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The Endangered proboscis monkey Nasalis larvatus is endemic to the island of Borneo. Habitat loss is a major threat to this species, and an understanding of long-term demographic trends is crucial for its conservation. We assessed the population trends and group sizes of proboscis monkeys over 10 years in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Comparisons of observed populations between 2004 and 2014 revealed significantly reduced group sizes, which is probably a result of forest fragmentation. Three long-term studies over 34–73 months in specific areas showed fluctuating estimated densities in each area, but no overall population increase or decrease. Riparian forests are the most important habitat for these monkeys, and one reason for the relatively stable population could be that there were only minor losses of forest along rivers during 2004–2014 because protected areas have been established in the region in 2005. However, proboscis monkey habitat remains under threat in areas allocated for oil palm, and protection of these areas is paramount to maintaining this population.
The investigation of the aetiology of sudden cardiac arrest or death in a young person combines features of a traditional clinical medical examination with those of forensic medicine. Nuances of the immediate peri-event history, when available, can be paramount. New genetic tools have greatly improved the yield of such investigations, but they must be carefully interpreted by genetic specialists. The approach to surviving patients, their family members, and to family members of non-survivors is best achieved in a structured programme that includes all appropriate specialists and support personnel. As an example, this may include all appropriate paediatric and internal medicine specialists, a geneticist, a genetic counsellor, a clinical psychologist, nurse specialist(s), and a programme coordinator. This family-centred strategy affords the patient, if surviving, and all family members the necessary emotional and medical support while at the same time providing the necessary diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
Adults with tetralogy of Fallot experience atrial tachyarrhythmias; however, there are a few data on the outcomes of radiofrequency ablation. We examined the characteristics, outcome, and predictors of recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmias after radiofrequency ablation in tetralogy of Fallot patients.
Retrospective data were collected from 2004 to 2013. In total, 56 ablations were performed on 37 patients. We identified two matched controls per case: patients with tetralogy of Fallot but no radiofrequency ablation and not known to have atrial tachyarrhythmias. Acute success was 98%. Left atrial arrhythmias increased in frequency over time. The mean follow-up was 41 months; 78% were arrhythmia-free. Number of cardiac surgeries, age, and presence of atrial fibrillation were predictors of recurrence. Lone cavo-tricuspid isthmus-dependent flutter reduced the likelihood of atrial fibrillation. Right and left atria in patients with tetralogy of Fallot were larger in ablated cases than controls. NYHA class was worse in cases and improved after ablation; baseline status predicted death. Of matched non-ablated controls, a number of them had atrial fibrillation. These patients were excluded from the case–control study but analysed separately. Most of them had died during follow-up, whereas of the matched ablated cases all were alive and the majority in sinus rhythm.
Patients with tetralogy of Fallot and atrial tachyarrhythmias have more dilated atria than those without atrial tachyarrhythmias. Radiofrequency ablation improves functional status. Left atrial ablation is more commonly required with repeat procedures. There is a high prevalence of atrial tachyarrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation, in patients with tetralogy of Fallot; early radiofrequency ablation may have a protective effect against this.
• A political cleavage illustrates polarization when the extremes grow at the expense of the middle.
• Whether one looks at partisan, ideological, or issue cleavages, the American electorate shows no evidence of polarization; the middle has not shrunk.
• The American electorate has sorted – the parties are more internally homogeneous and more distinct from each other.
• Party sorting increases inter-party conflict and makes cross-party compromise more difficult.
In the early years of the twenty-first century, the national media adopted a narrative promoted by a coterie of scholars, pundits, and politicos. According to the narrative, Americans were combatants in a culture war between red and blue states. Our country had become a 50/50 nation with no neutrals to mediate between the opposing sides. The United States of America had deteriorated into the Divided States of America. This narrative nicely met the mediae's concept of newsworthiness – division, polarization, battles, war! But to political scientists familiar with public opinion data, the narrative was puzzling.
If one thinks about polarization in partisan terms, the American public did not look much different than it had in the 1970s. As shown in Figure 1, the proportion of Democrats was a little smaller than in the 1970s and the proportion of Republicans a little larger. After 1984, there is almost no change. Rather than the middle – in this case, nonpartisans – having disappeared, it is slightly larger today than in the 1970s.
Similarly, if one thinks about polarization in ideological terms, the American public looked about the same as it did in the 1970s. The proportion of self-identified liberals – always the least popular label (Free and Cantril 1967; Ellis and Stimson 2012) – trails the proportion of conservatives, which with a few small exceptions, trails the modal category – moderates. Again, the middle has not disappeared.
If one thinks about polarization in terms of specific policy issues, the picture is less definitive because we do not have lengthy time series of data such as those previously described. But most data shows the American public clustering in the center, as on the seven-point scales included in the American National Election Studies (ANES) graphed in Figure 3.
The invasive stink bug Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) has recently become established in Canada, but little information is available regarding the ability of natural enemies to attack this pest in its invaded range. We tested the capacity of several life stages of three generalist predators, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), to attack H. halys eggs. The relative susceptibility of H. halys eggs to predator attack was compared to P. maculiventris eggs. We found evidence for differential ability to consume H. halys and P. maculiventris eggs both among predator species and within species among life stages. The most H. halys eggs were consumed by late-instar C. carnea, while fewest were consumed by second-instar and adult C. maculata, and second-instar C. carnea. The susceptibility of H. halys eggs to predators was similar to that of P. maculiventris eggs, with only early-instar P. maculiventris nymphs consuming significantly less H. halys eggs than P. maculiventris eggs. Our results provide a baseline for further testing of generalist predators against H. halys and illustrate the potential importance of considering the breadth of ontogeny across which candidates are able to attack the invasive pest.
The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
The emergence of epidemic cholera in post-earthquake Haiti portended a public health disaster of uncertain magnitude. In order to coordinate relief efforts in an environment with limited healthcare infrastructure and stretched resources, timely and realistic projections of the extent of the cholera outbreak were crucial. Projections were shared with Government and partner organizations beginning 5 days after the first reported case and were updated using progressively more advanced methods as more surveillance data became available. The first projection estimated that 105 000 cholera cases would occur in the first year. Subsequent projections using different methods estimated up to 652 000 cases and 163 000–247 000 hospitalizations during the first year. Current surveillance data show these projections to have provided reasonable approximations of the observed epidemic. Providing the real-time projections allowed Haitian ministries and external aid organizations to better plan and implement response measures during the evolving epidemic.
While the summit of the Antarctic Plateau has long been expected to harbor the best ground-based sites for terahertz (THz) frequency astronomical investigations, it is only recently that direct observations of exceptional THz atmospheric transmission and stability have been obtained. These observations, in combination with recent technological advancements in astronomical instrumentation and autonomous field platforms, make the recognition and realization of terahertz observatories on the high plateau feasible and timely. Here, we will explore the context of terahertz astronomy in the era of Herschel, and the crucial role that observatories on the Antarctic Plateau can play. We explore the important scientific questions to which observations from this unique environment may be most productively applied. We examine the importance and complementarity of Antarctic THz astronomy in the light of contemporary facilities such as ALMA, CCAT, SOFIA and (U)LDB ballooning. Finally, building from the roots of THz facilities in Antarctica to present efforts, we broadly highlight future facilities that will exploit the unique advantages of the Polar Plateau and provide a meaningful, lasting astrophysical legacy.
Canada thistle is difficult to manage in organic farming systems and others with reduced reliance on herbicides. Previous field studies found that defoliation or sudangrass interference suppressed Canada thistle. Our objective was to understand the factors causing suppression of Canada thistle observed in the field. Three greenhouse studies were conducted utilizing frequency of defoliation, sudangrass interference and defoliation, and interspecific phytotoxicity to discern mechanisms of Canada thistle suppression. Increased defoliation frequency (up to four defoliations) decreased Canada thistle shoot height, shoot and root mass, and root-to-shoot ratio. Plants with larger root mass had greater shoot mass and number (r = 0.87 and 0.73, respectively), indicating a probable interdependence of root size (carbohydrate reserves), bud density, and subsequent shoot growth. In the sudangrass interference and defoliation study, Canada thistle shoot dry mass was 38.7, 2.76, and 0.39 g pot−1 in the defoliation only, sudangrass interference only, and defoliation + interference + surface mulch treatments, respectively. Sudangrass interference by itself was effective in suppressing thistle growth; combining interference with defoliation did not further reduce growth (2.76 and 2.83 g pot−1, respectively). In the experiment minimizing interspecific competition, we found no evidence of sudangrass having a phytotoxic effect on Canada thistle. Overall results indicate that sudangrass competition or frequent shoot removal suppresses growth of Canada thistle.
In 2008 journalist Bill Bishop achieved the kind of notice that authors dream about. His book, The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart, was mentioned regularly during the presidential campaign; most notably, former president Bill Clinton urged audiences to read the book. Bishop's thesis is that Americans increasingly are choosing to live in neighborhoods populated with people just like themselves. In turn, these residential choices have produced a significant increase in geographic political polarization. Bishop does not contend that people consciously decide to live with fellow Democrats or Republicans; rather political segregation is a byproduct of the correlations between political views and the various demographic and life-style indicators people consider when making residential decisions. Whatever the cause, Bishop contends that the resulting geographic polarization is a troubling and dangerous development.
Patients in the emergency department (ED) who have been admitted to hospital (inpatient “boarders”) are associated with ED overcrowding. They are also a symptom of a hospital-wide imbalance between demand and supply of resources. We analyzed the trends of inpatient admissions, ED boarding volumes, lengths of stay and bed resources of 3 major admitting services at our teaching institution.
We used hospital databases from Jan. 1, 2004, to Dec. 31, 2007, to analyze ED visits that resulted in admission to hospital.
During the study period, 21 986 ED patients were admitted to hospital. The percentage of cancer-related admissions to the oncology admitting service decreased from 48% in 2004 to 24% in 2007, and admissions to general internal medicine (GIM) increased nearly 2-fold, from 28% in 2004 to 54% in 2007. In addition, GIM admitted about 10% more myocardial infarction and heart failure patients than did cardiology. General internal medicine constituted the majority of ED boarders and had a median boarding length of stay of approximately 15 hours. Inpatient beds on oncology and cardiology services remained static.
Without bed capacity to admit more patients, our specialty services relied on GIM to serve as a safety net. At the same time, GIM was cited as a main source of ED congestion as their patients occupied more ED beds for longer periods than any other admitting service. The data presented in this study has helped effect positive change within our institution. Other hospitals running at or near capacity and faced with similar ED congestion may apply the methods we used in this study to analyze the cause and nature of their situation.
Canada thistle is a perennial spreading weed that is difficult to control in farming systems with reduced reliance upon herbicides for weed management. Experiments were conducted from 2006 to 2008 at Champaign, IL, to evaluate the combined effects of summer annual cover crops and mowing on Canada thistle growth and survival. Whole plot treatments were fallow, buckwheat, sudangrass–cowpea mixture (MIX), and sudangrass. The subplot treatments were mowing frequencies (0 to 2 times). Cover crop and mowing did not interact to suppress Canada thistle. MIX and sudangrass produced more standing biomass, greater regrowth, and more surface mulch following mowing than the buckwheat. A single season with sudangrass or MIX reduced Canada thistle shoot density and mass to less than 20% of the initial values through two growing seasons. Mowing alone only suppressed Canada thistle shoot density and mass on the site with greater initial density. A sudangrass or MIX cover crop alone or combined with mowing suppresses Canada thistle, but intensive management must continue for several years to eliminate patches.
Ice-core records of methanesulphonic acid (MSA) provide a potentially powerful tool for producing proxy records of sea ice, a critical but poorly understood component of the Earth’s climate system. However, MSA is able to diffuse through solid ice, and here we examine the effect of two different methods of frozen storage on the preservation of MSA in archived ice-core samples. Re-analysis of archived ice sticks confirms that MSA diffuses out of ice cores archived in this manner. Despite MSA losses of up to 39% after 7 years storage, the ice sticks studied here preserve much of the variability of the original MSA record, suggesting that useful proxy records can be obtained from archived ice sticks. Furthermore, re-analysis of ice-core samples that had been refrozen into discrete bottled samples for storage demonstrates that it is possible to archive ice samples in a way that prevents MSA loss. In this case, accurate records of MSA variability and concentration were preserved even over storage periods of 15 years. This has important implications for the storage of ice cores and subsequent determination of MSA, and demonstrates that ice storage history needs to be considered when interpreting MSA records.
Linda A. Teplin, Owen L. Coon Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Director Psycho-Legal Studies Program Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University 710 N. Lake Shore Drive Room 900 Chicago, IL 60611 USA,
Karen M. Abram, Assistant Professor, Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, USA,
Gary M. McClelland, Research Assistant Professor, Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, USA,
Amy A. Mericle, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, USA,
Mina K. Dulcan, Osterman Professor of Psychiatry, Behavioral Sciences, and Pediatrics Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, USA,
Jason J. Washburn, Research Assistant Professor, Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, USA,
Shiraz Butt, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Rush University Medical Center Marshall Field IV Building 1720 West Polk Street Chicago, IL 60612 USA
A comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among juvenile detainees is an important step toward meeting their needs. Although epidemiological data are key to understanding the psychiatric disorders of juvenile detainees, few empirical studies exist. This chapter lists studies published in the United States since 1990 that examined the diagnostic characteristics of incarcerated and detained juveniles. The Northwestern Juvenile Project was designed to overcome the methodological limitations in two ways. Four directions for future research are recommended: pathways to co-morbidity, studies of females in the juvenile justice system, longitudinal studies, and studies of vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in high-risk youth. Research findings indicate that a substantial number of youth in detention need mental health services. However, providing services within the juvenile justice system poses a number of challenges: screening for mental health needs, providing services, community linkages, and avoid retraumatizing youth.
Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches.
By Nolan McCarty, Keith T. Poole, and Howard Rosenthal. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press, 2006. 240p. $35.00.
Hyperbole was rampant in the aftermath of the 2000 elections. Pundits,
politicos, and journalists asserted that the United States was in the
midst of a culture war. The country appeared to be polarized to many, and
this polarization reached a crescendo in 2000, with the now
“classic” red/blue map of the continental United States
serving as the iconic image of this divide and with blabocrats and
politicians alike all pronouncing the end of centrism. Notably absent in
all this discussion, though, was actual empirical evidence, a sense of
historical perspective, and a meaningful explanation for this apparent
polarization beyond sophomoric cries of cultural wars and diverging
beliefs about morality. While political science as a discipline had
considerable expertise to bear on this “cultural divide,” the
discipline had remained fairly quiet on this polarization.
Few data have evaluated Zn balance in young children after the first year of life. The objective of the present study was to study the relationships among Zn intake, absorption, endogenous faecal excretion, and retention in a group of healthy children. Thirty children, aged 15–48 months, were studied on a diet representative of their usual daily mineral intake. Zn absorption was assessed using a dual-tracer stable-isotope technique. Endogenous Zn faecal excretion and Cu absorption were determined in a subset of children. We found that Zn intake from the in-patient weighed dietary record (5·0 (sd 2·1) mg/d) was significantly greater than the current estimated average requirement (EAR; 2·5 mg/d; P < 0·0001). Neither fractional Zn absorption, urinary Zn excretion, nor endogenous faecal Zn excretion was significantly related to Zn intake (r2 < 0·1; P>0·4, for all). Absolute Zn absorption was significantly related to Zn intake (r2 0·696; P < 0·0001), as was Zn retention (r2 0·506; P < 0·0001). Cu absorption was relatively high (75·1 (sd 10·8) %) despite the high Zn intake. The EAR for Zn based on this dataset would appear to be between 4·2 and 4·7 mg/d to allow for a net average retention of 120 μg/d consistent with growth needs. We concluded that at relatively high Zn intakes there was little evidence of down regulation of absorption or up regulation of urinary or endogenous faecal Zn excretion across the intake range studied. Zn retention was positively correlated with intake. A Zn intake between 4·2 and 4·7 mg/d should meet the requirement for normal growth for this age group.
Immune responses influence the development and progression of a malignancy. The tumour can also manipulate the immune system to its own ends, often resulting in an ineffective or transient antitumour response. An appreciation of the complexity of these host–tumour interactions is therefore important for the development of more-effective cancer therapies. This article highlights some prominent mechanisms whereby tumours escape recognition and destruction by the host immune system, thus facilitating disease progression. One important consequence of tumour escape is that an antitumour immune response may unintentionally lead to the outgrowth of less immunogenic or more apoptosis-resistant tumour escape variants, which possess enhanced tumourigenic potential. Insights into the molecular mechanisms of cancer evasion and the complexity of the ever-changing interactions between host and tumour will enable a more rational design of antitumour therapies and may help not only explain disease recurrence, but also identify potential targets for therapeutic interventions. This article also offers a brief review of preclinical animal models, which are essential tools in the study of tumour immunology and cancer biology, particularly those that recapitulate the chronic nature of host–tumour interactions and help guide the development and testing of new therapies.