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To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people.
Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates.
The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs.
Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.
Short pulse laser irradiation has the ability to bring a material into a state of strong electronic, thermal, phase, and mechanical nonequilibrium and trigger a sequence of structural transformations leading to the generation of complex multiscale surface morphologies, unusual metastable phases, and microstructures that cannot be produced by any other means. In this article, we provide an overview of recent advancements and existing challenges in the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of short pulse laser interaction with materials, including the material response to strong electronic excitation, ultrafast redistribution and partitioning of the deposited laser energy, the peculiarities of phase transformations occurring under conditions of strong superheating/undercooling, as well as laser-induced generation of crystal defects and modification of surface microstructure.
Recent studies suggest that sand can serve as a vehicle for exposure of humans to pathogens at beach sites, resulting in increased health risks. Sampling for microorganisms in sand should therefore be considered for inclusion in regulatory programmes aimed at protecting recreational beach users from infectious disease. Here, we review the literature on pathogen levels in beach sand, and their potential for affecting human health. In an effort to provide specific recommendations for sand sampling programmes, we outline published guidelines for beach monitoring programmes, which are currently focused exclusively on measuring microbial levels in water. We also provide background on spatial distribution and temporal characteristics of microbes in sand, as these factors influence sampling programmes. First steps toward establishing a sand sampling programme include identifying appropriate beach sites and use of initial sanitary assessments to refine site selection. A tiered approach is recommended for monitoring. This approach would include the analysis of samples from many sites for faecal indicator organisms and other conventional analytes, while testing for specific pathogens and unconventional indicators is reserved for high-risk sites. Given the diversity of microbes found in sand, studies are urgently needed to identify the most significant aetiological agent of disease and to relate microbial measurements in sand to human health risk.
In this work is discussed the synthesis of a novel antishrinking agent (SOC DA) and the evaluation of its performance in an acrylic dental resin. SOC DA was photopolymerized in conjunction with the components of a conventional acrylic resin, which includes a mixture of diacrylate monomers [glycerolate bisphenol A dimethacrylate (BIS-GMA) / Urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) / triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)] in 50/30/20 molar ratio). SOC DA was added in a range between 5.0-20.0 mol % with respect to the total amount of moles of the acrylic monomers. It was found that increasing concentrations of SOC DA, promoted higher conversions of the dimethacrylate monomers without decreasing the photopolymerization rate of the acrylate monomers. The study of the effect of SOC DA on the mechanical properties of the dental composite filled with 70 % of silicon dioxide, revealed that the presence of the antishrinking agent improved both the compressive and the flexural strength of the dental materials. Besides, it was found that by using the SOC DA at 20%, the shrinkage was reduced 52%, compared with the same formulation without SOC DA.
Progress and challenges for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of GaN are discussed in detail by focusing on the importance of GaN surface oxidation during CMP. We report on the significant difference in the removal rates between Ga2O3 and GaN, suggesting that the surface oxidation reaction is the rate-limiting step for CMP of Ga-faced GaN. This is actually proved by the fact that ex-situ surface oxidation by annealing in air prior to CMP exhibits a marked reduction in the required CMP time to produce a damage-free surface. As a future challenge, we outline two of our recent developments, ultraviolet-assisted CMP and atmosphere-controlled CMP, that enable in-situ oxidation, since ex-situ oxidation must be modified to in-situ to further advance CMP.
Whey protein intake reduces CVD risk, but little is known whether whey-derived bioactive peptides regulate vascular endothelial function (VEF). We determined the impact of a whey-derived extract (NOP-47) on VEF in individuals with an increased cardiovascular risk profile. Men and women with impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) (n 21, age 55 (sem 1·3) years, BMI 27·8 (sem 0·6) kg/m2, FMD 3·7 (sem 0·4) %) completed a randomised, cross-over study to examine whether ingestion of NOP-47 (5 g) improves postprandial VEF. Brachial artery FMD, plasma amino acids, insulin, and endothelium-derived vasodilators and vasoconstrictors were measured for 2 h after ingestion of NOP-47 or placebo. Acute NOP-47 ingestion increased FMD at 30 min (4·6 (sem 0·5) %) and 120 min (5·1 (sem 0·5) %) post-ingestion (P< 0·05, time × trial interaction), and FMD responses at 120 min were significantly greater in the NOP-47 trial compared with placebo (4·3 (sem 0·5) %). Plasma amino acids increased at 30 min following NOP-47 ingestion (P< 0·05). Serum insulin increased at 15, 30 and 60 min (P< 0·001) following NOP-47 ingestion. No changes were observed between the trials for plasma NO∙ and prostacyclin metabolites or endothelin-1. Ingestion of a rapidly absorbed extract derived from whey protein improved endothelium-dependent dilation in older adults by a mechanism independent of changes in circulating vasoactive compounds. Future investigation is warranted in individuals at an increased CVD risk to further elucidate potential health benefits and the underlying mechanisms of extracts derived from whey.
We investigate the partisan foundations of political legitimacy. We argue that the goals parties pursue shape their supporters’ views about the political system via the messages they communicate about the desirability of the political system. Combining public opinion survey data collected in 15 democracies with data on the goal orientations and policy positions of 116 political parties, we find that office-seeking parties take more positive positions toward the status quo of the political regime than policy-seeking parties. Moreover, we find that these positions have consequences. Specifically, supporters of parties with more positive positions toward the system report systematically higher levels of support than supporters of parties that communicate more negative views. Taken together, these findings suggest that political parties play an active role in shaping citizens’ views of the political system and that office-seeking parties in particular mobilize consent among citizens in contemporary democracies.
Little is known about how immigrants participate in politics and whether they transform political engagement in contemporary democracies. This study investigates whether citizenship (as opposed to being foreign-born) affects political and civic engagement beyond the voting booth. It is argued that citizenship should be understood as a resource that enhances participation and helps immigrants overcome socialization experiences that are inauspicious for political engagement. The analysis of the European Social Survey data collected in nineteen European democracies in 2002–03 reveals that citizenship has a positive impact on political participation. Moreover, citizenship is a particularly powerful determinant of un-institutionalized political action among individuals who were socialized in less democratic countries. These findings have important implications for debates over the definition of and access to citizenship in contemporary democracies.
During the 10-year period 1978–87 there were 48 outbreaks of food poisoning in Scottish hospitals affeeting a total of 2287 persons of whom 12 died. This compared with 50 outbreaks during the previous 5 years (1973–77) when over 1500 persons and 7 deaths were recorded. Although the incidence of outbreaks has decreased the average number of persons affected in outbreaks has increased. A marked reduction was seen in the incidence of outbreaks due to Clostridium perfringens, in contrast to foodborne salmonellosis which remains a problem. Thirty-four hospitals, of which 10 reported two or more outbreaks, were involved. The type of hospitals most frequently affected were general (14), psychiatric (13), geriatric (9) and hospitals for the mentally subnormal (7). Meat, including poultry meat, was incriminated in over 90% of outbreaks where a food vehicle was identified. In modern or re-equipped kitchens cooking in advance with subsequent reheating is being progressively discontinued as more food is being cooked on the day of consumption, a practice which may readily explain the decreasing incidence of outbreaks due to Cl. perfringens. Bacterial cross-contamination from poultry-meat and other raw foods, compounded by inadequate temperature control, however, continues to be a problem in some hospitals. It is too early as yet to determine whether the removal of Crown immunity will have any effect on the future incidence of hospital ‘food poisoning’.
The aim of this study was to identify the level of isoflavone intake (total isoflavones, daidzein and genistein) in four European countries: Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands and the UK. For this purpose national food composition databases of isoflavone content were created in a comparable way, using the Vegetal Estrogens in Nutrition and the Skeleton (VENUS) analytical data base as a common basis, and appropriate food consumption data were selected. The isoflavone intake in Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands and the UK is on average less than 1 mg/d. Small groups of consumers of soya foods could be identified in Ireland, The Netherlands and the UK. The estimated intake levels are low compared with those found in typical Asian diets (∼20–100 mg/d) and also low compared with levels where physiological effects are expected (60–100 mg/d). The results (including a subgroup analysis of soya product consumers) showed that such levels are difficult to achieve with the European diets studied here.
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