Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB). Little is known about how research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (bidirectionality). This program evaluation assessed researcher presentations from 2014 to 2018 to the CABs linked to our CTSA at all three sites (Minnesota, Arizona, and Florida) for relevance to local community needs identified in 2013 and/or 2016. From content analysis, of 65 presentations total, 41 (63%) addressed ≥1 local health needs (47% Minnesota, 60% Florida, and 80% Arizona). Cross-cutting topics were cancer/cancer prevention (physical activity/obesity/nutrition) and mental health. Results could help to prioritize health outcomes of community-engaged research efforts.
Selexipag is an enteral, selective prostacyclin IP receptor agonist approved for pulmonary hypertension in adults. There are few reports of its use in children and none in infants. We report the first transition of an infant (11.5 months, 8.6 kg) from intravenous treprostinil (40 ng/kg/minute) to enteral selexipag (400 mcg twice daily) with a good response and no adverse effects.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB), an effective strategy to increase community engagement (CE) in research. Little is known about how the research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (i.e., bi-directionality). This program evaluation assessed the health topics presented by researchers to the CABs linked to our CE Program at all three Mayo Clinic sites (MN, AZ, and FL) for relevance to local community needs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Two coders classified Mayo researcher presentations to our CABs from 2014-2018 for relevance to needs identified in the local 2013 and/or 2016 County Health Needs Assessments and specific topic(s); with high levels of agreement (Kappa=0.90). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Overall, of the 65 presentations 41 (63%) addressed one or more local health needs (47% MN, 60% FL, 80% AZ). Cross-cutting health topics addressed at 2 sites were physical activity/obesity/nutrition and mental health. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Findings were shared with our CABs to obtain input on future directions. The FL and AZ CABs are systematic in seeking out or initiating research projects that address local health needs, an approach the MN site is interested in adopting. Ultimately, it is important to demonstrate improved health outcomes with CTSA-based CE research strategies. Understanding community health needs and depth of researchers in those areas may help to focus priorities for demonstrating such outcomes.
Breakthrough Listen is a 10-yr initiative to search for signatures of technologies created by extraterrestrial civilisations at radio and optical wavelengths. Here, we detail the digital data recording system deployed for Breakthrough Listen observations at the 64-m aperture CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. The recording system currently implements two modes: a dual-polarisation, 1.125-GHz bandwidth mode for single-beam observations, and a 26-input, 308-MHz bandwidth mode for the 21-cm multibeam receiver. The system is also designed to support a 3-GHz single-beam mode for the forthcoming Parkes ultra-wideband feed. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, provide an overview of hardware and software, and present initial performance results.
A 24-year-old woman with a history of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy status post heart transplant gave birth to a healthy term female infant. At 5 months of age, the infant was diagnosed with severe left ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction of 18% and moderate non-compaction of the left ventricle. She received a heart transplant at 7 months of age. Familial dilated cardiomyopathy was diagnosed. Genetic testing revealed a likely pathogenic variant in the TPM1 gene. Fetal cardiac screening is critical for offspring of heart transplant recipients, especially when the reason for transplant was cardiomyopathy. Early genetic consultation and counselling is necessary for all heart transplant recipients, preferably prenatally. Postnatal screening of offspring is essential at birth, at 3-month intervals until 1 year of age, and then annually until the risk for familial cardiomyopathy is assessed.
In this study, we conducted the first energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) experiments on Li/Li1.1V3O8 coin cells discharged to different lithiation levels in order to investigate the phase transitions upon electrochemical reduction. The phase transformation from layered Li-poor α to Li-rich α to defect rock-salt β phase was confirmed with cells of different lithiation stages. No spatial localization of phase formation was observed throughout the cathodes under the conditions of this measurement.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
The Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (Acbar) is a multifrequency millimeter-wave receiver optimized for observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in clusters of galaxies. Acbar was installed on the 2.1 m Viper telescope at the South Pole in January 2001 and the results presented here incorporate data through July 2002. The power spectrum of the CMB at 150 GHz over the range ℓ = 150 — 3000 measured by Acbar is presented along with estimates for the values of the cosmological parameters within the context of ΛCDM models. The inclusion of ΩΛ greatly improves the fit to the power spectrum. Three-frequency images of the SZ decrement/increment are also presented for the galaxy cluster 1E0657–67.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
We have observed the supernova remnants G16.7+0.1 and G29.7−0.3 at millimeter wavelengths with the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association array, measuring total flux densities of the pulsar wind nebulae in the remnants. Our results imply a break at ∼50 GHz in the spectrum of the PWN in G29.7−0.3, lower than previously estimated. The PWN in G16.7+0.1 either has a break < 100 GHz, or a steep radio spectrum.
We present some very preliminary results of the multifrequency microvariability campaign of two BL Lac objects OJ 287 and Mk 421 carried out mainly during four days in March 1993. During these four days also IUE was observing these blazars. In this poster we present only a small part of the whole data: radio observations at Metsähovi, CCD observations on La Palma and Heidelberg and UBVRI photopolarimetric observations at Crimea. Because of the very bad global weather conditions and also because of the faintnes of OJ 287 our optical observations were very limited.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
Blazar OJ 287 is one of the best observed extragalactic objects. It's historical light curve goes back to 1890′s. Based on the historical behaviour Sillanpää et al. (1988) showed that OJ 287 displays large periodic outbursts, with a period of 11.7 years. We have monitored OJ 287 intensively for two years, during the OJ-94 project. This project was created for monitoring OJ 287 during its predicted new outburst in 1994. In the data archive we have over 7000 observations on OJ 287, in the radio, infrared and optical bands. This data archive contains the best ever obtained light curves for any extragalactic object. The optical light curve shows continuous variability down to time scales of tens of minutes. The variability observed in OJ 287 can be broken down to (at least) four different categories:
Using a sample of 7 barred spirals from the BIMA Survey of Nearby Galaxies (SONG), we compare the molecular gas distribution in the bar, to recent massive star formation activity. In all 7 galaxies, Hα is offset azimuthally from the CO on the downstream side. The maximum offset, at the bar ends, ranges from 170-570 pc, with an average of 320±120 pc. We discuss whether the observed offsets are consistent with the description of gas flows in bars provided by the two main classes of models: n-body models and hydrodynamic models.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Radio continuum emission due to thermal bremsstrahlung and optical Hα spectral line emission arise from processes involving similar atomic entities and physical conditions. The relationship between the flux density of the emission from the two processes is mainly a function of the electron temperature of the emitting region, modified by other factors such as the mode of radiation transfer in the hydrogen spectrum. On the other hand, radio continuum radiation due to non-thermal synchrotron emission is formed by species and processes not involved in thermal emission. As a consequence, differences between the observed radio continuum emission and Hα emission from cosmic sources can provide reliable information on a variety of important physical aspects of the sources, including the relative importance of thermal and non-thermal radio emission and the degree of optical obscuration. This paper reviews the theory of the formation of Hα and the radio continuum in the interstellar medium (ISM), discusses some of the factors that must be considered in comparing observations made in the two frequency regimes, and summarises the properties of some classes of galactic object that emit both optical and radio radiation.
Embedded wafer-level ball grid array (eWLB) is investigated as a low-cost plastic package for automotive radar applications in the 76–81 GHz range. Low transmission losses from chip to package and board are achieved by appropriate circuit and package design. Special measures are taken to effectively remove the heat from the package and to optimize the package process to achieve automotive quality targets. A 77 GHz radar chip set in eWLB package is developed, which can be applied on the system board using standard solder reflow assembly. These radar MMICs provide excellent radio frequency (RF) performance for the next generation automotive radar sensors. The potential for even higher system integration is shown by a radar transceiver with antennas integrated in the eWLB package. These results demonstrate that eWLB technology is an attractive candidate to realize low-cost radar systems and to enable radar safety affordable for everyone in the near future.