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For close to a century, experiments using artificial languages (hereafter ALs) have been a staple of psycholinguistic research (Esper, 1925). Contemporary AL research has spanned numerous levels of linguistic inquiry, from phonetic learning through syntax (see Culbertson & Schuler, 2019). This approach has also been successfully applied across development, from infants and children (see Saffran & Kirkham, 2018) through older adults (e.g., Schwab, Schuler, Stillman, Newport, Howard & Howard, 2016), even spanning cross-species comparisons (e.g., Wilson, Slater, Kikuchi, Milne, Marslen-Wilson, Smith & Petkov, 2013). Given the proliferation of AL methods for investigating issues related to first language acquisition, it is not surprising that research on bilingualism has also embraced this approach. This special themed section comprises four concise review articles describing how AL research has informed questions related to bilingualism and second language learning. The articles also discuss the strengths and limitations of this approach, as well as pointing to future directions for the field.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Studies of statistical learning have shaped our understanding of the processes involved in the early stages of language acquisition. Many of these advances were made using experimental paradigms with artificial languages that allow for careful manipulation of the statistical regularities in the input. This article summarizes how these paradigms have begun to inform bilingualism research. We focus on two complementary goals that have emerged from studies of statistical learning in bilinguals. The first is to identify whether bilinguals differ from monolinguals in how they track distributional regularities. The second is determining how learners are capable of tracking multiple inputs, which arguably is an important facet of becoming proficient in more than one language.
We investigated a large multistate outbreak that occurred in the United States in 2015–2016. Epidemiologic, laboratory, and traceback studies were conducted to determine the source of the infections. We identified 907 case-patients from 40 states with illness onset dates ranging from July 3, 2015 to March 2, 2016. Sixty-three percent of case-patients reported consuming cucumbers in the week before illness onset. Ten illness sub-clusters linked to events or purchase locations were identified. All sub-clusters investigated received cucumbers from a single distributor which were sourced from a single grower in Mexico. Seventy-five cucumber samples were collected, 19 of which yielded the outbreak strain. Whole genome sequencing performed on 154 clinical isolates and 19 cucumber samples indicated that the sequenced isolates were closely related genetically to one another. This was the largest US foodborne disease outbreak in the last ten years and the third largest in the past 20 years. This was at least the fifth multistate outbreak caused by contaminated cucumbers since 2010. The outbreak is noteworthy because a recall was issued only 17 days after the outbreak was identified, which allowed for the removal of the contaminated cucumbers still available in commerce, unlike previous cucumber associated outbreaks. The rapid identification and response of multiple public health agencies resulted in preventing this from becoming an even larger outbreak.
Objectives: A growing body of research suggests that regular participation in long-term exercise is associated with enhanced cognitive function. However, less is known about the beneficial effects of acute exercise on semantic memory. This study investigated brain activation during a semantic memory task after a single session of exercise in healthy older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, 26 participants (ages, 55–85 years) underwent two experimental visits on separate days. During each visit, participants engaged in 30 min of rest or stationary cycling exercise immediately before performing a Famous and Non-Famous name discrimination task during fMRI scanning. Results: Acute exercise was associated with significantly greater semantic memory activation (Famous>Non-Famous) in the middle frontal, inferior temporal, middle temporal, and fusiform gyri. A planned comparison additionally showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral hippocampus after exercise compared to rest. These effects were confined to correct trials, and as expected, there were no differences between conditions in response time or accuracy. Conclusions: Greater brain activation following a single session of exercise suggests that exercise may increase neural processes underlying semantic memory activation in healthy older adults. These effects were localized to the known semantic memory network, and thus do not appear to reflect a general or widespread increase in brain blood flow. Coupled with our prior exercise training effects on semantic memory-related activation, these data suggest the acute increase in neural activation after exercise may provide a stimulus for adaptation over repeated exercise sessions. (JINS, 2019, 25, 557–568)
An epitaxial NdFeAs(O,F) thin film of 90 nm thickness grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO single crystal with Tc = 44.2 K has been investigated regarding a possible vortex glass–liquid transition. The voltage–current characteristics show excellent scalability according to the vortex-glass model with a static critical exponent ν of around 1.35 and a temperature-dependent dynamic exponent z increasing from 7.8 to 9.0 for the investigated temperature range. The large and non-constant z values are discussed in the frame of 3D vortex glass, thermally activated flux motion, and inhomogeneity broadening.
Foodborne non-typhoidal salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the USA. In April 2015, we investigated a multistate outbreak of 65 Salmonella Paratyphi B variant L(+) tartrate(+) infections associated with frozen raw tuna imported from Indonesia, which was consumed raw in sushi. Forty-six (92%) of 50 case-patients interviewed ate sushi during the week before illness onset, and 44 (98%) of 45 who specified ate sushi containing raw tuna. Two outbreak strains were isolated from the samples of frozen raw tuna. Traceback identified a single importer as a common source of tuna consumed by case-patients; this importer issued three voluntary recalls of tuna sourced from one Indonesian processor. Four Salmonella Weltevreden infections were also linked to this outbreak. Whole-genome sequencing was useful in establishing a link between Salmonella isolated from ill people and tuna. This outbreak highlights the continuing foodborne illness risk associated with raw seafood consumption, the importance of processing seafood in a manner that minimises contamination with pathogenic microorganisms and the continuing need to ensure imported foods are safe to eat. People at higher risk for foodborne illness should not consume undercooked animal products, such as raw seafood.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) psychotherapy research has failed to identify patient characteristics that consistently predict differential outcome.
To identify patient characteristics associated with differential outcome via a statistically generated composite moderator among women with childhood abuse-related PTSD in a randomised controlled trial comparing exposure therapy, skills training and their combination.
Six baseline patient characteristics were combined in a composite moderator of treatment effects for PTSD symptoms across the three treatment conditions through a 6-month follow-up.
The optimal moderator was the combined burden of all symptoms and emotion regulation strength. Those with high moderator scores, reflecting high symptom load relative to emotion regulation, did least well in exposure, moderately well in skills and best in the combination.
A clinically meaningful moderator, which combines patient symptom burden and strengths, was identified. Assessment at follow-up may provide a more accurate indicator of variability in outcome than that obtained immediately post-treatment.
Structural priming is poorly understood and cannot inform accounts of grammar for two reasons. First, those who view performance as grammar + processing will always be able to attribute psycholinguistic data to processing rather than grammar. Second, structural priming may be simply an example of hysteresis effects in general action planning. If so, then priming offers no special insight into grammar.
We present a study of the mechanical (in)stability of the ephemeral waterfall ice structures that form from the freezing of liquid water seeping on steep rock. Three vertical structures were studied, two near Glacier d’Argentière, France, and one in the Valsavarenche valley, northern Italy. The generation of internal stresses in the ice structure in relation to air- and ice-temperature conditions is analyzed from pressure sensor records. Their role in the mechanical instability of the structures is discussed from a photographic survey of these structures. The main result is that dramatic air cooling (several °Ch−1 over several hours) and low temperatures (<−10°C), generating tensile stresses and brittleness, can trigger a spontaneous or climber-induced mechanical collapse, leading to unfavorable climbing conditions. Ice internal pressure fluctuations are also associated with episodes of marked diurnal air-temperature cycle, with mild days (few above 0) and cool nights (few below 0), through the occurrence of water ↔ ice phase transitions within the structure. These ice internal stress fluctuations seem, however, to have a local influence, are associated with warm (near 0), wet and therefore particularly soft ice and do not trigger a collapse of the structure.
For the first time, to our knowledge, a scientific study of the formation and evolution of waterfall ice, the ephemeral ice structures that form from the freezing of liquid water seeping on steep rock, was performed. We surveyed and analysed three waterfall ice structures near Glacier d’Argentière, Mont Blanc massif, France, between winter 2007 and spring 2009. We reconstruct the global evolution of two vertical ice structures using automatic digital cameras, while the internal ice microstructure was analysed using ice coring and sampling. Macro- and microstructural observations are considered, along with temperature conditions recorded at a nearby meteorological station and directly within the ice structure. They reveal that vertical structures initially grow rapidly from the aggregation of stalactites with microstructures indicative of temperature conditions during their crystallization. After this initial stage, the volume of the ice structure reaches an asymptotic value, as water continues to flow inside the structure, isolated from the outside cold ice; the outer surface remains dry. At the end of the season, the collapse of the free-standing structure does not occur by progressive melting, but is initiated by a horizontal crack propagation at the top. The initiation of this crack seems to be triggered by a drastic temperature decrease.
We present techniques for obtaining large (∼100 L STP) samples of ancient air for analysis of 14C of methane (14CH4)and other trace constituents. Paleoatmospheric 14CH4 measurements should constrain the fossil fraction of past methane budgets, as well as provide a definitive test of methane clathrate involvement in large and rapid methane concentration ([CH4]) increases that accompanied rapid warming events during the last deglaciation. Air dating to the Younger Dryas–Preboreal and Oldest Dryas–Bølling abrupt climatic transitions was obtained by melt extraction from old glacial ice outcropping at an ablation margin in West Greenland. The outcropping ice and occluded air were dated using a combination of δ15N of N2, δ18O of O2, δ18Oice and [CH4] measurements. The [CH4] blank of the melt extractions was <4 ppb. Measurements of δ18O and δ15N indicated no significant gas isotopic fractionation from handling. Measured Ar/N2, CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the samples indicated no significant contamination from ambient air. Ar/N2, Kr/Ar and Xe/Ar ratios in the samples were used to quantify effects of gas dissolution during the melt extractions and correct the sample [CH4]. Corrected [CH4] is elevated over expected values by up to 132 ppb for most samples, suggesting some in situ CH4 production in ice at this site.
In this paper we explore simulated responses of electromagnetic (EM) signals relative to in situ field surveys and quantify the effects that different values of conductivity in sea ice have on the EM fields. We compute EM responses of ice types with a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-volume discretization of Maxwell’s equations and present 2-D sliced visualizations of their associated EM fields at discrete frequencies. Several interesting observations result: First, since the simulator computes the fields everywhere, each gridcell acts as a receiver within the model volume, and captures the complete, coupled interactions between air, snow, sea ice and sea water as a function of their conductivity; second, visualizations demonstrate how 1-D approximations near deformed ice features are violated. But the most important new finding is that changes in conductivity affect EM field response by modifying the magnitude and spatial patterns (i.e. footprint size and shape) of current density and magnetic fields. These effects are demonstrated through a visual feature we define as ‘null lines’. Null line shape is affected by changes in conductivity near material boundaries as well as transmitter location. Our results encourage the use of null lines as a planning tool for better ground-truth field measurements near deformed ice types.
Angiogenesis is a critical component during wound healing, and the process is sensitive to mechanical stimuli. Current in vitro culture environments used to investigate three-dimensional microvascular growth often lack dimensional stability and the ability to withstand compression. We investigated the ability of decorin (DCN), a proteoglycan known to modulate collagen fibrillogenesis, incorporated into a collagen hydrogel to increase construct dimensional stability while maintaining vascular growth. DCN did not affect microvascular growth parameters, while increasing the compressive modulus of collagen gels and significantly reducing the contraction of 3% collagen gels after 16 days in culture.
The ice volume evolution of a frozen waterfall (or ice cascade) was studied using a thermodynamic model. The model was developed from meteorological data collected in the vicinity of the waterfall and validated from ice volume measurements estimated from terrestrial lidar images. The ice cascade forms over a 45 m high rock wall located in northern Gaspésie, Québec, Canada. Two stages of formation were identified. During the first stage, the growth is mainly controlled by air convection around the flowing and free-falling water. The ice cascade growth rate increases with decreasing air temperature below 0°C and when the water flow reaches its lowest level. During the second stage, the ice cascade covers the entire rock-wall surface, water flow is isolated from the outside environment and ice volume increases asymptotically. Heat is evacuated from the water flow through the ice cover by conduction. The growth is controlled mainly by the conductive heat loss through the ice cover but also by the longwave radiation emitted at the ice surface during the night. In spring, melting of the ice cascade is dependent on the air convection over the ice surface but also on the sensible heat carried by the increasing water flow and the solar radiation received during the day.
Mycobacterium marinum, a bacterium found in freshwater and saltwater, can infect persons with direct exposure to fish or aquariums. During December 2013, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene learned of four suspected or confirmed M. marinum skin or soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among persons who purchased whole fish from Chinese markets. Ninety-eight case-patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) SSTIs were identified with onset June 2013–March 2014. Of these, 77 (79%) were female. The median age was 62 years (range 30–91). Whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates revealed two main clusters and marked genetic diversity. Environmental samples from distributors yielded NTM though not M. marinum. We compared 56 case-patients with 185 control subjects who shopped in Chinese markets, frequency-matched by age group and sex. Risk factors for infection included skin injury to the finger or hand (odds ratio [OR]: 15·5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6·9–37·3), hand injury while preparing fish or seafood (OR 8·3; 95% CI 3·8–19·1), and purchasing tilapia (OR 3·6; 95% CI 1·1–13·9) or whiting (OR 2·7; 95% CI 1·1–6·6). A definitive environmental outbreak source was not identified.
There is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.
To assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.
Mixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.
Mixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.
The CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.