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The concept of a function is of great importance in design. This paper describes from theory how designers should reason about functions when designing. This paper introduces the link model, showing how functions and properties link the product and its use, to the perceived value of the product. The important and useful distinction between functions and properties is made along with the distinction between “wirk functions,” which is what the product does when operating, and “use functions,” which is what the product is used for. The paper makes a novel contribution beyond previous literature, showing that not only is a product's behavior or mode of action designed but also the use activity of the end user. Based on the theoretical perspective unfolded, the authors offer nine mind-sets for both design practitioners and researchers to consider when reasoning about functions.
The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Dust and pigs at five age groups were sampled in six Danish MRSA-positive pig farms. MRSA CC398 was isolated from 284 of the 391 samples tested, including 230 (74%) animal and 54 (68%) environmental samples. PFGE analysis of a subset of 48 isolates, including the six strains previously isolated from farm workers, revealed the existence of farm-specific pulsotypes. With a single exception, human, environmental and porcine isolates originating from the same farm clustered together in the PFGE cluster analysis, indicating that spread of MRSA CC398 in Danish pig farms is mainly due to clonal dissemination of farm-specific lineages that can be discriminated by PFGE. This finding has important implications for planning future epidemiological studies investigating the spread of CC398 in pig farming.
The evolution during growth and subsequent annealing of the <111> fiber texture in magnetron-sputtered nanocrystalline Au films has been studied experimentally using X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation. To quantitatively investigate this fiber texture, grain orientation distributions were recorded in situ during growth and during subsequent annealing using Bragg-Brentano geometry. The (111) diffraction intensity was measured as a function of the sample tilt χ, the tilt axis lying at the intersection of the film surface and the scattering plane. As a quantitative measure of the texture, we used the width of the orientation distributions. The grain-orientation distributions narrowed during annealing. The activation energy for the process behind this texture change was found to be 0.64 ± 0.05 eV, close to the activation energy for grain boundary self-diffusion in nanocrystalline Au. This and the narrowing of the grain orientation distributions led us to suggest that the observed changes in texture originated from grain rotations and not from grain growth. Grain growth did not take place at the lower temperatures, where changes in orientation distributions were observed.
Oxygen (18O) diffusivity in sol-gel synthesized nano-crystalline ceria films of average grain size of 3 nm and 7 nm, annealed at 300 °C and 450 °C for one hour respectively is examined by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Diffusivity and electrical transport properties measured by a. c. impedance spectroscopy were compared with microcrystalline ceria film of average grain size 38 nm annealed at 900 °C for one hour. Effect of enhanced oxygen diffusion along with reduced ionic transport in nano-crystalline ceria and reduced oxygen diffusion along with enhanced ionic transport in microcrystalline ceria are correlated to long range ordering, grain boundary scattering and defect density. Enhancement in the conductivity with reduction in activation energy from 1 eV to 0.5 eV in the case 4 atom% ytterbium (Yb) doped ceria compared to pure ceria is a result of increased oxygen vacancies taking part in the defect transport.
Damage evolution and thermal recovery of 1 MeV Au2+ irradiated samarium titanate pyrochlore (Sm2Ti2O7) single crystals were studied by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis. The damage accumulation follows a nonlinear dependence on dose that is well described by a disorder accumulation model, which indicates a predominant role of defect-stimulated amorphization processes. The critical dose for amorphization at 170 and 300 K is ∼0.14 dpa, and a higher dose of ∼ 0.22 dpa is observed for irradiation at 700 K, which agrees with previous in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data for polycrystalline Sm2Ti2O7. Annealing in an 18O environment reveals a damage recovery stage at ∼ 850 K that coincides with a significant increase in 18O exchange due to oxygen vacancy mobility. This thermal recovery stage is also consistent with the critical temperature for amorphization measured by in-situ TEM in polycrystalline samples.
The thickness of the cortical mantle is a sensitive measure for identifying alterations in cortical structure. We aimed to explore whether first episode schizophrenia patients already show a significant cortical thinning and whether cortical thickness anomalies may significantly influence clinical and cognitive features.
We investigated regional changes in cortical thickness in a large and heterogeneous sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients (n=142) at their first break of the illness and healthy controls (n=83). Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans (1.5 T) were obtained and images were analyzed by using brains2. The contribution of sociodemographic, cognitive and clinical characterictics was investigated.
Patients showed a significant total cortical thinning (F=17.55, d=−0.62, p<0.001) and there was a diffuse pattern of reduced thickness (encompassing frontal, temporal and parietal cortices) (all p's<0.001, d's>0.53). No significant group×gender interactions were observed (all p's>0.15). There were no significant associations between the clinical and pre-morbid variables and cortical thickness measurements (all r's<0.12). A weak significant negative correlation between attention and total (r=−0.24, p=0.021) and parietal cortical thickness (r=−0.27, p=0.009) was found in patients (thicker cortex was associated with lower attention). Our data revealed a similar pattern of cortical thickness changes related to age in patients and controls.
Cortical thinning is independent of gender, age, age of onset and duration of the illness and does not seem to significantly influence clinical and functional symptomatology. These findings support a primary neurodevelopment disorder affecting the normal cerebral cortex development in schizophrenia.
This study estimated the effect of discontinued use of antimicrobial growth promoters (duAGPs) on the risk of antibiotic treatment for diarrhoea, arthritis, pneumonia, unthriving and miscellaneous disorders in Danish pig farms. The estimation was done in a case-crossover study comparing: (1) the proportion of days per farm where treatment was performed (PDT) and (2) the proportion of pigs treated per day per farm at days where treatment was performed (PPT) before and after duAGPs at 68 farrow-to-finish farms. The farms were selected using a two-stage (veterinarian/farm) convenience sampling. On average, during the first year after duAGPs there was a significant increase in the risk of antibiotic treatment for diarrhoea (PDT: OR 2·5, 95% CI 1·7–3·8; PPT: OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·1–2·2). However, the effect varied among farms – some farms experienced substantial problems, while others experienced few problems after duAGPs. No effect was identified for the risk of treatment for other diseases.
Schizophrenia spectrum patients (N = 143) and
healthy controls (N = 160) were administered the
Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and tests of
executive functioning to directly investigate the effects
of proactive interference (PI) and retroactive interference
(RI) on word list recall. It was hypothesized that by virtue
of the predicted preferential association between executive
functioning and RI (relative to PI), patients would demonstrate
increased susceptibility to RI in their ability to recall
word lists. Results indicated that patients show increased
susceptibility to RI relative to PI. Furthermore, this
difference appeared to be related to the frontally-mediated
central executive functions that were preferentially associated
with RI but not PI susceptibility. (JINS, 2001,
The distinction of positive and negative symptoms in describing schizophrenic patients has become popular. It presupposes that symptoms cluster in two dimensions, fitting together not only theoretically but empirically. Factor analysis of three published studies of 93, 62 and 52 schizophrenic patients and a large pooled sample showed that more than two distinct dimensions are required to categorise symptoms in schizophrenia. This result is consistent across methods and samples, and with previous literature. The added dimensionality resulted from a splitting of the positive symptom domain into more distinct factors.
We investigated the nosology of endogenous depression by numerical taxonomy. Five hundred and sixty-nine patients diagnosed as having unipolar major depressive disorder in the NIMH Clinical Research Branch Program on the Psychobiology of Depression – Clnical were studied. Thirty-six symptoms which might distinguish endogenous from non-endogenous depressions were chosen from the literature. Patients' symptom profiles assessed by structured interview were grouped by two methods: a K-means improvement of Ward's method of cluster analysis, and a latent class algorithm. The methods produced very similar groups and several internal validity criteria suggested that the groups were not spurious. Cluster 1, ‘nuclear depression,’ included a nucleus of patients common to multiple definitions of endogenous depression. The non-nuclear group scored as less neurotic than the nuclear group on personality tests administered during the index episode. The groups do not differ in frequency, number or severity of reported life events prior to onset of the index episode. The nuclear group shows a poor prognosis on two-year prospective follow-up, greater disturbance on personality inventories, and increased heritability of depression in siblings.
Nineteen patients with an episode of major depressive disorder who did not recover within two years of prospective follow-up were compared with an equal number who recovered within a year of the initial evaluation and remained well through the two-year follow-up date. The groups were individually matched for age, sex, primary/secondary status, and prior duration of episode. The only psycho-social variable that predicted chronicity was increased neuroticism on self-report personality inventories administered during the index evaluation. Early loss, recent life events, and recent social supports were not predictive of outcome.
Professional raters who were blind to proband diagnosis used the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia (SADS-L) and the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) to evaluate 1, 210 first-degree relatives of 327 probands with primary major depression, participating in the family sub-study of the NIMH Collaborative Study of the Affective Disorders – Clinical Branch. Bipolar II probands were significantly more likely to have bipolar II relatives than were non-bipolar or bipolar I probands. Bipolar II probands were slightly more likely than non-bipolar probands and slightly less likely than bipolar I probands to have relatives with bipolar I illness. Similar patterns have emerged in two other recently reported family studies of bipolar II illness. Taken together, these data suggest heterogeneity among patients with bipolar II depression. Some appear to be genotypes for bipolar I illness, while a small proportion may be genotypes for non-bipolar illness. A third group, of undetermined size, may breed true.
Radial pulsation periods are calculated for models of variables in the lower Cepheid instability strip. Evolution tracks in several diagrams are constructed and used for comparisons with observed periods, period ratios, and effective temperatures. These comparisons are simpler and more direct than in earlier studies with separate evolution and pulsation calculations.
Beginning with the work of Cameron (1944), the concept of overinclusive thinking has been used to describe or account for the thought disorder observed in schizophrenic patients. This is usually defined as an inability to preserve conceptual boundaries, perhaps based on a cerebral input dysfunction which causes difficulty in filtering stimuli (Payne et al., 1959; McGhie, 1970; Epstein, 1953; Broadbent, 1958). This leads the schizophrenic to make remote associations and to overgeneralize or overabstract.
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