies of the kinematics of the Milky Way. For example, the astrometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), together with half a century old astrometry from the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS), have enabled the construction of a catalog that includes absolute proper motions as accurate as 3 mas/year for about 20 million stars brighter than V=20, and for 80,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars which provide exquisite error assessment. We discuss here several ongoing studies of Milky Way kinematics based on this catalog. The upcoming next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. For example, we show using realistic simulations that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will measure proper motions accurate to 1 mas/year to a limit 4 magnitude fainter than possible with SDSS and POSS catalogs, or with the Gaia survey. LSST will also obtain geometric parallaxes with accuracy similar to Gaia's at its faint end (0.3 mas at V=20), and extend them to V=24 with an accuracy of 3 mas. We discuss the impact that these LSST measurements will have on studies of the Milky Way kinematics, and potential synergies with the Gaia survey.
Mathematical models are constructed to investigate the population dynamics of Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) serogroups O26 and O103 in two different calf cohorts. We compare the epidemiological characteristics of these two serogroups within the same calf cohort as well as the same serogroups between the two calf cohorts. The sources of infection are quantified for both calf cohort studies. VTEC serogroups O26 and O103 mainly differ in the rate at which calves acquire infection from sources other than infected calves, while infected calves typically remain infectious for less than 1 week regardless of the serogroups. Fewer than 20% of VTEC-positive samples are the result of calf-to-calf transmission. PFGE typing data are available for VTEC-positive samples to further subdivide the serogroup data in one of the two calf cohort studies. For serogroup O26 but not O103, there is evidence for unequal environmental exposure to infection with different PFGE types.
The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 displays striking variability across the Scottish cattle population. On 78% of farms, in a cross-sectional survey of 952, no shedding of E. coli O157 was detected, but on a small proportion, ∼2%, very high prevalences of infection were found (with 90–100% of pats sampled being positive). We ask whether this variation arises from the inherent stochasticity in transmission dynamics or whether it is a signature of underlying heterogeneities in the cattle population. A novel approach is taken whereby the cross-sectional data are viewed as providing independent snapshots of a dynamic process. Using maximum-likelihood methods to fit time-dependent epidemiological models to the data we obtain estimates for the rates of immigration and transmission of E. coli O157 infection – parameters which have not been previously quantified in the literature. A comparison of alternative model fits reveals that the variation in the prevalence data is best explained when a proportion of the cattle are assumed to transmit infection at much higher levels than the rest – the so-called super-shedders. Analysis of a second dataset, comprising samples taken from 32 farms at monthly intervals over a period of 1 year, additionally yields an estimate for the rate of recovery from infection. The pattern of prevalence displayed in the second dataset also strongly supports the super-shedder hypothesis.
In Scotland, between 1995 and 2000 there were between 4 and 10 cases of illness per 100000 population per year identified as being caused by Escherichia coli O157, whereas in England and Wales there were between 1 and 2 cases per 100000 population per year. Within Scotland there is significant regional variation. A cluster of high rate areas was identified in the Northeast of Scotland and a cluster of low rate areas in central-west Scotland. Temporal trends follow a seasonal pattern whilst spatial effects appeared to be distant rather than local. The best-fit model identified a significant spatial trend with case rate increasing from West to East, and from South to North. No statistically significant spatial interaction term was found. In the models fitted, the cattle population density, the human population density, and the number of cattle per person were variously significant. The findings suggest that rural/urban exposures are important in sporadic infections.
We analyze the properties of quasar variability using repeated SDSS imaging data in five UV-to-far red photometric bands, accurate to 0.02 mag, for ∼13,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. The observed time lags span the range from 3 hours to over 3 years, and constrain the quasar variability for rest-frame time lags of up to two years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000Å to 6000Å. We demonstrate that ∼66,000 SDSS measurements of magnitude differences can be described within the measurement noise by a simple function of only three free parameters. The addition of POSS data constrains the long-term behavior of quasar variability and provides evidence for a turn-over in the structure function. This turn-over indicates that the characteristic time scale for optical variability of quasars is of the order 1 year.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
A study was designed to investigate management factors that might influence the shedding of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 by beef cows in Scotland, where there is a particularly high rate of human infection. Thirty-two herds were visited at least monthly over approximately 1 year for collection of fresh faecal pat samples and information on management factors. The faecal pat samples were tested for VTEC O157 by established culture and immunomagnetic separation methods. Questionnaires were completed at the monthly visits to record management factors. Data were analysed using both univariate and multi-factor (GLMM) analysis. Changes in the number of cows in a group, dogs, wild geese, housing, and the feeding of draff (distillers' grains) were statistically significant as risk factors. The event of calving appeared to reduce the likelihood of shedding. Any effects of weaning or turnout were not statistically significant. It appears that the rate of shedding of VTEC O157 is influenced by several factors but possibly the most important of these are the circumstances of animals being housed, or, when outside, the presence of wild geese.
Maya Lowlands climate researchers have set aside earlier beliefs
that Maya civilization flourished in an unchanging environment.
Analyses of river discharge, weather patterns, lake-bottom
sediments, and settlement patterns reveal a highly variable
climate, considerable diversity in local geology and soils,
and a wide range of cultural adaptations tailored to distinctive
subregional settings. Significant knowledge gaps remain. Among
the unanswered questions is how cities in the elevated interior
were maintained without natural, permanent bodies of water even
during equitable climatic conditions, much less through the
episodes of severe drought that have become apparent in studies
of past climates. The research reported in this article lays
the groundwork for climate studies in the southwestern Yucatan
We have explored the relationships between specific leaf area calculated for a whole plant and its individual leaves.
Barley was grown in hydroponics in controlled environment cabinets. Plants were harvested on the basis of
physiological age (defined as the number of days after full expansion of leaves on the main stem) and the area and
weight of whole, fully expanded, leaves measured and specific leaf area (SLA) of individual leaves or whole plants
calculated. Specific leaf area calculated for individual leaves (SLAL) varied with leaf position and with leaf age after
full expansion whereas SLA calculated for whole plants (SLAP) varied with plant age. The same conclusions were
reached whether the results were based on total dry weight or dry weight minus soluble carbohydrates (‘structural
weight’). Transferring plants to shade on the day of full expansion of the third leaf on the main stem increased
the SLAP, and also SLAL of leaves 3 and 4 on the main stem (leaf 4 being the younger leaf of the two), because
of a decrease in the ‘structural weight’ of these leaves. However SLAL of leaf 2 (which was older than leaf 3) was
not affected by shading; the effect was confined to leaves developing in the new conditions.
The majority of early lambing flocks in the UK consist of crossbred ewes which do not normally cycle at a time consistent with an early January lambing. Oestrus stimulation is therefore necessary and is generally achieved by the use of progesterone-impregnated sponges and Pregnant Mares Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG). Alternative techniques to sponges and PMSG to induce oestrus may become increasingly important in the future if restrictions are placed on the use of synthetic hormones. The present study aimed to
a) Investigate alternative ways of advancing the breeding season naturally using vasectomised males and ovariectomised, oestrus-induced females. (Teasing).
b) Assess whether treatment of ‘teased’ ewes with melatonin would enhance any effect of teasers.
Border Leicester × Scottish Blackface (Greyface) ewes of three groups, each comprising 118 animals in a wide range of body condition scores, were mated at a synchronized oestrus in mid October. The ewes were passively immunized against testosterone (group P), actively immunized against androstenedione (group F), or not treated (group C). All ewes were slaughtered at return to service or at 35 to 45 days of pregnancy and ovulation rates and numbers of embryos present were determined. Mean ovulation rates of ewes in group P were higher than in those in group C (P < 0·05) and this difference was evident at most levels of body condition. The absolute increase in ovulation rate, compared with the control group, was similar at all condition scores. Mean ovulation rates of ewes in group F were higher than those in group C (P < 0·001) and the magnitude of the increase was greater in ewes in higher condition scores. The incidence of ova wastage was variable but differences between treatments in mean ovulation rate were generally reflected in mean litter size. The conception rates of immunized ewes were depressed compared with those of control animals, particularly in ewes with a body condition score less than 3·0 at mating. Consequently, there was no improvement in the potential lambing rate of immunized ewes following only one cycle of mating. Circulating antibody titres were not related to conception rate or body condition at mating and were related to ovulation rate only in group F ewes. It is concluded that immunization against steroids, using either passive or active techniques, can improve the reproductive performance of individual ewes but improvement in the performance of the flock as a whole may only be achieved under optimal conditions of nutrition and season.
The effect of passive immunization against testosterone on reproductive performance was investigated in 180 mature Scottish Blackface ewes in different levels of body condition at mating. Ewes were fed to achieve a wide range of condition (scores 1·5 to 3·0) by 2 weeks before a synchronized mating. During the week before mating, 90 ewes were each injected with 32 ml of a neat anti-testosterone antiserum (1: 96 000 initial titre) and 90 ewes were untreated. At about 55 days after mating, 50 immunized and 50 control ewes were slaughtered and the numbers of corpora lutea and embryos present were recorded. The proportion of immunized ewes that conceived during two periods of mating was in excess of 0·9 in all condition categories. By contrast, untreated ewes in the low condition category (score =£ 2·00) had significantly lower conception rates than ewes in higher condition categories. Immunized ewes with condition scores of 2·50 or less at mating had significantly higher ovulation rates, litter sizes and lambing rates compared with control ewes, while immunized ewes with scores of 2·75 or higher were not significantly different from control ewes in these measurements. There was no effect of immunization on embryo mortality rate, lamb sex ratio, lamb birth weight, or lamb survival rate in the 1st week after birth.