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The role of cerebellum in schizophrenia has been highlighted by Andreasen's hypothesis of “cognitive dysmetria”. Evidence is accumulating that cerebellar dysfunction could underlay some of the clinical psychiatric and neurological symptoms as well as cognitive dysfunctions observed in schizophrenia.
To provide an up-to-date review of the putative role of the cerebellum in schizophrenia.
To inform clinicians of the neurobiological findings involving the cerebellum and schizophrenia and its possible translational applications in clinics.
We conducted a MEDLINE search of all English articles published between 1966 and 2009 using the key words “psychosis” “schizophrenia,” “cerebellum” and “cerebellar”. Priority was given to controlled data; uncontrolled studies were considered if sample size was reasonable (more than 10). Case reports were included if deemed to provide therapeutical insights.
Results from several neuropsychiatric and imagiological studies have documented abnormalities in cerebellar function and structure in schizophrenic patients. Moreover, pharmacologic and psychosocial therapeutic interventions for these patients have been linked with changes in cerebellar function. Some psychopharmacological approaches seem to be preferable in patients with schizophrenia-like symptoms and confirmed cerebellar pathology. Novel experimental therapeutical approaches with cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant schizophrenia seem promising.
Although different lines of research converge to suggest that a cerebellar dysfunction could exist at least in some patients with schizophrenia, the relationship with cerebellar pathology remains obscure and should be the focus of future research.
Bipolar disease is a chronic mental illness with a deep personal and social impact. Alongside with the considerable progress in understanding and treating bipolar disorder, and despite the growing interest in geriatric psychiatry, late onset bipolar disorder has been relatively little studied so far.
To review the literature regarding the epidemiology, characteristics and clinical implications of late onset bipolar disorder.
A literature review was performed by searching articles in Pubmed, using the following search terms: “late onset bipolar disorder” and “elderly bipolar disorder”. All literature in English published in the last 15 years was examined and 11 articles were selected.
Although the frequency of bipolar disorder type 1 or 2 decrease with age, approximately 6 to 8% of the new cases of bipolar disorder develop in people over 60 years of age. Clinically, late-onset bipolar disorder appears to be associated with a better level of pre-morbid functioning, a less severe psychopathology as well as a smaller family burden of psychiatric illness. The term “secondary mania” postulated by Krauthmamer Klerman has been used to describe a bipolar disease variant associated with a variety of organic factors that may be responsible for this late-onset disease.
Late onset bipolar disorder is probably a different diagnostic than the entity that occurs in younger patients, since it presents with a different clinical presentation. It is a heterogeneous disease with a complex etiology that still needs more research.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Fifty-one Churra da Terra Quente ewes (4–7 years old) were used to analyse the potential of real-time ultrasound (RTU) to predict the amount of internal adipose depots, in addition to carcass fat (CF). The prediction models were developed from live weight (LW) and RTU measurements taken at eight different locations. After correlation and multiple linear regression analysis, the prediction models were evaluated by k-fold cross-validation and through the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD). All prediction models included at least one RTU measurement as an independent variable. Prediction models for the absolute weight of the different adipose depots showed higher accuracy than prediction models for fat content per kg of LW. The former showed to be very good or excellent (2.4 ⩽ RPD ⩽ 3.8) for all adipose depots except mesenteric fat (MesF) and thoracic fat, with the model for MesF still providing useful information (RPD = 1.8). Prediction models for fat content per kg of LW were also very good or excellent for subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, CF and body fat (2.6 ⩽ RPD ⩽ 3.2), while the best prediction models for omental fat, kidney knob, channel fat and internal fat still provided useful information. Despite some loss in the accuracy of the estimates obtained, there was a similar pattern in terms of RPD for models developed from LW and RTU measurements taken just at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra. In vivo RTU measurements showed the potential to monitor changes in ewe internal fat reserves as well as in CF.
The present study investigated the effects of nutritional programming through parental feeding on offspring performance and expression of selected genes related to stress resistance in a marine teleost. Gilthead seabream broodstock were fed diets containing various fish oil (FO)/vegetable oil ratios to determine their effects on offspring performance along embryogenesis, larval development and juvenile on-growing periods. Increased substitution of dietary FO by linseed oil (LO) up to 80 % LO significantly reduced the total number of eggs produced by kg per female per spawn. Moreover, at 30 d after hatching, parental feeding with increasing LO up to 80 % led to up-regulation of the fatty acyl desaturase 2 gene (fads2) that was correlated with the increase in conversion rates of related PUFA. Besides, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (cox2) and TNF-α (tnf-α) gene expression was also up-regulated by the increase in LO in broodstock diets up to 60 or 80 %, respectively. When 4-month-old offspring were challenged with diets having different levels of FO, the lowest growth was found in juveniles from broodstock fed 100 % FO. An increase in LO levels in the broodstock diet up to 60LO raised LC-PUFA levels in the juveniles, regardless of the juvenile’s diet. The results showed that it is possible to nutritionally programme gilthead seabream offspring through the modification of the fatty acid profiles of parental diets to improve the growth performance of juveniles fed low FO diets, inducing long-term changes in PUFA metabolism with up-regulation of fads2 expression. The present study provided the first pieces of evidence of the up-regulation of immune system-related genes in the offspring of parents fed increased FO replacement by LO.
I present an overview of the JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey (JADES), a joint program of the JWST/NIRCam and NIRSpec Guaranteed Time Observations (GTO) teams involving 950 hours of observation. We will target two well-studied fields with excellent supporting data (e.g., from HST-CANDELS): GOODS-North and South, including the Ultra Deep Field. The science goal of JADES is to chart galaxy evolution at z > 2, and potentially out to z > 10, using the rest-frame optical and near-IR though observations from ≍ 1–5μm. Multi-colour NIRCam imaging with 9 filters will enable photometric redshifts and the application of the Lyman break technique out to unprecedented distances. NIRSpec spectroscopy (with spectral resolving powers of R = 100, 1000 & 2700) will measure secure spectroscopic redshifts of the photometrically-selected population, as well as stellar continuum slopes in the UV rest-frame, and hence study the role of dust, stellar population age, and other effects. Measuring emission lines can constrain the dust extinction, star formation rates, metallicity, chemical abundances, ionization and excitation mechanism in high redshift galaxies. Coupling NIRCam and NIRSpec observations will determine stellar populations (age, star formation histories, abundances) of galaxies and provide the information to correct their broad-band spectral energy distribution for likely line contamination. Potentially we can search for signatures of Population III stars such as HeII. We can address the contribution of star-forming galaxies at z > 7 to reionization by determining the faint end slope of the luminosity function and investigating the escape fraction of ionizing photons by comparing the UV stellar continuum with the Balmer-line fluxes.
Starburst galaxies at z ∼ 2 – 4 are among the most intensely star-forming galaxies in the universe. The way they accrete their gas to form stars at such high rates is still a controversial issue. ALMA has detected the CH+ (J = 1-0) line in emission and/or absorption in all the gravitationally lensed starburst galaxies targeted so far at z ∼ 3. Its unique spectroscopic and chemical properties enable CH+ to highlight the sites of most intense dissipation of mechanical energy. The absorption lines reveal highly turbulent, massive reservoirs of low-density molecular gas. The broad emission lines, arising in myriad UV-irradiated molecular shocks, reveal powerful galactic winds. The CH+ lines therefore probe the fate of prodigious energy releases, due to infall and/or outflows, and primarily stored in turbulence before being radiated by cool molecular gas. The turbulent reservoirs act as mass and energy buffers over the duration of the starburst phase.
The ALMA-ALPINE [CII] survey (A2C2S) aims at characterizing the properties of normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs) observed in the [CII]-158μm line in the period of rapid mass assembly at redshifts 4 < z < 6. Here we present the survey and the selection of 118 galaxies observed with ALMA, selected from large samples of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts derived from UV-rest frame. The observed properties derived from the ALMA data are presented and discussed in terms of the overall detection rate in [CII] and far-IR continuum. The sample is representative of the SFG population at these redshifts. The overall detection rate is 61% down to a flux limit of 0.07 mJy. From a visual inspection of the [CII] data cubes together with the large wealth of ancillary data we find a surprisingly wide range of galaxy types, including 32.4% mergers, 25.7% extended and dispersion dominated, 13.5% rotating discs, and 16.2% compact, the remaining being too faint to be classified. ALPINE sets a reference sample for the gas distribution in normal star-forming galaxies at a key epoch in galaxy assembly, ideally suited for studies with future facilities like JWST and ELTs.
To understand how the nature of the ionizing sources and the leakage of ionizing photons in high-redshift galaxies can be constrained from their emission-line spectra, we compare emission-line models of star-forming galaxies including leakage of ionizing radiation, active galactic nuclei (AGN) and radiative shocks, with observations of galaxies at various redshifts with properties expected to approach those of primeval galaxies.
Study of the composition from diverse sources of the Universe helps to us to understand their evolution. Molecular spectroscopy provides detailed information of the observed objects. We present a small study of the starburst NGC 253 with ALMA at 1mm. We detect the prebiotic molecules NH2CHO, and CNCHO. We obtain the integrated intensity maps and abundances of HNCO, CH3OH, H3O+ and CH3C2H. We propose the use of Artificial Intelligence for big data to find prebiotic molecules in galaxies.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
Determining the shape of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) and whether it is constant or varies in space and time is the Holy Grail of modern astrophysics, with profound implications for all theories of star and galaxy formation. On a theoretical ground, the extreme conditions for star formation (SF) encountered in the most powerful starbursts in the Universe are expected to favour the formation of massive stars. Direct methods of IMF determination, however, cannot probe such systems, because of the severe dust obscuration affecting their starlight. The next best option is to observe CNO bearing molecules in the interstellar medium at millimetre/ submillimetre wavelengths, which, in principle, provides the best indirect evidence for IMF variations. In this contribution, we present our recent findings on this issue. First, we reassess the roles of different types of stars in the production of CNO isotopes. Then, we calibrate a proprietary chemical evolution code using Milky Way data from the literature, and extend it to discuss extragalactic data. We show that, though significant uncertainties still hamper our knowledge of the evolution of CNO isotopes in galaxies, compelling evidence for an IMF skewed towards high-mass stars can be found for galaxy-wide starbursts. In particular, we analyse a sample of submillimetre galaxies observed by us with the Atacama Large Millimetre Array at the peak of the SF activity of the Universe, for which we measure 13C/18O⋍1. This isotope ratio is especially sensitive to IMF variations, and is little affected by observational uncertainties. At the end, ongoing developments of our work are briefly outlined.
Observations of star-forming galaxies in the distant Universe have confirmed the importance of massive stars in shaping galaxy emission and evolution. Distant stellar populations are unresolved, and the limited data available must be interpreted in the context of stellar population models. Understanding these populations, and their evolution with age and heavy element content is key to interpreting processes such as supernovae, cosmic reionization and the chemical enrichment of the Universe. With the upcoming launch of JWST and observations of galaxies within a billion years of the Big Bang, the uncertainties in modelling massive stars - particularly their interactions with binary companions - are becoming increasingly important to our interpretation of the high redshift Universe. In turn, observations of distant stellar populations provide ever stronger tests against which to gauge the success of, and flaws in, current massive star models. Here we briefly review the current status binary stellar population synthesis.
Submillimeter galaxies at redshift z⩾1 show a pronounced [CII]/FIR deficit down to sub-kpc scales; however, the physical origin of this deficit remains poorly understood. We use resolved ALMA observations of the [CII], FIR and CO(3–2) emission in two z = 3 SMGs to distinguish between the different proposed scenarios; the thermal saturation of the [CII] emission is the most likely explanation.
We study the metallicity calibrations in high-redshift galaxies using a sample of local analogs of high-redshift galaxies selected from the SDSS survey. Located in the same region on the BPT diagram as star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2, these high-redshift analogs share the same ionized ISM conditions as high-redshift galaxies. We establish empirical metallicity calibrations between the direct gas-phase oxygen abundances and varieties of metallicity indicators in our local analogs using direct Te method. These new metallicity calibrations are the best means to measure the metallicity in high-redshift galaxies. There exist significant offsets between these new high-redshift metallicity calibrations and local calibrations. Such offsets are mainly driven by the evolution of the ionized ISM conditions from high-z to low-z.
Carcass data were collected from 24 kids (average live weight of 12.5±5.5 kg; range 4.5 to 22.4 kg) of Jarmelista Portuguese native breed, to evaluate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) as a technique for prediction of light kid carcass and muscle chemical composition. Resistance (Rs, Ω) and reactance (Xc, Ω), were measured in the cold carcasses with a single frequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer and, together with impedance (Z, Ω), two electrical volume measurements (VolA and VolB, cm2/Ω), carcass cold weight (CCW), carcass compactness and several carcass linear measurements were fitted as independent variables to predict carcass composition by stepwise regression analysis. The amount of variation explained by VolA and VolB only reached a significant level (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) for muscle weight, moisture, protein and fat-free soft tissue content, even so with low accuracy, with VolA providing the best results (0.326⩽R2⩽0.366). Quite differently, individual BIA parameters (Rs, Xc and Z) explained a very large amount of variation in dissectible carcass fat weight (0.814⩽R2⩽0.862; P<0.01). These individual BIA parameters also explained a large amount of variation in subcutaneous and intermuscular fat weights (respectively 0.749⩽R2⩽0.793 and 0.718⩽R2⩽0.760; P<0.01), and in muscle chemical fat weight (0.663⩽R2⩽0.684; P<0.01). Still significant but much lower was the variation in muscle, moisture, protein and fat-free soft tissue weights (0.344⩽R2⩽0.393; P<0.01) explained by BIA parameters. Still, the best models for estimation of muscle, moisture, protein and fat-free soft tissue weights included Rs in addition to CCW, and accounted for 97.1% to 99.8% (P<0.01) of the variation observed, with CCW by itself accounting for 97.0% to 99.6% (P<0.01) of that variation. Resistance was the only independent variable selected for the best model predicting subcutaneous fat weight. It was also selected for the best models predicting carcass fat weight (combined with carcass length, CL; R2=0.943; P<0.01) and intermuscular fat weight (combined with CCW; R2=0.945; P<0.01). The best model predicting muscle chemical fat weight combined CCW and Z, explaining 85.6% (P<0.01) of the variation observed. These results indicate BIA as a useful tool for prediction of light kids’ carcass composition.
A current trend in the aeronautic industry is to increase the wing aspect ratio to enhance aerodynamic efficiency by reducing the induced drag and thus reduce fuel consumption. Despite the associated benefits of a large aspect ratio, such as higher lift-to-drag ratios and range, commercial aircraft usually have a relatively low aspect ratio. This is partially explained by the fact that the wing becomes more flexible with increasing aspect ratio and thus more prone to large deflections, which can cause aeroelastic instability problems such as flutter. In this work, an aeroelastic study is conducted on a rectangular wing model of 20 m span and variable chord for a low subsonic speed condition to evaluate the differences between linear and non-linear static aeroelastic responses. Comparisons between linear and non-linear displacements, natural frequencies and flutter boundary are performed. An in-house non-linear aeroelastic framework was employed for this purpose. In this work, the influence of the aspect ratio and geometric non-linearity (highly deformed states) is assessed in terms of aeroelastic performance parameters: flutter speed and divergence speed. A nearly linear correlation of flutter speed difference (relative to linear analysis results) with vertical-tip displacement difference is observed. The flutter and divergence speeds vary substantially as the wing aspect ratio increases, and the divergence speeds always remain above the flutter speed. Furthermore, the flutter mechanism was observed to change as the wing chord is decreased.
Commercial jets usually have relatively low-aspect-ratio wings, in spite of the associated benefits of increasing the wing aspect-ratio, such as higher lift-to-drag ratios and ranges. This is partially explained by the fact that the wing becomes more flexible by increasing the aspect-ratio that results in higher deflections which can cause aeroelastic instability problems such as flutter. An aeroelastic computational framework capable of evaluating the effects of geometric non-linearities on the aeroelastic performance of high-aspect-ratio wings has been developed and validated using numerical and experimental data. In this work, the aeroelastic performance of a base wing model with 20 m span and 1 m chord is analysed and the effect of changing the wing chord or the taper-ratio is determined. The non-linear static aeroelastic equilibrium solutions are compared in terms of drag polar, root bending moment and natural frequencies, and the change in the flutter speed boundary is assessed as a function of aspect-ratio using a time-marching approach.
The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) requires expensive neuroimaging techniques that are seldom affordable for people in endemic countries. Accordingly, there is a need for new low-cost diagnostic methods that offer high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we evaluated Western blot analysis of the previously described recombinant antigen Tsol-p27 in relation to a commercial or in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for NCC, and compared the results with those provided by a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay, which was regarded as the reference standard method. The analysed serum samples were obtained from 165 people, 18 of whom were confirmed to be NCC positive by EITB. Comparing our Western blot analysis of Tsol-p27 with a previous evaluation performed in Central America showed similar specificity (96.69% versus 97.8%) and sensitivity (85.71% versus 86.7%). The present results indicate that the recombinant Tsol-p27 antigen provides good sensitivity and specificity, and might be preferable as a diagnostic antigen in poorly equipped laboratories in endemic countries.
Echinococcus multilocularis is a cestode that causes human alveolar echinococcosis, a lethal zoonosis of public health concern in central Asia and western China. In the present study, one of 42 Eastern mole voles (Ellobius tancrei) caught in Sary Mogol (Alay valley, southern Kyrgyzstan) presented liver lesions with E. multilocularis from which the EmsB target was amplified. The Asian profile obtained was almost identical to one amplified from domestic dog faeces collected in a nearby village. This observation adds additional information to the potential role of E. tancrei in the transmission of E. multilocularis, and to the known distribution range of E. multilocularis (Asian strain) in central Asia.
We addressed the question of whether syllabic units of the presented language would activate words containing these syllables in the nonpresented language. In two lexical decision experiments using Spanish and German words presented to two groups of late Spanish–German and German–Spanish bilinguals and to two monolingual control groups, target words’ syllable-frequency in the nonpresented language was manipulated. Inhibitory effects of syllable-frequency in the nonpresented language were found only when Spanish–German bilinguals read German L2 words– suggesting that L2 sublexical syllabic units activated L1 syllabic neighbors’ representations that would interfere with L2 target processing. On the contrary, no inhibitory effects but rather a facilitation tendency due to syllable-frequency from the nonpresented German language was obtained for both groups of bilinguals reading Spanish words. This dissociation concerning the spread of activation from sublexical units to lexical representations from bilinguals’ two languages is discussed in terms of structural differences between the two languages.