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Previous studies attest that early bilinguals can modify their perceptual identification according to the fine-grained phonetic detail of the language they believe they are hearing. Following Gonzales et al. (2019), we replicate the double phonemic boundary effect in late learners (LBs) using conceptual-based cueing. We administered a forced choice identification task to 169 native English adult learners of Spanish in two sessions. In both sessions, participants identified the same /b/-/p/ voicing continuum, but language context was cued conceptually using the instructions. The data were analyzed using Bayesian multilevel regression. Learners categorized the continuum in a similar manner when they believed they were hearing English. However, when they believed they were hearing Spanish, “voiceless” responses increased as a function of L2 proficiency. This research demonstrates the double phonemic boundary effect can be conceptually cued in LBs and supports accounts positing selective activation of independent perception grammars in L2 learning.
Prevalence of cardiovascular disease is high in schizophrenia. Our aim is to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) among schizophrenia patients.
National cross-sectional study in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia under treatment with second generation antipsychotics and admitted to short-stay hospitalisation units.
A sample of 733 consecutively admitted patients was enrolled; the most prevalent CVRFs were smoking 71% (95% CI: 67–74%) and hypercholesterolemia 66% (61–70%) followed by hypertriglyceridemia 26% (26–32%), hypertension 18% (15–21%) and diabetes 5% (4–7%). Metabolic syndrome showed 19% (95% CI: 16–23%) prevalence or, according to updated definitions (Clin Cornerstone 7  36–45), 24% (95% CI: 20–28%). The rate of patients within the high-risk range of a 10-year fatal cardiovascular event was 6.5%. CVRFs under routine management were diabetes (60%), hypertension (28%) and, to a lesser extent, dyslipemia (14%). Treatment for CVRFs was associated to gender, men for hypertension OR = 25.34, p < 0.03 and women for diabetes OR = 0.02, p < 0.03.
We found that CVRFs in schizophrenia were prevalent and under-diagnosed, and thus with insufficient therapeutic management.
Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical spectrum of musical hallucinations.
We analysed demographic and clinical features of cases published in English, Italian, French or Spanish between 1991 and 2006 registered in MEDLINE, including three of our own cases. The cases were separated into four groups according to their main diagnoses (hearing impairment; psychiatric disorder; neurological disorder; toxic or metabolic disorder).
115 patients with musical hallucinations were included, of which 63.5% were female. The mean age was 57,25 years. Main diagnoses were: psychiatric disorder (46.1%; schizophrenia 30.4%), neurological disorder (21,7%), hearing impairment (17,4%), toxic or metabolic disorder (12.2%) and 2.6% other diagnoses.
61.7% patients presented simple diagnoses while 36.5% presented two or more diagnoses. 2.1% of patients didn't receive any diagnoses. 35.7% of patients and 60.9% of non psychiatric patients presented hearing impairment.
Both instrumental and vocal were the more frequent musical hallucinations and most of the patients had insight about the abnormality of their perceptions. Another kind of hallucinations was present in 40.9% of patients, auditory hallucinations being the most common. Also, 38,3% of the global sample had abnormalities in brain structural image (MRI, CT).
Musical hallucinations are a heterogeneous phenomenon in clinical practice. published cases describe them as more common in women and in psychiatric and neurological patients. Hearing impairment seem to be an important risk factor in the development of musical hallucinations.
Eye movement recordings can provide information about higher-level processing of visual information. Recent evidence shows a novel role for eye vergence in orienting attention (Solé Puig et al., 2013). Based on such eye tracking data, the BGaze method (Braingaze; Spain) detects visual attention. The outcomes of the BGaze method have been applied to classify ADHD patients from healthy controls.
In this study, we validated the BGaze method.
We therefore recorded eye movements in children while performing a visual detection task.
We evaluated the BGaze method using 4 types of supervised machine learning algorithms. In total, 138 different trained models were tested. Nineteen ADHD diagnosed patients (children 7–14 years of age) and 19 healthy age matched controls were used to build the 138 models. We performed 30 times repeated random sub-sampling validation. In each repeated random split, training set consisted of 80% of the data and test set of the remaining 20%. Finally, all the 138 models were tested with a validation set consisting of 232 children, including 22 ADHD patients.
Across all the 138 models, BGaze method showed an average accuracy of 90.84% (minimum 86.21%; maximum, 95.26%) and an average AUC of 0.95 (minimum 0.90; maximum, 0.97). Best models gave accuracies of 92%, AUCs of 0.96 and FN and FP rates of 4.3% and 7.5%, respectively. Mean scores during the training-testing phase averaged 99.63%.
The BGaze method is robust, accurate, and can provide an objective tool supporting the clinical diagnosis of ADHD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In Mexico, physicians have become part of public service prehospital care. Head injured patients are a sensitive group that can benefit from early advanced measures to protect the airway, with the objective to reduce hypoxia and maintain normocapnia.
The occurrence of endotracheal intubation to patients with severe head injuries by prehospital physicians working at Mexico City’s Service of Emergency Medical Care (SAMU) is unknown.
A retrospective analysis of five-year data (2012-2016) from Mexico City’s Medical Emergencies Regulation Center was performed. Only SAMU ambulance services were analyzed. Adult patients with a prehospital diagnosis of head injury based on mechanism of injury and physical examination with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) <nine were included.
A total of 293 cases met the inclusion criteria; the mean GCS was five points. Of those, 150 (51.1%) patients were intubated. There was no difference in the occurrence of intubation among the different GCS scales, or if the patient was considered to have isolated head trauma versus polytrauma. Fifteen patients were intubated using sedation and neuromuscular blockage. Four patients were intubated with sedation alone and six patients with neuromuscular blockage alone. One patient was intubated using opioid analgesia, sedation, and neuromuscular blockage.
Patients with severe head injuries cared by prehospital physicians in Mexico City were intubated 51.1% of the time and were more likely to be intubated without the assistance of anesthetics.
Non-noble metal bifunctional nanocatalysts based on CoFe2O4/C were synthetized by the electrospinning method and evaluated for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) and the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). The effect of annealing at different temperatures (T=300, 600 and 900°C) on their morphological and structural features was characterized by XRD, EDS, Raman, FESEM, HRTEM and XPS. The nanofibers annealed at 300 °C (CoFe2O4-300) showed a cubic spinel structure and an average diameter of 42 nm. The CoFe2O4-300/C nanocatalyst demonstrated the highest catalytic activity towards the OER, outperforming the benchmark commercial 20 wt. % Pt/C. Meanwhile all CoFe2O4-based nanocatalysts showed fair catalytic activity for the ORR (Eonset ≈ 0.801 V/RHE, n≈ 3.56, %HO2- ≈ 21-39). In addition, the CoFe2O4/C nanocatalysts demonstrated a higher electrochemical stability than Pt/C for both the ORR and the OER.
A new species of the genus Plagiorhynchus Lühe, 1911 from the intestine of the long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus) from northern Mexico is described. Plagiorhynchus (Plagiorhynchus) aznari n. sp. is morphologically distinguished from other congeneric species from the Americas by having a trunk expanded anteriorly and a cylindrical proboscis, armed with 19 longitudinal rows of hooks, with 14–15 hooks each row. Nearly complete sequences of the small subunit and large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of the new species were determined and compared with available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the two molecular markers consistently showed that P. (Plagiorhynchus) aznari n. sp. is closely related to P. (Plagiorhynchus) allisonae, and this clade is sister to a clade formed by P. (Prosthorhynchus) transversus and P. (Prosthorhynchus) cylindraceus from Plagiorhynchidae. The new species represents the second record of the genus in Mexico and the fourth species in the Americas. The phylogenetic relationships among the members of the order Polymorphida in this study provide significant insights into the evolution of ecological associations between parasites and their definitive hosts. Our analyses suggest that the colonization of marine mammals, fish-eating birds and waterfowl in Polymorphidae might have occurred independently, from a common ancestor of Centrorhynchidae and Plagiorhynchidae that colonized terrestrial birds and mammals.
Cephalopods are important prey in the diet of top predators, such as marine mammals and seabirds. However, detailed information on their trophic relationships in the Patagonian marine ecosystem is scarce, including those cephalopod species with commercial interest. The aims of this study were to evaluate the composition of the cephalopod component in the diet of Otaria byronia and determine the habitat use and trophic levels of their main cephalopod prey by measuring the stable isotopic signature of cephalopod beaks. Between May 2005 and February 2009, fresh faecal samples were collected from two sea lions rookeries in San Matias Gulf. Cephalopods occurred in 39.4% of the 1112 samples collected during the whole period of study. The dominant prey species was Octopus tehuelchus, which occurred in 45.8% of scats containing cephalopod remains, and represented 58.7% in terms of numerical abundance and 52.0% in mass of cephalopods consumed. The second species most consumed was the myopsid Doryteuthis gahi. The significant higher δ15N values of O. tehuelchus beaks in comparison with those of D. gahi showed that these two species have different trophic levels while occupying similar habitat (δ13C values) in neritic waters of the Patagonian shelf.
We describe an algorithm that can fit the properties of the dwarf galaxy progenitor of a tidal stream, given the properties of that stream. We show that under ideal conditions (the Milky Way potential, the orbit of the dwarf galaxy progenitor, and the functional form of the dwarf galaxy progenitor are known exactly), the density and angular width of stars along the stream can be used to constrain the mass and radial profile of both the stellar and dark matter components of the progenitor dwarf galaxy that was ripped apart to create the stream. Our provisional fit for the parameters of the dwarf galaxy progenitor of the Orphan Stream indicates that it is less massive and has fewer stars than previous works have indicated.
The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.
The clinical and pathologic characterisation of two fatal cases of tick-borne rickettsiosis in rural (El Valle) and urban (City of Panama) Panama are described. Clinical and autopsy findings were non-specific, but the molecular analysis was used to identify Rickettsia rickettsii in both cases. No ticks were collected in El Valle, while in the urban case, R. rickettsii was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., representing the first molecular finding in this tick in Panama and Central America.
Information relating the severity of cognitive decline to the fall risk in institutionalized older adults is still scarce. This study aims to identify potential fall risk factors (medications, behavior, motor function, and neuropsychological disturbances) depending on the severity of cognitive impairment in nursing home residents.
A total of 1,167 nursing home residents (mean age 81.44 ± 8.26 years; 66.4% women) participated in the study. According to the MEC, (the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) three levels of cognitive impairment were established: mild (20–24) “MCI”, moderate (14–19) “MOCI”, and severe (≤14) “SCI”. Scores above 24 points indicated the absence cognitive impairment (NCI). Information regarding fall history and fall risk during the previous year was collected using standardized questionnaires and tests.
Sixty falls (34%) were registered among NCI participants and 417 (43%) among people with cognitive impairment (MCI: 35%; MOCI: 40%; SCI: 50%). A different fall risk model was observed for MCI, MOCI, SCI, and NCI patients. The results imply that the higher the level of cognitive impairment, the greater the number of falls (F1,481 = 113.852; Sig = 0.015), although the level of significance was not maintained when MOCI and SCI participants were compared. Depression, neuropsychiatric disturbances, autonomy constraints in daily life activity performance, and low functional mobility were factors closely associated with fall risk.
This study provides evidence indicating that fall risk factors do not hold a direct correlation with the level of cognitive impairment among elderly nursing home care residents.
From September 2000 to September 2001 the concentration of chlorophyll a, and the abundance and composition of the phytoplanktonic community was studied in a neritic station of the Mallorca Channel (Western Mediterranean). Sampling was performed approximately every 12 days. Chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton abundance reached maxima of 1.79 μg L−l and 352 cells mL−1, respectively. It was a relatively productive period, as a result of the high convective mixing in winter and the prevalence of northern waters during most of the cycle. Phytoplankton proliferations (chlorophyll a concentration >1 mg L−1) were detected in January, February, March and June. Those blooms mainly happened under the influence of northern waters, with the exception of the February proliferation, when mixing conditions were found. During bloom conditions it highlights the presence of coccolithophores as proliferation precursors. During no-bloom situations the phytoplankton community was mainly constituted by nanoplanktonic flagellated forms. The Winter Mixing period was dominated by different groups of nanoflagellates, including coccolithophores, undetermined flagellates and dinoflagellates. However, in the most oligotrophic conditions (from April until November) dinoflagellates were clearly dominant, except in the DCM in summer where diatoms prevailed.
Cortical thickness measurement offers an index of brain development processes. In healthy individuals, cortical thickness is reduced with increasing age and is related to cognitive decline. Cortical thinning has been reported in schizophrenia. Whether cortical thickness changes differently over time in patients and its impact on outcome remain unanswered.
Data were examined from 109 patients and 76 healthy controls drawn from the Santander Longitudinal Study of first-episode schizophrenia for whom adequate structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were available (n = 555 scans). Clinical and cognitive assessments and MRIs were acquired at three regular time points during a 3-year follow-up period. We investigated likely progressive cortical thickness changes in schizophrenia during the first 3 years after initiating antipsychotic treatment. The effects of cortical thickness changes on cognitive and clinical variables were also examined along with the impact of potential confounding factors.
There were significant diagnoses × scan time interaction main effects for total cortical thickness (F1,309.1 = 4.60, p = 0.033) and frontal cortical thickness (F1,310.6 = 5.30, p = 0.022), reflecting a lesser thinning over time in patients. Clinical and cognitive outcome was not associated with progressive cortical changes during the early years of the illness.
Cortical thickness abnormalities do not unswervingly progress, at least throughout the first years of the illness. Previous studies have suggested that modifiable factors may partly account for cortical thickness abnormalities. Therefore, the importance of implementing practical actions that may modify those factors and improve them over the course of the illness should be highlighted.
Early investigation of travel-related cases in an outbreak of an emerging infectious disease can provide useful information to epidemiologists to characterize the exposure, while they may differ in demographic profiles from cases reported in the country where the outbreak has occurred. During the spring 2011 E. coli outbreak in Germany, we proposed a methodological approach to collect a minimal set of demographic and clinical data that are relatively easy to obtain and available at an early stage of an outbreak investigation. Ninety-eight STEC O104 travel-related cases were reported in a survey by seven EU countries, Switzerland, Canada and the USA. We found a mean incubation period (n = 50) of 8·5 days, which confirmed previous estimations communicated by the Robert Koch Institute. No significant association was found between the duration of the incubation period and possible demographic and clinical factors, although the older the age, the shorter the incubation period that was observed. Such approach and observations are informative for further investigations of outbreaks of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli or other emerging infectious diseases.
To date, it is unclear whether chemical order (or disorder) is in any way connected to double exchange, electronic phase separation, or charge ordering (CO) in manganites. In this work, we carry out an atomic resolution study of the colossal magnetoresistant manganite La2−2xSr1+2xMn2O7 (LSMO). We combine aberration-corrected electron microscopy and spectroscopy with spectroscopic image simulations, to analyze cation ordering at the atomic scale in real space in a number of LSMO single crystals. We compare three different compositions within the phase diagram: a ferromagnetic metallic material (x=0.36), an insulating, antiferromagnetic charge ordered (AF-CO) compound (x=0.5), which also exhibits orbital ordering, and an additional AF sample (x=0.56). Detailed image simulations are essential to accurately quantify the degree of chemical ordering of these samples. We find a significant degree of long-range chemical ordering in all cases, which increases in the AF-CO range. However, the degree of ordering is never complete nor can it explain the strongly correlated underlying ordering phenomena. Our results show that chemical ordering over distinct crystallographic sites is not needed for electronic ordering phenomena to appear in manganites, and cannot by itself explain the complex electronic behavior of LSMO.