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The inhibitory effect of positional syllable frequency is a well-known phenomenon in visual word recognition: words with high-frequency syllables require extra time for deactivating the lexical syllabic neighbors. The inhibitory effect implies that a connection exists between graphemes, phonemes, the first syllable, and the phonological lexicon. However, experimental results of the first developmental stages of occurrence are scarce and inconclusive. A second- and fourth-grade sample of typical school readers participated in a lexical decision task containing high/low frequency words and high/low syllable frequency words. Our primary hypothesis was that the inhibitory effect would be found on both school grade groups. We did not predict significant differences in magnitude of effect between second- and fourth-grade participants. A general inhibitory effect was found, and separate analyses by school grade groups also indicated significant inhibitory effects. Furthermore, second- and fourth-grade children showed small sizes of the inhibitory effect, resembling the sizes found in adult normal readers. Our results suggest that Spanish readers reach a functional connection between syllables and words at an early stage. The straightforward theoretical implication is that the inhibitory effect relies heavily on the structural properties of the lexical access system that are acquired at an early age.
To analyse the consequences of broadening DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) on the utilization of health care resources and corresponding costs.
Multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics selected at random and weighted by geographical density of population. Patients with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and subjects with anxiety symptoms fulfilling broader criteria were compared. Broadening criteria was considered 1-month of excessive or non-excessive worry and only 2 associated symptoms listed on DSM-IV for GAD. Socio-demographic data, medical history and health care resources and corresponding costs were recorded during a 6-month period.
A total of 3,549 patients were systematically recruited; 12.8% excluded because not fulfilling inclusion criteria, 1,815 patients in DSM-IV criteria group (DG) and 1,264 in broad criteria group (BG). Both groups were similar on their sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. Type of treatments prescribed at psychiatric clinics during the study were similar in frequency; anti-depressives (77.0% in DG vs. 75.3% in BG, ns), benzodiazepines (71.5% vs. 67.2% respectively, ns), and anti-convulsants (72.1% vs. 67.0% respectively, ns). Health care resources utilization were statistically reduced to a similar extent in both groups as a consequences of treatments yielding to a cost-of-illness in the 6-month period of 1,196 (1,158) and 1,112 (874), respectively; p=0.304.
In a large sample of subjects, broadening of GAD criteria could lead to earlier diagnosis that would not be associated necessarily to an increase in health care resources utilization or costs to the National Health System.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG) has been suggested to improve depressive symptoms in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We now report preliminary results of DBS and one-year follow up in six patients.
Six patients with severe TRD (Thase Resistance Index>4) underwent DBS surgery and subsequent monthly assessments. DBS response was defined as ≥50% reduction in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) or HDRS< 8 (remission). Electrodes location was assessed in each patient by means of pre/post-DBS MRIs co-registration.
DBS led to early and late reductions of average HDRS (from 22.5 to 9.8 and 6.25 respectively, see Figure 1 for evolution of HDRS mean scores). One month after surgery 16.7% of patients met criteria for response and for remission. Three months after response rates increased to 66.7% while remission rates were maintained. At six months, 66.7% of patients were responders. After 9 months, response rates arose up to 83.4% and these rates were largely maintained at 12 months. Remission rates showed similar growth over follow-up. No substantial differences were observed in electrodes location, and they were not found to be related to response or remission rates. The number of serious adverse effects was small with no patient experiencing permanent deficits.
This study suggests that DBS is relatively safe and provides significant improvement in patients with TRD. Improvement on average seems to be linearly progressive and, once melioration is achieved, it is maintained for at least one year. The procedure is well tolerated.
To elucidate the consequences of broadening DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), we examined the evolution of GAD symptoms in two groups of newly diagnosed patients; one group according to DSM-IV criteria and the other, according to broader criteria.
Multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics. Patients with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and subjects with anxiety symptoms fulfilling broader criteria were compared. Broadening criteria was considered 1-month of excessive or non-excessive worry and only 2 associated symptoms listed on DSM-IV for GAD. Socio-demographic data, medical history and functional outcome measures were collected three times during a 6-month period.
3,549 patients were systematically recruited; 12.8% excluded because not fulfilling inclusion criteria, 1,815 patients in DSM-IV group (DG) and 1,264 in broad group (BG). Both groups were similar on their sociodemographic characteristics at baseline and most patients (about 80%), even newly diagnosed were exposed previously to pharmacological therapies (mainly benzodiazepines) of their anxiety symptoms. As a result of treatment at psychiatric clinics, the percentage of patients without symptoms of anxiety as per HAM-A scale were 49.0% and 58.0%, respectively at the 6 month visit (p=0.261). Similarly, responder rate (≥ 50% reduction of baseline scoring) were, respectively, 59.7% and 67.7% (p=0.103). Improvement in MADRS scores were observed in both group to a similar extent; 12.1 and 12.5 points average reduction respectively (p=0.264).
Broadening of GAD criteria could lead to earlier diagnosis that will benefit patients by starting appropriate treatment sooner.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) cannot always be effective for Treatment Resistant Depression. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a procedure that involves the direct implantation of stimulation electrodes in localized brain regions with the aim of modulating local and connected abnormal activity, has recently been gaining momentum as an alternative treatment modality for the most severe TRD patients. However, there is minimal experience with ECT in patients who have undergone DBS procedures.
We present two cases of patients who remitted from TRD after SCG-DBS, and some months after they suffered a relapse that was treated with ECT.
Before DBS intervention, ECT was not capable to sustain response more than two weeks beyond and was even bad tolerated by these patients. DBS was effective for both patients until a severe relapse occurred (after 4 and 14 months, respectively). Optimization of medication did not elicit response, given the seriousness of symptoms and their previous treatment resistance. Therefore, neurostimulator was turned off in order to administer ECT to both patients. After usual series of sessions set at corresponding parameters over 3 weeks, using bitemporal electrode placement, the episode remitted. Deep brain stimulator was turned on again, and they were in remission until the present moment.
The use of ECT proved to be effective without adverse effects to the patients or to the DBS hardware. The modulation of SCG activity and its downstream targets might also serve as a trigger for the therapeutic effect of formerly useful or even never-effective antidepressant strategies.
To analyse the effect of Pregabalin (PGB) on anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with refractory-severe Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and severe concomitant depressive disorder.
Post-hoc analysis of a multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics to ascertain the impact of broadening GAD criteria. Men and women above 18 years, with GAD (DSM-IV criteria), PGB naïve and refractory to a previous course of benzodiazepines and/or anti-depressive drugs (minimum 3 months) and severe symptoms of anxiety (HAM-A ≥ 24) and depression (MADRS ≥ 35) were included. Changes in HAM-A and MADRS were assessed after 6 months of receiving PGB as per psychiatrist's judgement.
159 patients [69.2% women, 45.9 (12.6) years] fulfilled criteria for analysis. Respectively, 92% and 90% of subjects were previously exposed to benzodiazepines and anti-depressives before adding PGB [mean dose: 223.1 (126.3) mg/day]. PGB therapy reduced both anxiety and depressive baseline symptoms by a mean of, respectively in HAM-A and MADRS scales, 57.9% (from 35.5±5.8 to 14.8±9.4; p< 0.001, effect size: 3.57) and 58.1% (from 39.4±4.3 to 16.5±10.3; p< 0.001, effect size: 5.33). As a result, the percentages of patients without symptoms of both anxiety and depression were 34.4% and 40.9%, respectively at the 6 month visit (p< 0.001 in all cases). Similarly, responder rates (≥ 50% reduction of baseline scoring) were 63.1% and 62.9%.
Despite limitations, Pregabalin therapy had a meaningful and significant effect of symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with severe refractory GAD and concomitant severe depressive disorder.
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drinking, alcohol seeking, loss of control over alcohol consumption, and impaired social and occupational functioning. Treatment of Alcohol Dependence (AD) comprises two steps, detoxification and relapse prevention (RP). Traditionally, long half-life benzodiazepines have been the most widely used agents for alcohol detoxification. On the other hand, disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate are the three drugs that have been approved for relapse prevention. In the last decades, nevertheless, there is a growing interest in the use of anticonvulsant drugs in the management of both, detoxification and relapse prevention of alcohol.
To review the different pharmacological strategies in which an anticonvulsant was used in the management of AD.
We searched in MEDLINE and in the Cochrane Database System Review, selecting all studies from 1980 until present, in which a pharmacological intervention with anticonvulsant agents was made for alcohol detoxification or RP.
The most tested anticonvulsant drugs are the classical Carbamazepine and Valproate. Both have demonstrated to be efficacious in Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome and RP. However, the use of these agents has been limited by their hepatic and hematologic toxicity. Novel anticonvulsants such as Gabapentin, Pregabalin, Topiramate, Oxcarbazepine and Zonisamide have also been found to be effective, with the advantage of rapid onset of action, lower toxicity and fewer side effects.
Anticonvulsants are efficacious and safe agents in the management of AD. Further randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are warranted to increase the evidence of the use of these agents.
The purpose of this research was to analyse the effect of adding Pregabalin (PGB) on severe symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder refractory to duloxetin in daily medical practice in Spain.
This is a post-hoc analysis of a 6-month multicentre, prospective and observational study carried out in outpatient psychiatric clinics in Spain. Men and women, above 18 years, with a diagnosis of GAD according with DSM-IV-TR criteria, pregabalin naïve and refractory to a previous course of duloxetin (3 months or more) and severe symptoms of anxiety (HAM-A ≥ 24) and depression (MADRS ≥ 35) were considered eligible for analysis.
A total of twenty-five patients [76% women, mean age; 49.3 (11.8) years, 82% with a comorbid depressive disorder] fulfilled criteria for analysis, and were previously exposed to duloxetin [mean dose: 71.7 (26.7) mg/day] for an average of 6.7 (3.7) months. Adding pregabalin [mean dose: 172.8 (75.5) mg/day], during 5.2 (1.8) months, reduced both anxiety and depressive symptoms by a mean of, respectively in HAM-A and MADRS scales, 54.1% (from 36.5 ± 4.3 pts to 16.6 ± 9.1 pts; p < 0.001, effect size: 4.63) and 52.8% (from 40.4 ± 4.6 pts to 19.0 ± 11.0 pts; p < 0.001, effect size: 4.65). As a result, the percentages of patients without symptoms of either anxiety or depression were 30% and 24%, respectively.
Despite small sample, adding pregabalin had a meaningful and significant effect on severe symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with severe GAD and concomitant depressive disorder resistant to duloxetin.
To explore the consequences of broadening DSM-IV criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) on patient's disability.
A multicentre and observational study was carried-out in outpatient psychiatric clinics in Spain between years 2007 and 2008. Naïve diagnosed patients with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria or with anxiety symptoms fulfilling broadened criteria were compared. At least 1-month of excessive or non-excessive worry along with only two of the associated symptoms listed on DSM-IV for GAD were considered as broadened GAD criteria. Socio-demographic data, medical history and functional outcome measures were recorded.
A total of 3,549 patients were systematically recruited, 12.8% excluded because not found eligible for inclusion in analysis; 1,815 in the DSM-IV group (DG) and 1,264 in the broadening criteria group (BG). Both groups were similar on their sociodemographic characteristics. Total disability score in the WHO-DAS II scale was slightly, but statistically significant, higher in DG; 41.9 (17.1) versus 38.9 (16.0) points, p < 0.05. These weak differences were observed in all of the scale domains but mainly in domains “Getting around” [34.5 (23.6) versus 29.4 (22.8), p< 0.05] and “Life activities” [55.5 (27.1) versus 52.1 (26.2), p< 0.05], since differences in the other domains, even statistically significant, were negligible.
Patients with standard DSM-IV criteria for GAD appears to show slightly, but significant, worst level of disability than subjects with broadening diagnostic GAD criteria. Life-activities and participation in society domains seems to be the functional domains most impacted by symptoms of anxiety.
A prospective study in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients was performed over 10 years to evaluate the therapeutic response to clozapine and the variables related to this treatment. Eighty schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients (according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM]-IIIR criteria), considered as refractory (previously resistant to at least two different typical neuroleptics), were studied. The average dose of clozapine was 267 mg/d. The clinical variables considered were: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), number of admissions before and after clozapine treatment and the Strauss-Carpenter scale as measures of efficacy; Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS), to assess personal and social adjustment before illness; Karolinska Personality Scale (KPS) to assess stable traits of personality; and the Simpson-Angus scale as a measure of extrapyramidal symptoms. Sixty percent of patients showed a significant improvement after clozapine treatment. Side-effects were mild and well tolerated, with no cases of haematological disturbance and only five withdrawals because of adverse events. The severity of the episode, according to BPRS score and anxiety as a personal trait, are related to good prognosis. Other relationships between improvement and clinical and demographic variables are discussed.
To compare healthcare costs from the perspective of the Spanish National Healthcare System (NHS) of initiating treatment with pregabalin or SSRI/SNRI as add-on therapies in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), who are resistant to benzodiazepine-based therapy (BR).
BR patients with GAD (DSM-IV criteria) included in a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study carried out in outpatients attending mental health centers, were selected in this post-hoc analysis. BR was defined as insufficient response with persistence of symptoms of anxiety (HAM-Anxiety scale≥ 16) after a 6-month course of BR (standard dose). Healthcare resource utilization (HRU) associated with GAD included drug treatments, medical visits, hospitalization and non-pharmacologic therapies which were collected twice (baseline and end-of-trial visits) during a 6-month period. Related costs were estimated in each visit and adjusted changes between visits compared using ANCOVA models.
A total of 128 patients received pregabalin and 126 SSRI/SNRI. Compared with SSRI/SNRI, pregabalin was associated with significantly lower adjusted mean increment use of anxiolytics; 0.55 vs. 1.12, p < 0.001, and greater reduction in medical visits; −15.12 vs.−12.99, p = 0.029. Mean adjusted healthcare costs were significantly decreased in both medication cohorts; −€;289: pregabalin (p = 0.003) and −€95 (p = 0.052) with SSRI/SNRI. Drug acquisition costs for SSRI/SNRI were lower than pregabalin, however adjusted healthcare cost reduction was numerically higher with pregabalin; −€289 versus −€194, p = 0.488.
Initiating treatment with pregabalin was associated with significant reduction in HRU and total cost for GAD compared to SSRI/SNRI in BR patients in the Spanish NHS setting.
SSRI/SNRI and pregabalin are recommended therapies for the treatment of GAD, particularly in case of benzodiazepines refractory (BR) patients. The aim was to compare the use of anxiolytic treatments in BR GAD patients initiating treatment with pregabalin or SSRI/SNRI as add-on therapies.
BR outpatients with GAD (DSM-IV criteria) enrolled in a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study were included in this post-hoc analysis. BR was defined as insufficient response with persistence of symptoms of anxiety (HAM-Anxiety scale ≥ 16) after a course of a standard dose of benzodiazepines, for 6 months. The use (% of users and dose) of pregabalin, SSRI/SNRI and benzodiazepines was evaluated during the 6-month study period.
128 subjects treated with pregabalin and 126 with SSRI/SNRI were analyzed. Both cohorts presented a similar pattern of anxiolytic drugs utilization at baseline: Alprazolam (33% pregabalin and 27% SSRI/SNRI), diazepam (20% vs. 11%) and lorazepam (17% vs. 30%) were among the most used benzodiazepines. At the 6 month visit, pregabalin treated patients showed a significant decrease in the % of users of alprazolam (16% vs. 27%; p = 0.032), lorazepam (14% vs. 27%; p = 0.013) or ketazolam (0% vs. 7%; p = 0.002) compared with SSRI/SNRI. 57% of patients in pregabalin group, compared with 87% in SSRI/SNRI, were still receiving a benzodiazepine concomitantly at the 6 month visit (p < 0.001).
Compared with SSRI/SNRI, initiating therapy with pregabalin reduced the use of concomitant anxiolotic treatment in BR outpatients with GAD in routine medical practice.
To analyze the effect of adjunctive therapy with pregabalin versus usual care (UC) on healthcare costs and clinical consequences in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients with partial response (PR) to previous SSRI.
Post-hoc analysis of patients enrolled in a prospective 6-month observational study. Patients with a PR [CGI score >3 and insufficient response with persistence of anxiety symptoms (HAM-A score ≥16)] to SSRI monotherapy were considered eligible for inclusion. Two groups (based on psychiatrist judgment) were analyzed 1) adding pregabalin (150-600 mg/day) to existing therapy; or 2) UC (switching to a different SSRI or adding another anxiolytic. Costs estimation used year-2009 prices for GAD related healthcare resources utilization. Measures of clinical consequences were, changes in total scores of anxiety in HAM-A (primary outcome) and GAD co-morbid depressive symptoms in MADRS (secondary outcome) scales.
Four-hundred-eighty-six newly prescribed pregabalin and 239 UC GAD patients [mean (SD) HAM-A 26.7 (6.9) and CGI 4.1 (0.5)] were analyzed. Adding pregabalin was associated with significantly higher adjusted mean changes (95% CI) vs. UC in HAM-A [-11.2 (-12.2;-10.2) vs. -14.9 (-15.6;-14.2), respectively; p< 0.001] and MADRS [-7.8 (-8.7;-6.8) vs. -11.6 (- 12.2;-10.9), respectively; p< 0.001]. Adjusted mean baseline healthcare costs were significantly reduced in both cohorts; -€487 (-652;-317) and -€531 (-648;-413), respectively (both p< 0.001), yielding to similar 6-month costs; €1543 (1375;1711) UC and €1497 (1380;1614) pregabalin, p=0.661.
In this post-hoc analysis, GAD patients with PR to SSRI experienced greater symptom improvement with adjunctive therapy with pregabalin versus UC without increasing healthcare cost.
Legal and illegal drugs can cause psychotic symptoms, in cocaine-dependent patients the prevalence of these symptoms may reach 86% (Vorspan, 2012). It is estimated that 13–32% of cocaine-dependent patients have kinaesthetic hallucinations (Siegel, 1978; Mahoney, 2008; Roncero, 2012).
To compare the prevalence of substance-induced psychotic symptoms and compare the use of welfare/social resources and social adjustment among cocaine-dependent patients (CD) and other substances dependences (OtherD).
Two hundred and six patients seeking treatment at the Addictions and Dual Diagnosis Unit of the Vall d’Hebron. Patients were assessed by ad hoc questionnaire designed to collect demographic data and psychotic symptoms associated with consumption, a record of the care/social resources used by the patient and the scale of social adaptation (SASS). A descriptive and bivariate analysis of the data was performed.
CD were 47.1% vs. 52.9% OtherD (66.1% alcohol, 17.4% cannabis, 8.3% opioid, 8.3% benzodiazepines/other drugs). Of cocaine dependent-patients, 65.6% present psychotic symptoms vs. 32.1% for the OtherD. Different exhibiting psychotic symptoms are: self-referential (69.7% vs. 30.7%), delusions of persecution (43.4% vs. 12.2%), hallucinations (49.4% vs. 14.3%), auditory hallucinations (43.5% vs. 11.4%), visual hallucinations (30.4% vs. 5.7%) and kinaesthetic hallucinations (7.2% vs. 2.9%).
Cocaine-dependent patients significantly use more health care resources in reference addiction unit (76.3% vs. 62.4%, P:.035) and infectious diseases (22.7% vs. 5.5%, P:.000) and justice-related (50.5% vs. 26 resources 0.6%; P:1.001) and less resources and mental health (25.8% vs. 43.1%; P:.013).
Regarding social adaptation, no differences were found in the SASS. Kinaesthetic hallucinations do not appear to be related to a greater use of resources and in social adaptation.
References not available.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Accident rate have a high social cost. Cocaine consumption increases the risk of traffic crashes (Monras, 2011; Fierro, 2011). However, there is not extensively studies in addicts.
Compare and analyze the history of accidents and risk behaviors while driving in cocaine dependent patients (DC) and of other substances (OtherD).
One hundred and eighty-two patients seeking treatment since January 2014 to September 2015. Sociodemographic and accident-related variables were collected, also administered the MDBQ. Descriptive analysis and bivariate analysis using Chi-square test for categorical variables and Student t test was performed for quantitative.
Of women, 30.3%, and 69.7% men, mean age 43.67 years (SD = 13). 65.6% currently driving or above. 45.2% DC vs. 54.8 DOther (35.6% alcohol, cannabis 8.3%, 5.8% opioid and 5.1% other drugs).
Comparing accident rate on the DC is a tendency to have suffered more accidents (χ2: 2.62 P=.072). Patients addicted to cocaine referred further potentially dangerous activities both under the influence of consumption (65.9% vs. 33.3%) and abstinence (41.7% vs. 12%).
As for the results of MDBQ, it has been detected that cocaine addicts show more errors and traffic violations. No differences in the lapses identified by patients of different groups.
Patients with cocaine dependence have more accidents, reduced risk perception and recognize more mistakes and traffic violations. Cocaine implies a high risk of road accidents and exposure to high-risk situations compared to the use of other substances.
References not available.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Loyalty cards programs have been used by retailers to increase customer retention. Loyality cards provide means to identify a particular customer and to collect customer-specific data, thus enabling individualized marketing; however, operating a loyalty program is complicated for retailers since they require to manage balances, collections, and transfers of customers. This is exactly the same problem the retailers were facing before credit cards were readily available. A new problem is that customers now have too many cards, customers may forget, or even deliberately decide to carry only a selection of their cards. This paper proposes a loyalty program based on a blockchain that does not require a physical card for identifying customers as it associates customers to their phone numbers, since nowadays people always carry their phone. In this perspective, companies can reduce overhead costs associated to managing the loyalty program. This paper reviews the technology required and describes the implementation of a loyalty program based on blockchains. Finally, it also enumerates the reasons for choosing the blockchain technology for this application.
On 16 March 2018, a nursing home notified a possible acute gastroenteritis outbreak that affected 11 people. Descriptive and case–control studies and analysis of clinical and environmental samples were carried out to determine the characteristics of the outbreak, its aetiology, the transmission mechanism and the causal food. The extent of the outbreak in and outside the nursing home was determined and the staff factors influencing propagation were studied by multivariate analysis. A turkey dinner on March 14 was associated with the outbreak (OR 4.22, 95% CI 1.11–16.01). Norovirus genogroups I and II were identified in stool samples. The attack rates in residents, staff and household contacts of staff were 23.49%, 46.22% and 22.87%, respectively. Care assistants and cleaning staff were the staff most frequently affected. Cohabitation with an affected care assistant was the most important factor in the occurrence of cases in the home (adjusted OR 6.37, 95% CI 1.13–36.02). Our results show that staff in close contact with residents and their household contacts had a higher risk of infection during the norovirus outbreak.
Here, different tissue surfaces of tomato root were characterized employing atomic force microscopy on day 7 and day 21 of growth through Young's modulus and plasticity index. These parameters provide quantitative information regarding the mechanical behavior of the tomato root under fresh conditions in different locations of the cross-section of root [cell surface of the epidermis, parenchyma (Pa), and vascular bundles (Vb)]. The results show that the mechanical parameters depend on the indented region, tissue type, and growth time. Thereby, the stiffness increases in the cell surface of epidermal tissue with increasing growth time (from 9.19 ± 0.68 to 13.90 ± 1.68 MPa) and the cell surface of Pa tissue displays the opposite behavior (from 1.74 ± 0.49 to 0.48 ± 0.55); the stiffness of cell surfaces of Vb tissue changes from 10.60 ± 0.58 to 6.37 ± 0.53 MPa, all cases showed a statistical difference (p < 0.05). Viscoelastic behavior dominates the mechanical forces in the tomato root. The current study is a contribution to a better understanding of the cell mechanics behavior of different tomato root tissues during growth.
The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.