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Introduction: Trauma leading to uncontrolled hemorrhage of the torso in the critically injured patient can rapidly progress to decreased cerebral and cardiovascular perfusion and carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Given the non-compressible nature and difficult anatomic access of these injuries, obtaining hemostasis is often a challenge and non-surgical options are sparse. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) is a rapidly administered emergency department intervention that allows transient source control of caudal torso hemorrhage while arranging definitive surgical management. Although initially postulated in the 1950s, limited research regarding its therapeutic use in trauma has been available until recently. Here, we present a systematic review of the literature pertaining to the use of REBOA in severe trauma. Methods: An experienced medical librarian searched electronic databases for terms relating to REBOA, aortic balloon occlusion, hemorrhage, trauma and shock. Articles were identified, screened, retrieved and reviewed in accordance with PRISMA systematic review guidelines. English case reports, case series, cohort studies, randomized-controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses pertaining to the use of REBOA in human trauma patients were included. Customized inclusion and data extraction forms were created and used to form an electronic database of relevant studies. Results: After exclusion of duplicates, 2147 potentially relevant articles were identified and screened by title/abstract and 136 articles meeting inclusion criteria were retrieved for full-text review. Final analysis of 26 articles included 5 case reports, 13 case series, 7 observational cohort studies and 1 systematic review. Data spanning 771 patients undergoing REBOA were collected (weighted average age: 49.5, gender: 67.7% male, injury severity score: 35.1). Where data available, REBOA increased systolic blood pressure by a weighted average of 54.7mmhg and overall survival was 32.6%. Conclusion: Limited evidence pertaining to the use of REBOA in severe trauma exists with the majority of available data coming from individual case studies and case series. By extension, quantitative analysis regarding outcome data of this intervention requires further research in the form of larger studies with subgroup analysis to identify the subset of patients for which REBOA may benefit and to further delineate the risks of implementing this intervention
Livestock selection programmes have progressed from visual assessments to the use of quantitative information from multiple sources. More recently genetic markers have been used to incorporate information from quantitative trait loci (QTL) into selection decisions. The uptake this technology has been slow due to the cost and difficulty of discovering and using QTL. For a number of livestock species single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-chips are becoming available. These have the ability to genotype 10,000s of SNP markers in a single assay. This opens up the possibility of ‘genome wide selection’ (GWS) to ‘tag’ most of the genetic variants contributing to trait differences. This paper discusses what impact GWS might have in the main NZ livestock breeding industries (dairy, beef, sheep and deer).
Quality and safety in healthcare, as an academic discipline, has made significant progress over recent decades, and there is now an active and established community of researchers and practitioners. However, work has predominantly focused on physical health, despite broader controversy regarding the attention paid to, and significance attributed to, mental health. Work from both communities is required in order to ensure that quality and safety is actively embedded within mental health research and practice and that the academic discipline of quality and safety accurately represents the scientific knowledge that has been accumulated within the mental health community.
During the last two decades, vertebrate palaeontological research in Australia has entered a new phase of development, with more investigators backed by a significant increase in financial support from government and private financial sources. The consequences of this accelerated phase of investigation has been rapid growth in information about vertebrate diversity, phylogenetic relationships, biocorrelation, palaeobiogeography and palaeoecology. In this review, we consider highlights of the developing late Mesozoic- late Cenozoic record of Australian terrestrial mammals, in part because the Cenozoic record of these is better known than that for any other group of vertebrates and in part because the ability to infer aspects of palaeohabitats from anatomical features is perhaps greatest for this group.
Most modern orders of mammals underwent adaptive radiations between the Late Cretaceous and late Paleogene subsequent to the Early to mid-Cretaceous diversification of angiosperms. For this reason many aspects of the history and structure of Australia's mammalian herbivores reflect the requirements of harvesting and consuming particular groups of flowering plants. In so far as this correlation holds, it is possible to infer from the structure of the dentition of extinct herbivores aspects of the vegetation upon which they fed. Although experimental studies (e.g. Sanson, 1989) of the function of the teeth of living Australian herbivores are few, deductive analysis of the diets of extinct forms based on diets of living species enables hypotheses about the timing of key mid-late Tertiary changes in the structure of Australia's terrestrial communities.
Higher-level systematic nomenclatures used here follow those of Aplin & Archer (1987; marsupials), Watts & Aslin (1981; rodents) and Walton & Richardson (1989; bats and other mammal groups). Biostratigraphic nomenclature, unless otherwise indicated, follows those of Woodburne et al. (1985) and Archer et al. (1989, 1991). The positions of the major fossil sites discussed in this chapter are shown in Figure 6.1 and the current understanding of the ages of the sites is shown in Figure 6.2.
AUSTRALIAN MAMMAL DIVERSITY
There are 12 groups of ordinally distinct endemic Australian mammals.
Lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries have the potential to provide higher energy storage density at lower cost than conventional lithium ion batteries. A key challenge for Li–S batteries is the loss of sulfur to the electrolyte during cycling. This loss can be mitigated by sequestering the sulfur in nanostructured carbon–sulfur composites. The nanoscale characterization of the sulfur distribution within these complex nanostructured electrodes is normally performed by electron microscopy, but sulfur sublimates and redistributes in the high-vacuum conditions of conventional electron microscopes. The resulting sublimation artifacts render characterization of sulfur in conventional electron microscopes problematic and unreliable. Here, we demonstrate two techniques, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning electron microscopy in air (airSEM), that enable the reliable characterization of sulfur across multiple length scales by suppressing sulfur sublimation. We use cryo-TEM and airSEM to examine carbon–sulfur composites synthesized for use as Li–S battery cathodes, noting several cases where the commonly employed sulfur melt infusion method is highly inefficient at infiltrating sulfur into porous carbon hosts.
Part of Robert T. Leiper's (1881–1969) lasting legacy in medical helminthology is grounded on his pioneering work on schistosomiasis (Bilharzia). Having undertaken many expeditions to the tropics, his fascination with parasite life cycles typically allowed him to devise simple preventive measures that curtailed transmission. Building on his formative work with others in Africa and Asia, and again in Egypt in 1915, he elucidated the life cycles of African schistosomes. His mandate, then commissioned by the British War Office, was to prevent and break transmission of this disease in British troops. This he did by raising standing orders based on simple water hygiene measures. Whilst feasible in military camp settings, today their routine implementation is sadly out of reach for millions of Africans living in poverty. Whilst we celebrate the centenary of Leiper's research we draw attention to some of his lesser known colleagues, then focus on schistosomiasis in Uganda discussing why expanded access to treatment with praziquantel is needed now. Looking to WHO 2020 targets for neglected tropical diseases, we introduce COUNTDOWN, an implementation research consortium funded by DFID, UK, which fosters the scale-up of interventions and confirm the current relevance of Leiper's original research.
Minimum Sample Richness (MSR) is defined as the smallest number of taxa that must be recorded in a sample to achieve a given level of inter-assemblage classification accuracy. MSR is calculated from known or estimated richness and taxonomic similarity. Here we test MSR for strengths and weaknesses by using 167 published mammalian local faunas from the Paleogene and early Neogene of the Quercy and Limagne area (Massif Central, southwestern France), and then apply MSR to 84 Oligo-Miocene faunas from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, Australia. In many cases, MSR is able to detect the assemblages in the data set that are potentially too incomplete to be used in a similarity-based comparative taxonomic analysis. The results show that the use of MSR significantly improves the quality of the clustering of fossil assemblages. We conclude that this method can screen sample assemblages that are not representative of their underlying original living communities. Ultimately, it can be used to identify which assemblages require further sampling before being included in a comparative analysis.
Two years ago the Cambridge 4-aerial interferometer  was adapted to work at a frequency of 159 Mc/s, the resolving power thereby being increased by a factor of four over that at the previous frequency, 81.5 Mc/s. The overall beamwidth at 159 Mc/s is 1.2 degrees by 7 degrees but the beam contains interference fringes in two planes at right angles, so that, by phase-switching between the east pair and the west pair of aerials, sources with angular diameters greater than about 7 minutes of arc are eliminated. A survey using this technique has been carried out by Edge and Shakeshaft and may be called a “small diameter” survey. If the phase-switching receiver is connected between the north pair and the south pair of aerials it is possible to record sources with diameters up to about 1 degree and to measure diameters between 2 and 8 minutes of arc. Archer and Baldwin have used the aerial in this way to make a “large diameter” survey. These two surveys will be referred to collectively as the 3C survey.
Written concurrently with the first item in C.M.I.R.3, the Faculty of Actuaries Mortality Research Group's paper determines a range within which mortality rates of Life Office Pensioners may be expected to change in the foreseeable future. Comparisons are made between the observed changes in pensioner mortality rates and those observed for the population of England and Wales, and reference is also made to the trends of mortality rates assumed in recent British population projections. From these considerations two forecasts are made, based upon “optimistic” and “pessimistic” future mortality assumptions, between which it is expected the actual future rates of mortality change will lie.
In the second part of the paper the financial effects of the range of forecasts are set out, when used to project the graduated pensioner Mortality Experience 1967-70 (C.M.I.R., 2, 57). The implications are illustrated in the context of two model funds, one based upon life offices' data, and the other based upon a non-insured pension scheme for which the contribution rates vary in accordance with the levels of future expected pensioner mortality.
Isotropic and anisotropic conductive carbon particles, carbon black (CB) and vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF), were incorporated into a Lithium Titanate (LTO) battery anode material composition, and their effect on conductivity and electrochemical properties investigated. Nanocomposite electrodes comprised of LTO, polyvinyldine floride (PVDF) and as little as 5 wt% VGCF are reported to manifest more than one order of magnitude enhancement in conductivity over their CB counterparts. VGCF-based anodes are also found to exhibit more stable voltage discharge profiles and as much as 20% improvement in capacity retention during extended electrochemical cycling at charge/discharge rates as high as 2.625 A/g (15 C). Remarkably, we find that the benefits of VGCF relative to CB conductivity aids diminish at higher particle loadings and that a LTO anode formulation containing 5 wt% CB | 5 wt% VGCF yields optimal capacity retention. At 5C, this composite system outperformed both the 10 wt% VGCF and 10 wt% CB electrode systems by delivering 20% higher capacity during extended charge/discharge cycling. We explain this finding in terms of two synergetic effects: enhanced electrode conductivity facilitated by incorporation of a percolated network of anisotropic VGCF particles; and shorter transport distances between the insulative LTO and high surface area CB.
An energy resource is the first step in the chain that supplies energy services (for a definition of energy services, see Chapter 1). Energy services are largely ignorant of the particular resource that supplies them; however, often the infrastructures, technologies, and fuels along the delivery chain are highly dependent on a particular type of resource. The availability and costs of bringing energy resources to the market place are key determinants to affordable and accessible energy services.
Energy resources pose no inherent limitation to meeting the rapidly growing global energy demand as long as adequate upstream investment is forthcoming – for exhaustible resources in exploration, production technology, and capacity (mining and field development) and, by analogy, for renewables in conversion technologies.
Hydrocarbons and Nuclear
Occurrences of hydrocarbons and fissile materials in the Earth's crust are plentiful – yet they are finite. The extent of the ultimately recoverable oil, natural gas, coal, or uranium is the subject of numerous reviews, yet still the range of values in the literature is large (Table 7.1). For example, the range for conventional oil is between 4900 exajoules (EJ) for reserves to 13,700 EJ (reserves plus resources) – a range that sustains continued debate and controversy. The large range is the result of varying boundaries of what is included in the analysis of a finite stock of an exhaustible resource, e.g., conventional oil only or conventional oil plus unconventional occurrences, such as oil shale, tar sands, and extra-heavy oils.
The application of techniques in optical rheometry for the study of multicomponent systems is reviewed. Small angle light scattering (SALS) patterns are related to the structure of concentration fluctuations with length scales of the order of the wavelength of light. Scattering techniques such as SALS and scattering dichroism have been applied to monitor the transient evolution of anisotropic concentration fluctuation enhancement during simple shear induced phase separation in a semi-dilute solution of polystyrene (PS) in dioctyl phthalate(DOP). Furthermore, the Onuki- Doi theory relating scattering dichroism and structure factor has been used to verify the consistency between scattering dichroism and anisotropy in structure factor. Infrared polarimetry is a useful technique in probing the transient microstructural orientation of individual chemical species in multicomponent systems. The simultaneous measurement of intrinsic infrared dichroism and birefringence is particularly effective and has been employed to monitor component relaxation dynamics in miscible blends of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(methyl methacrylate). Polarization Modulated Laser Raman Scattering (PMLRS) has been successfully employed to study the orientation dynamics of a polymer melt subjected to transient uniaxial extension. PMLRS provides quantitative information about the time evolution of both the second and fourth moments of the orientation distribution function of molecular segments.