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A self-medication hypothesis has been proposed to explain the association between cannabis use and a number of psychiatric and behavioral problems. However, there is little knowledge on reasons for use and reactions while intoxicated, in cannabis users who suffer from depression or problems controlling violent behavior.
We assessed 119 cannabis dependent subjects using the Schedules of Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), parts of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), and questionnaires on reasons for cannabis use and reactions to cannabis use while intoxicated. Participants with lifetime depression, and problems controlling violent behavior, were compared to subjects without such problems. Validity of the groupings was corroborated by use of a psychiatric treatment register, previous use of psychotropic medication, and convictions for violence.
Subjects with lifetime depression used cannabis for the same reasons as others. While under the influence of cannabis, they more often experienced depression, sadness, anxiety and paranoia, and they were less likely to report happiness or euphoria. Participants reporting problems controlling violent behavior more often used cannabis to decrease aggression, decrease suspiciousness, and for relaxation; while intoxicated they more often reacted with aggression.
Subjects with prior depression do not use cannabis as a mean of self-medication. They are more likely to experience specific increases of adverse symptoms while under the influence of cannabis, and are less likely to experience specific symptom relief. There is some evidence that cannabis is used as a mean of self-medication for problems controlling aggression.
Electric indoor lighting can disturb sleep and increase depressive symptoms; both common complaints in psychiatric inpatients.
To improve quality of sleep in patients using an indoor hospital lighting environment simulating nature in intensity, color, and circadian timing.
Investigator-blinded parallel group randomized controlled effectiveness trial supplied with qualitative interviews in an inpatient psychiatric ward with fully automatic and adjustable lighting. Admitted patients received a room with a naturalistic lighting environment (intervention group) or lighting as usual (control group). The primary outcome was the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and secondary outcomes included the Major Depression Inventory and WHO-five Well- Being Index.
In this ongoing trial, we included 28 patients (16 treated and 12 controls). Patients in the intervention group reported higher subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency, lower use of sleep medication (mean difference, 4.68 mg; 95% CI, 0.54; 53.5), fewer depressive symptoms (mean difference, 5; 95% CI,–2; 13), but lower well-being (difference,–4 percentage points; 95% CI,–20; 16), compared with the control group. At discharge, fewer patients in the intervention group had experienced use of involuntary treatment. Qualitative data indicated no side effects apart from issues in performing indoor leisure activities in dim light.
A naturalistic lighting environment was safe and improved sleep and mood in our small patient sample. The trial integrated well with routine clinical care and our sample reflected the heterogeneity of the target population (Funded by Region Midtjylland and others; Clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT02653040)
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Anxiety disorders are common, and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment. Candidate gene studies have suggested a genetic basis to treatment response, but findings have been inconsistent.
To perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of psychological treatment response in children with anxiety disorders (n = 980).
Presence and severity of anxiety was assessed using semi-structured interview at baseline, on completion of treatment (post-treatment), and 3 to 12 months after treatment completion (follow-up). DNA was genotyped using the Illumina Human Core Exome-12v1.0 array. Linear mixed models were used to test associations between genetic variants and response (change in symptom severity) immediately post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up.
No variants passed a genome-wide significance threshold (P=5×10–8) in either analysis. Four variants met criteria for suggestive significance (P<5×10–6) in association with response post-treatment, and three variants in the 6-month follow-up analysis.
This is the first genome-wide therapygenetic study. It suggests no common variants of very high effect underlie response to CBT. Future investigations should maximise power to detect single-variant and polygenic effects by using larger, more homogeneous cohorts.
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous
We have obtained deep g, r, and i-band Subaru and ultra-deep 3.6 μm IRAC images of parts of the multiply-wrapped stellar stream around the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 5907. We have fitted the surface brightness measurements of the stream with FSPS stellar population synthesis models to derive the metallicity and age of the brightest parts of the stream. The resulting relatively high metallicity ([Fe/H] = −0.3) is consistent with a major merger scenario but a satellite accretion event cannot be ruled out.
During spring 2013, we performed 500 MHz, helicopter-borne impulsive ground-penetrating radar surveys of several glaciers and glacier forelands in south-central Alaska, USA. These surveys were designed to obtain spatially distributed measurements of snow accumulation spanning a broad range of continental and maritime climatic zones. Visual assessment of radar images shows that data quality varied with the terrains and was optimal for snow that covered smooth glacier ice and firn, smooth debris-covered areas and moraines, freshwater lake and river ice, tundra, and taiga. Conversely, returns from the base of the snowpack were unrecognizable over rough debris-covered glacier termini, icefalls and some high-altitude accumulation basins. Optimal flying speed was 15-20ms–1 (30–40kt). At these speeds, which are two to three times faster than previously reported for such surveys, we could still identify snow-depth data with confidence, at a point spacing of ~1.5-2.0m. Data quality on glaciers decreased with increased air speed, though useful echoes from the base of the snowpack were still obtained at 40-45 ms–1 (87 kt; data point spacing of 6-8 m). Similar high-speed surveys over non-glacial terrains were unsuccessful, as basal reflections were no longer recognizable.
The Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) is a globally complete collection of digital outlines of glaciers, excluding the ice sheets, developed to meet the needs of the Fifth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for estimates of past and future mass balance. The RGI was created with limited resources in a short period. Priority was given to completeness of coverage, but a limited, uniform set of attributes is attached to each of the ~198 000 glaciers in its latest version, 3.2. Satellite imagery from 1999–2010 provided most of the outlines. Their total extent is estimated as 726 800 ± 34 000 km2. The uncertainty, about ±5%, is derived from careful single-glacier and basin-scale uncertainty estimates and comparisons with inventories that were not sources for the RGI. The main contributors to uncertainty are probably misinterpretation of seasonal snow cover and debris cover. These errors appear not to be normally distributed, and quantifying them reliably is an unsolved problem. Combined with digital elevation models, the RGI glacier outlines yield hypsometries that can be combined with atmospheric data or model outputs for analysis of the impacts of climatic change on glaciers. The RGI has already proved its value in the generation of significantly improved aggregate estimates of glacier mass changes and total volume, and thus actual and potential contributions to sea-level rise.
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of algal and yeast β-glucans on the porcine gastrointestinal microbiota, specifically the community of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and coliforms. A total of 48 pigs were fed four diets over a 28-day period to determine the effect that each had on these communities. The control diet consisted of wheat and soya bean meal. The remaining three diets contained wheat and soya bean meal supplemented with β-glucan at 250 g/tonne from Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Faecal samples were collected from animals before feeding each diet and after the feeding period. The animals were slaughtered the following day and samples were collected from the stomach, ileum, caecum, proximal colon and distal colon. Alterations in Lactobacillus in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles generated by group-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Plate count analysis was also performed to quantify total coliforms. DGGE profiles indicated that all β-glucan diets provoked the emergence of a richer community of Lactobacillus. The richest community of lactobacilli emerged after feeding L. digitata (LD β-glucan). Plate count analysis revealed that the L. hyperborea (LH β-glucan) diet had a statistically significant effect on the coliform counts in the proximal colon in comparison with the control diet. β-glucan from L. digitata and S. cerevisiae also generally reduced coliforms but to a lesser extent. Nevertheless, the β-glucan diets did not significantly reduce levels of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium. DGGE analysis of GIT samples indicated that the three β-glucan diets generally promoted the establishment of a more varied range of Lactobacillus species in the caecum, proximal and distal colon. The LH β-glucan had the most profound reducing effect on coliform counts when compared with the control diet and diets supplemented with L. digitata and S. cerevisiae β-glucans.
The Glacier Bay region of southeast Alaska, USA, and British Columbia, Canada, has undergone major glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age (LIA). We used airborne laser altimetry elevation data acquired between 1995 and 2011 to estimate the mass loss of the Glacier Bay region over four time periods (1995–2000, 2000–05, 2005–09, 2009–11). For each glacier, we extrapolated from center-line profiles to the entire glacier to estimate glacier-wide mass balance, and then averaged these results over the entire region using three difference methods (normalized elevation, area-weighted method and simple average). We found that there was large interannual variability of the mass loss since 1995 compared with the long-term (post-LIA) average. For the full period (1995–2011) the average mass loss was 3.93 ± 0.89 Gt a−1 (0.6 ± 0.1 m w.e. a−1), compared with 17.8 Gt a−1 for the post-LIA (1770–1948) rate. Our mass loss rate is consistent with GRACE gravity signal changes for the 2003–10 period. Our results also show that there is a lower bias due to center-line profiling than was previously found by a digital elevation model difference method.
We have determined the ice mass evolution of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets (AIS and GIS) and Gulf of Alaska (GOA) glaciers from a new GRACE global solution of equal-area surface mass concentration parcels (mascons) in equivalent height of water. The mascons were estimated directly from the reduction of the inter-satellite K-band range-rate (KBRR) observations, taking into account the full noise covariance, and formally iterating the solution. The new solution increases signal recovery while reducing the GRACE KBRR observation residuals. The mascons were estimated with 10 day and 1 arcdeg equal-area sampling, applying anisotropic constraints. An ensemble empirical mode decomposition adaptive filter was applied to the mascon time series to compute annual mass balances. The details and causes of the spatial and temporal variability of the land-ice regions studied are discussed. The estimated mass trend over the total GIS, AIS and GOA glaciers for the time period 1 December 2003 to 1 December 2010 is −380 ± 31 Gt a−1, equivalent to −1.05 ± 0.09 mm a−1 sea-level rise. Over the same time period we estimate the mass acceleration to be −41 ± 27 Gt a−2 , equivalent to a −0.11 ± 0.08 mm a−2 sea-level acceleration. The trends and accelerations are dependent on significant seasonal and annual balance anomalies.
We estimated the population density of the globally threatened Elfin-woods Warbler Setophaga angelae within two forest types at different elevations in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in north-eastern Puerto Rico. Population densities ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 individuals/ha in elfin woodland and 0.06–0.26 individuals/ha in palo colorado forest in 2006, with average rates of decline since 1989 of 0.002–0.01 and 0.003–0.06 individuals/ha respectively. These estimates show a significant general declining trend from c.0.2 individuals/ha in 1989 in elfin woodland to c.0.02/ha in 2006, and from 1 to 0.2 in palo colorado forest. Although variation in estimated population density depended on the statistical method used, we document and discuss possible causes of an overall population decline from 1989 to 2006, lending support to previous initiatives to reclassify the species from the IUCN Red List category of “Vulnerable” to “Endangered”.
We present an update on the performance of our 2 mm bolometer camera GISMO (the Goddard IRAM 2 Millimeter Observer), which is used for astronomical observations at the IRAM 30 m Telescope. The camera is optimized to efficiently observe dusty high-redshift galaxies. GISMO uses a monolithic 8 by 16 Backshort Under Grid (BUG) array with superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES). It serves as a testbed for our close-packed superconducting bolometer technologies and guides us in optimizing the design of future fast, low background bolometer cameras. Illustrated by astronomical observations we obtained recently, we demonstrate the scientific potential of the camera, highlighted by the detection of two high redshift galaxies.
We acquired center-line surface elevations from glaciers in the St Elias Mountains of Alaska/northwestern Canada using aircraft laser altimetry during 2000–05, and compared these with repeat measurements acquired in 2007. The resulting elevation changes were used to estimate the mass balance of 32 900 km2 of glaciers in the St Elias Mountains during September 2003 to August 2007, yielding a value of −21.2 ± 3.8 Gt a−1, equivalent to an area-averaged mass balance of −0.64 ± 0.12 m a−1 water equivalent (w.e.). High-resolution (2 arc-degrees spatial and 10 day temporal) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mass-balance estimates during this time period were scaled to glaciers of the St Elias Mountains, yielding a value of −20.6 ± 3.0 Gt a−1, or an area-averaged mass balance of −0.63 ± 0.09 m a−1 w.e. The difference in balance estimates (altimetry minus GRACE) was −0.6 ± 4.8 Gt a−1, well within the estimated errors. Differences likely resulted from uncertainties in subgrid sampling of the GRACE mass concentration (mascon) solutions, and from errors in assigning an appropriate near-surface density in the altimetry estimates. The good correspondence between GRACE and aircraft altimetry data suggests that high-resolution GRACE mascon solutions can be used to accurately assess mass-balance trends of mountain glacier regions that are undergoing large changes.
The mass changes of the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) glaciers are computed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) inter-satellite range-rate data for the period April 2003–September 2007. Through the application of unique processing techniques and a surface mass concentration (mascon) parameterization, the mass variations in the GoA glacier regions have been estimated at high temporal (10 day) and spatial (2 × 2 arc-degrees) resolution. The mascon solutions are directly estimated from a reduction of the GRACE K-band inter-satellite range-rate data and, unlike previous GRACE solutions for the GoA glaciers, do not exhibit contamination by leakage from mass change occurring outside the region of interest. The mascon solutions reveal considerable temporal and spatial variation within the GoA glacier region, with the largest negative mass balances observed in the St Elias Mountains including the Yakutat and Glacier Bay regions. The most rapid losses occurred during the 2004 melt season due to record temperatures in Alaska during that year. The total mass balance of the GoA glacier region was −84 ± 5 Gt a−1 contributing 0.23 ± 0.01 mm a−1 to global sea-level rise from April 2003 through March 2007. Highlighting the large seasonal and interannual variability of the GoA glaciers, the rate determined over the period April 2003–March 2006 is −102 ± 5 Gt a−1, which includes the anomalously high temperatures of 2004 and does not include the large 2007 winter balance-year snowfall. The mascon solutions agree well with regional patterns of glacier mass loss determined from aircraft altimetry and in situ measurements.
OH(1720 MHz) and methanol masers are now recognized to be excellent probes of the interactions of supernova remnants with molecular clouds and tracers of massive star formation, respectively. To better understand the nature of star formation activity in the central region of the Galaxy, we have used these two classes of masers combined with the IRAC and MIPS data to study prominent sites of ongoing star formation in the nuclear disk. The nuclear disk is characterized by massive GMCs with elevated gas temperatures, compared to their dust temperatures. We note an association between methanol masers and a class of mid-infrared “green sources”. These highly embedded YSOs show enhanced 4.5μm emission due to excited molecular lines.
The distribution of methanol masers and supernova remnants suggest a low efficiency of star formation (with the exception of Sgr B2), which we believe is due to an enhanced flux of cosmic ray electrons impacting molecular clouds in the nuclear disk. We also highlight the importance of cosmic rays in their ability to heat molecular clouds, and thus increase the gas temperature.
A single LaMnO3 buffer layer was developed for the growth of superconducting thick YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO) films on polycrystalline Ni-alloy substrates where a biaxially textured MgO layer, produced by ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD), was used as a template. Using pulsed laser deposition, a 1.65-μm-thick YBCO film with a critical current density of 1.4 × 106 A/cm2 in self field at 75 K was achieved on sputtered LaMnO3-buffered IBAD MgO substrates. This corresponds to a critical current (Ic) of 231 A/cm-width. This result demonstrates the possibility of using both LaMnO3 buffer and IBAD MgO template for producing high current density YBCO-coated conductors.
Nickel-based superalloys have been coated with magnesium oxide (MgO) using ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). This technique produced a well-oriented bi-axially textured MgO template layer with a Ф scan full width half maximum of 6.4°. The layer architecture for these samples was as follows: polished hastelloy C276/amorphous Si3N4/IBAD MgO/ pulsed laser deposited (PLD) Y2O3–ZrO2/PLD CeO2/PLD YBa2Cu3O7?δ. The subsequent heteroepitaxial PLD of 1.5-mm-thick YBCO showed a nominal critical current density of over 1 MA/cm2 (75 K, self-field) along a microbridge and had an in-plane mosaic spread of 4.8° and an out-of-plane spread of 1.3°. These results compare well with our earlier work using IBAD yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a template layer and indicate that IBAD MgO is a suitable substitute. Furthermore, these results suggest that IBAD MgO could be adapted to and increase the feasibility of a continuous process to fabricate longer lengths of coated conductors at speeds 100 times faster than that previously realized with IBAD YSZ.
The evolution of a vertically propagating three-dimensional vortex pair in ambient
stratification is studied with a three-dimensional numerical model. We consider a
range of Reynolds (Re) and Froude (Fr) numbers, and initialize the vortex pair
in a configuration that promotes growth of the Crow instability (Crow 1970). The
growth rate of the instability is Re dependent, and we present a method for extending
Crow's model to predict this dependence. We also find that relatively strong ambient
stratification (Fr [les ] 2) further alters the growth of the instability via advection by
baroclinically produced vorticity. For all of our cases with Fr [ges ] 1 (including our
unstratified cases where Fr → ∞), the instability leads to vortex reconnection and
formation of a vortex ring. A larger Re delays the commencement of the reconnection,
but it proceeds more rapidly once it does commence. We compute a reconnection time
scale (tR), and find that tR ∼ 1/Re,
in agreement with a model formulated by Shelley
et al. (1993). We also discuss a deformative/diffusive effect (related to yet distinct from
the curvature reversal effect discussed by Melander & Hussain 1989) which prevents
complete reconnection. Ambient stratification (in the range Fr [ges ] 1) accelerates the
reconnection and reduces tR by an amount roughly proportional to 1/Fr. For some
Fr, stratification effects overwhelm the deformative effect, and complete reconnection
We have studied the growth of magnesium oxide using ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) to achieve (100) oriented, bi-axially textured films with low mosaic spread, for film thicknesses of 10 nm on silicon substrates. We have refined the process by using reflected high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) to monitor the growth of IBAD MgO films and found that the diffracted intensity can be used to determine (and ultimately control) final in-plane texture of the film. Here we present results on our work to develop the use of real-time RHEED monitoring to deposit well-oriented IBAD MgO films. The results have been corroborated with extensive grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GID). Results of these analyses have allowed us to deposit films on metallic substrates with in-plane mosaic spread less than 7°.