Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Following publication, errors were discovered in the y-axis labels of the electron and hole concentration plots in the following figure panels: figure 4c, figure 4d, figure 5c, figure 5d, figure 6c, figure 6d, figure 8c and figure 8d. The error does not affect the description, analysis or conclusions. The correct representation of the figure panels are shown here.
Increasing evidence suggests that the presence of mobile ions in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) can cause a current–voltage curve hysteresis. Steady state and transient current–voltage characteristics of a planar metal halide CH3NH3PbI3 PSC are analysed with a drift-diffusion model that accounts for both charge transport and ion vacancy motion. The high ion vacancy density within the perovskite layer gives rise to narrow Debye layers (typical width ~2 nm), adjacent to the interfaces with the transport layers, over which large drops in the electric potential occur and in which significant charge is stored. Large disparities between (I) the width of the Debye layers and that of the perovskite layer (~600 nm) and (II) the ion vacancy density and the charge carrier densities motivate an asymptotic approach to solving the model, while the stiffness of the equations renders standard solution methods unreliable. We derive a simplified surface polarisation model in which the slow ion dynamics are replaced by interfacial (non-linear) capacitances at the perovskite interfaces. Favourable comparison is made between the results of the asymptotic approach and numerical solutions for a realistic cell over a wide range of operating conditions of practical interest.
We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family's shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Village X consisted of 64 households; 42% of households became case-households over the observation period. Two significant space-time clusters occurred among households in the village; temporal effects outweighed spatial effects. GEE demonstrated that the odds of becoming a case-household increased by 4·0% for each additional person per household (P < 0·02) and 2·6% per day (P < 0·07). An increasing number of persons per household, and to a lesser extent, the passage of time after onset of the outbreak were risk factors for household Ebola acquisition, emphasizing the importance of prompt public health interventions that prioritize the most populated households. Using GIS with GEE can reveal complex spatial-temporal risk factors, which can inform prioritization of response activities in future outbreaks.
Integral field unit spectrographs allow the 2D exploration of the kinematics and stellar populations of galaxies, although they are generally restricted to small fields-of-view. Using the large field-of-view of the DEIMOS multislit spectrograph on Keck and our Stellar Kinematics using Multiple Slits technique, we are able to extract sky-subtracted stellar light spectra to large galactocentric radii. Here, we present a new DEIMOS mask design named SuperSKiMS that explores large spatial scales without sacrificing high spatial sampling. We simulate a set of observations with such a mask design on the nearby galaxy NGC 1023, measuring stellar kinematics and metallicities out to where the galaxy surface brightness is orders of magnitude fainter than the sky. With this technique we also reproduce the results from literature integral field spectroscopy in the innermost galaxy regions. In particular, we use the simulated NGC 1023 kinematics to model its total mass distribution to large radii, obtaining comparable results with those from published integral field unit observation. Finally, from new spectra of NGC 1023, we obtain stellar 2D kinematics and metallicity distributions that show good agreement with integral field spectroscopy results in the overlapping regions. In particular, we do not find a significant offset between our Stellar Kinematics using Multiple Slits and the ATLAS3D stellar velocity dispersion at the same spatial locations.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass clumps. Recently completed, it mapped 90 GHz line emission towards 3 246 high-mass clumps identified from the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. By utilising the broad frequency coverage of the Mopra telescope’s spectrometer, maps in 16 different emission lines were simultaneously obtained. Here, we describe the first catalogue of the detected line emission, generated by Gaussian profile fitting to spectra extracted towards each clumps’ 870 μm dust continuum peak. Synthetic spectra show that the catalogue has a completeness of > 95%, a probability of a false-positive detection of < 0.3%, and a relative uncertainty in the measured quantities of < 20% over the range of detection criteria. The detection rates are highest for the (1–0) transitions of HCO+, HNC, N2H+, and HCN (~77–89%). Almost all clumps (~95%) are detected in at least one of the molecular transitions, just over half of the clumps (~53%) are detected in four or more of the transitions, while only one clump is detected in 13 transitions. We find several striking trends in the ensemble of properties for the different molecular transitions when plotted as a function of the clumps’ evolutionary state as estimated from Spitzer mid-IR images, including (1) HNC is relatively brighter in colder, less evolved clumps than those that show active star formation, (2) N2H+ is relatively brighter in the earlier stages, (3) that the observed optical depth decreases as the clumps evolve, and (4) the optically thickest HCO+ emission shows a ‘blue-red asymmetry’ indicating overall collapse that monotonically decreases as the clumps evolve. This catalogue represents the largest compiled database of line emission towards high-mass clumps and is a valuable data set for detailed studies of these objects.
Millions of people throughout the tropics consume wild meat. Overhunting reduces food security for people and large predators, yet little is known of the impact of hunting in systems where people and predators target the same prey species. We collate published data on predator diet in Belize with interview data about the consumption of wild and domestic meat by Belizeans, to compare the wild-meat diets of humans, jaguars Panthera onca and pumas Puma concolor and assess the sustainability of the combined offtake by humans and jaguars. Six wild mammal species (nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, paca Cuniculus paca, collared peccary Pecari tajacu, white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari, red brocket deer Mazama americana and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus) comprised 7% of the animal-protein meals eaten by Belizeans. Overall, 80% of these meals were eaten by 20% of interviewees, suggesting a necessary role of wild meat for the minority. The same species were found in 69 and 86% of jaguar and puma scats, respectively. We estimate a national annual harvest of c. 4,000 tonnes of these six wild mammals by humans and jaguars, of which 78% is hunted by people. Sustainability is difficult to evaluate because prey population data are lacking in Belize. However, simple models suggest that a sustainable harvest at this rate would require higher prey population densities than averages recorded in hunted Neotropical forests. We emphasize the need for robust regional estimates of game species densities, to improve assessments of sustainability and inform hunting regulations. We recommend that the requirements of predators as well as those of people be considered when assessing wild meat harvests.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
We characterise the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90) and the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz. We combine repeated position-switched observations of the source G300.968+01.145 with a map of the same source in order to estimate the pointing reliability of the position-switched observations and, by extension, the MALT90 survey; we estimate our pointing uncertainty to be 8 arcsec. We model the two strongest sources of systematic gain variability as functions of elevation and time-of-day and quantify the remaining absolute flux uncertainty. Corrections based on these two variables reduce the scatter in repeated observations from 12%–25% down to 10%–17%. We find no evidence for intrinsic source variability in G300.968+01.145. For certain applications, the corrections described herein will be integral for improving the absolute flux calibration of MALT90 maps and other observations using the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
The major events that promoted gemstone jewelry production in ancient Rome included: the separation of gold from silver, the expansion of land trade routes to the east, and presentations of treasure during Roman triumphs that popularized eastern jewelry. In this paper a fourth event is studied, namely the development of the sea trade to India and Sri Lanka that made possible the importation of sapphires and diamond technology. Classical references were reviewed, methods of identifying Sri Lankan sapphires were explored, and experimental studies were undertaken to test various bow drills, abrasives, and methods of securing stones and abrasive onto solid surfaces. From these studies it is concluded that (1) opaque dark blue sapphires were imported from central India around the first or second century A.D. and pale blue transparent stones from Sri Lanka by the fourth century A.D., (2) with the importation of sapphires, industrial diamonds and lac technology was also brought to the west, and (3) a wide variety of bow drills were probably employed, however, for hard stones, the horizontal bow driven lathe was probably preferred because of the relative ease with which stones could be worked against it.
We report optical waveguiding in single-crystal, epitaxial (101) oriented rutile (TiO2) thin films grown on (1120) sapphire (α-Al2O3) substrates using the MOCVD technique. The propagation constants for asymmetric planar waveguides composed of an anisotropic dielectric media applicable to these films are derived. Modifications to the prism-film coupling theory for this anisotropic case are also discussed. By application of this model to (101) oriented rutile thin films, we directly obtain values of the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indexes, no and ne, of the rutile thin films as well as film thicknesses. We obtain typical values of the refractive indexes (no=2.5701±0.0005; ne=2.934±0.001) near to those for bulk rutile single crystals indicating the exceptional quality of these films.
Epitaxially grown oxides of both SrTiO3 (STO) and YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) have been removed from their growth substrate and transferred for integration into other circuits (microwave devices) and onto other substrate material (glass). The enabling element in the separation process is the high selectivity of etching between YBCO and other oxide materials. Thus, a thin layer of YBCO is used as the sacrificial layer in the structure, allowing rapid etchant ingress under the device structures and separation from the growth substrate. Initial demonstrations of microwave device tuning using a lifted-off STO layer is detailed.
The relevance of lattice distortion, polaron conduction, and double-exchange interaction to the occurrence of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) is investigated by comparing the physical properties of magnetoresistive manganites and cobaltites. The samples studied in this work include epitaxial films and ceramics of manganites with both A- and B-site substitution, (La0.7Ca0.3MnO3, LaMn0.7 Ni0.3O3, LaMnO.5Ni0.5O3), as well as epitaxial films and ceramics of cobaltites (La0.5Ca0.5CoO3). The structural, chemical, electrical transport, magnetic, optical properties and tunneling spectroscopy are studied. Based on our experimental results, we conclude that both double-exchange interaction and strong electron-phonon coupling due to the Jahn-Teller effect are essential to the occurrence of CMR.
The structure of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films prepared by hydrothermal synthesis on (001) SrTiO3 substrates was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The growth evolution was followed from initial island formation, through island impingement and fusion. Plan view and cross-section imaging demonstrated that the films grew by an unusual islanding mechanism. Electron diffraction showed the islands and the fully formed film are single crystal with mosaic character and in all cases strain relaxed. Cross-section TEM of the early growth films showed a several monolayer thick interfacial layer and the film/substrate region had no misfit dislocations. In the fully formed films, this interfacial layer was not observed, however a clear misfit dislocation network was observed. Defects analysis shows that the misfit dislocations have pure edge character with <100> Une directions, and <010> Burgers vectors (parallel to the film/substrate interface).
We introduce a new annealing procedure to prepare well defined surfaces of SrTiO3 single crystal and bicrystal substrates. Annealing SrTiO3 (001) substrates in oxygen and then in ultra high vacuum produces a uniformly TiO2-terminated, atomically flat and ordered SrTiO3 (001) surfaces, as revealed by Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, and high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy. Applying this annealing procedure to slightly off-cut (∼1.2°) SrTiO3 (001) surfaces has a strong influence on the resulting step structure. Particular annealing procedures can be used to tailor the structure and morphology of the surface and of bicrystal boundaries down to the atomic level. For example, steps of SrTiO3 (001) surfaces can be adjusted to a height of one, two, or multiple times the unit-cell size of STO (aSTO=0.3905 nm). Atomically flat SrTiO3 (001) substrates were used for deposition of SmBa2Cu3O7-δ (SBCO) thin films. The thickness (in a range from 10 nm to 200 nm) dependency of the surface morphology of SmBa2Cu3O7-δ films was investigated with UHV-STM. No spiral growth was observed. Surfaces of all films exhibit stacks of flat terraces which are frequently separated by steps, smaller than the c-axis length cSBCO of SBCO (cSBCO=1.17 nm).
Spinel Fe3O4 contains two sites for iron: tetrahedrally coordinated sites containing Fe3+ ions and octahedrally coordinated sites containing a mixture of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions. Scanning tunneling microscopy performed on the (001) surface of Fe3O4, grown epitaxially on MgO, shows localized charge density at the tetrahedral sites. The images show that the p(1×1) surface reconstruction (also observed during molecular beam epitaxy of Fe3O4) is produced by a displacement of the two tetrahedrally coordinated Fe ions on the unit cell surface from their bulk positions toward each other. The octahedral Fe ions are imaged as extended rows of charge density, with no resolution of atom-size features along the rows. This slight corrugation of electron charge density along the octahedral sites is consistent with the original conjectures explaining the high electrical conductivity in bulk Fe3O4: electrons move by hopping between the Fe3+ and Fe2+ atoms along the octahedral rows of Fe ions.
We have investigated the structural and compositional changes that are induced by the segregation of substrate Mg to the surface of 1μm-thick Fe3O4 films on MgO(001). The thin films have been grown with plasma-assisted MBE, and characterization with RHEED (reflection high-energy electron diffraction), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry show slightly strained, single-crystalline Fe3O4 films. For the surface studies, we have combined Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). Initial and final surface characterization employed X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Ion Scattering Spec-troscopy (ISS) respectively. The surfaces of the MBE-grown samples are flat and show a (√2 × √2)R45° reconstruction with respect to the Fe3O4 surface unit cell. We observe the onset of Mg segregation to the surface at around 700 K, with long, narrow extensions of terraces being observed growing along the  and  directions. Upon prolonged heating at 800 K, massive Mg segregation to the surface is observed. Heating in an oxygen atmosphere induces a 1×4 surface reconstruction, and results in extremely long (≈ 1000 Å), wide terraces.
The solid source MOCVD technique1,2, employing a single powder vaporization source composed of mixed beta-diketonate metalorganic compounds, has been used to grow thin films of a variety of electro-optic materials, including lithium niobate, strontium barium niobate, and potassium niobate. Results for potassium niobate films are quite preliminary, but indicate that a volatile potassium organometallic source can be synthesized which is useful for growing potassium niobate by MOCVD. High quality single phase (001) oriented strontium barium niobate films have been deposited which exhibit waveguiding behavior. The most extensive work has been done on lithium niobate, which has been deposited epitaxially on a variety of substrates. Oriented z-axis (001) films have been grown on c-axis sapphire with and without a (111) oriented platinum base electrode and on a bulk grown lithium niobate substrate. Films grown directly on c-axis sapphire at 700 C exhibit x-ray rocking curve linewidths as low as.044 degrees, nearly perfect in-plane orientation as determined by x-ray phi scans, and peak-to-peak surface roughness less than 40 Å. Optical waveguiding has been demonstrated by a single prism coupling technique on similar films 1175 – 2000 Å thick grown at 500 C, with optical losses of approximately 2 db/cm at 632.8 nm measured over 3.5 cm long films. Polarization vs. electric field measurements on 1100 Å thick films grown on platinum show a hysteresis loop indicating ferroelectric behavior.