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The authors demonstrate that gold-binding peptides displayed on the outer membrane of Escherichia coli enhance bioelectrochemical charge transfer by binding gold nanoparticles. Microbial fuel cells were run with different gold-binding peptides displayed and with different nanoparticle sizes, and the results were correlated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of nanoparticle binding. When a gold-binding peptide is displayed and 5 nm gold nanoparticles are present, up to 4× power generation over E. coli not displaying a gold-binding peptide is observed. While an enhanced current is observed using the previously published M6G9, the largest enhancement is observed when a new longer peptide named M9G18 is used.
Objectives: The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is a complex measure of executive function that is frequently employed to investigate the schizophrenia spectrum. The successful completion of the task requires the interaction of multiple intact executive processes, including attention, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and concept formation. Considerable cognitive heterogeneity exists among the schizophrenia spectrum population, with substantive evidence to support the existence of distinct cognitive phenotypes. The within-group performance heterogeneity of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) on the WCST has yet to be investigated. A data-driven cluster analysis was performed to characterise WCST performance heterogeneity. Methods: Hierarchical cluster analysis with k-means optimisation was employed to identify homogenous subgroups in a sample of 210 schizophrenia spectrum participants. Emergent clusters were then compared to each other and a group of 194 healthy controls (HC) on WCST performance and demographic/clinical variables. Results: Three clusters emerged and were validated via altered design iterations. Clusters were deemed to reflect a relatively intact patient subgroup, a moderately impaired patient subgroup, and a severely impaired patient subgroup. Conclusions: Considerable within-group heterogeneity exists on the WCST. Identification of subgroups of patients who exhibit homogenous performance on measures of executive functioning may assist in optimising cognitive interventions. Previous associations found using the WCST among schizophrenia spectrum participants should be reappraised. (JINS, 2019, 25, 750–760)
Objectives: Antisaccade error rate has been proposed to be one of the most promising endophenotypes for schizophrenia. Increased error rate in patients has been associated with working memory, attention and other executive function impairments. The relationship between antisaccade error rate and other neuropsychological processes in patients compared to healthy controls has not been explored in depth. This study aimed to replicate the finding of heightened antisaccade error rate in patients and determine which cognitive processes were most strongly associated with antisaccade error rate in both patients and controls. In addition, the study investigated whether different antisaccade task paradigms engage different cognitive processes. Methods: One hundred and ninety-one participants (54 patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and 137 controls) completed the antisaccade task, which included both gap and step task parameters. Neuropsychological measures were obtained using the MCCB and the Stroop task. Results: The current study replicated a pronounced antisaccade error rate deficit in patients. In patients, working memory variance was most significantly associated with antisaccade errors made during the step condition, while attentional processes were most associated with errors made during the gap condition. In controls, overall global cognitive performance was most associated with antisaccade rates for both gap and step conditions. Conclusions: The current study demonstrates that in schizophrenia patients, but not controls, elevated antisaccade error rate is associated with attention and working memory, but not with global cognitive impairment or psychopathological processes. Our novel findings demonstrate that the gap and step conditions of the antisaccade task engage different cognitive processes. (JINS, 2019, 25, 174–183)
The ROSAT X-ray satellite mission and its X-ray telescope (XRT) are described by Trümper (1984). The characteristics of the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on ROSAT and its potential for studies of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) are discussed by Harris, Sumner, and Walker (1989, this volume). The energy range covered by the WFC is 0.06 keV to 0.21 keV (60 Å to 200 Å), whilst the XRT covers the higher energy range from 0.2 keV to 2 keV. Observations performed to date in this field have given rise to conflicting evidence on the location and nature of the 106 K gas, which is presumed to be the origin of the observed emission (see references in Harris, Sumner, and Walker, 1989, this volume).
The ROSAT X-ray astronomy satellite, due to be launched in early 1990, will carry two separate and complementary grazing-incidence telescopes with co-aligned axes. The German X-ray telescope (XRT) will cover the soft X-ray region in the range 0.15–2 keV (6–80 Å), while the U.K. XUV Wide Field Camera (WFC) will extend coverage to beyond 200 Å. The WFC is a joint project of Leicester and Birmingham Universities, the Mullard Space Science Laboratory, and the authors' institutes. The primary objective of ROSAT is to perform an all-sky survey over a period of six months. This will be followed by a guest-observer, “pointed” phase. We briefly discuss the sensitivity of the WFC to the soft X-ray/XUV background (SXRB) and the problems and techniques associated with distinguishing the astronomical background from other sources of background.
Prior studies suggest that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but effects of duration and remission of PTSD symptoms have rarely been evaluated.
We examined the association of time-updated PTSD symptom severity, remission and duration with incident CVD risk (552 confirmed myocardial infarctions or strokes) over 20 years in 49 859 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Among women who reported trauma on the Brief Trauma Questionnaire, PTSD symptoms, assessed by a screener, were classified by symptom severity and chronicity: (a) no symptoms, (b) 1–3 ongoing, (c) 4–5 ongoing, (d) 6–7 ongoing, (e) 1–3 remitted, (f) 4–7 remitted symptoms. Inverse probability weighting was used to estimate marginal structural logistic regression models, adjusting for time-varying and time-invariant confounders.
Compared with women with no trauma exposure, women with trauma/no PTSD [odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.65] and women with trauma/6–7 symptoms (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.08–2.63) had elevated risk of CVD; women with remitted symptoms did not have elevated CVD risk. Among women exposed to trauma, every 5 additional years of PTSD symptomology was associated with 9% higher CVD incidence compared with women with trauma/no PTSD.
The findings suggest that alleviating PTSD symptoms shortly after onset may attenuate CVD risk.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been declared ‘a life sentence’ based on evidence that the disorder leads to a host of physical health problems. Some of the strongest empirical research – in terms of methodology and findings – has shown that PTSD predicts higher risk of cardiometabolic diseases, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite mounting evidence, PTSD is not currently acknowledged as a risk factor by cardiovascular or endocrinological medicine. This view is unlikely to change absent compelling evidence that PTSD causally contributes to cardiometabolic disease. This review suggests that with developments in methods for epidemiological research and the rapidly expanding knowledge of the behavioral and biological effects of PTSD the field is poised to provide more definitive answers to questions of causality. First, we discuss methods to improve causal inference using the observational data most often used in studies of PTSD and health, with particular reference to issues of temporality and confounding. Second, we consider recent work linking PTSD with specific behaviors and biological processes, and evaluate whether these may plausibly serve as mechanisms by which PTSD leads to cardiometabolic disease. Third, we evaluate how looking more comprehensively into the PTSD phenotype provides insight into whether specific aspects of PTSD phenomenology are particularly relevant to cardiometabolic disease. Finally, we discuss new areas of research that are feasible and could enhance understanding of the PTSD–cardiometabolic relationship, such as testing whether treatment of PTSD can halt or even reverse the cardiometabolic risk factors causally related to CVD and T2D.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to hypertension, but most research on PTSD and hypertension is cross-sectional, and potential mediators have not been clearly identified. Moreover, PTSD is twice as common in women as in men, but understanding of the PTSD-hypertension relationship in women is limited. We examined trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms in relation to incident hypertension over 22 years in 47 514 civilian women in the Nurses’ Health Study II.
We used proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for new-onset hypertension (N = 15 837).
PTSD symptoms assessed with a screen were modestly associated with incident hypertension in a dose-response fashion after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared to women with no trauma exposure, women with 6–7 PTSD symptoms had the highest risk of developing hypertension (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.30), followed by women with 4–5 symptoms (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10–1.25), women with 1–3 symptoms (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06–1.18), and trauma-exposed women with no symptoms (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.09). Findings were maintained, although attenuated, adjusting for hypertension-relevant medications, medical risk factors, and health behaviors. Higher body mass index and antidepressant use accounted for 30% and 21% of the PTSD symptom-hypertension association, respectively.
Screening for hypertension and reducing unhealthy lifestyle factors, particularly obesity, in women with PTSD may hold promise for offsetting cardiovascular risk.
In the past 10 years, 6 classical novae have been observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We have begun a study of these objects using ultraviolet spectra obtained by IUE and optical spectra from nova surveys. We are using the results of this study to further our understanding of novae and stellar evolution.
Our study includes analysis of both the early, optically thick spectra using model atmospheres (Hauschildt et al. 1992), and the later nebular spectra using optimization of photoionization codes (Ferland 1996; James & Roos 1993). By analysing all the LMC novae in a consistent manner, we can compare their individual results and use their combined properties to calibrate Galactic novae. In addition, our studies can be used to determine the elemental abundances of the nova ejecta, the amount of mass ejected, and the contribution of novae to the ISM abundances. To date we have analysed Nova LMC 1988#1 (Schwarz et al. 1998) and Nova LMC 1990#1 (Vanlandingham et al. 1999), and have obtained preliminary results for Nova LMC 1991. The results of this work are presented in this poster.
Surveys with ISO (Kessler et al 1996), in particular with the CAM (Cesarsky et al 1996) and PHOT (Lemke et al 1996) instruments, will greatly extend our understanding of extra-galactic populations and their cosmological evolution. The main advantages that ISO surveys have over e.g IRAS are increased sensitivity/depth and wavelength coverage. Within the Guaranteed and Open Time programmes there are many field surveys which will efficiently map the limits in these parameters. In this talk I will briefly overview those surveys before concentrating in more detail on one survey in particular, the ISO survey of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF), to illustrate the kind of results that can be expected.
We describe the cases of two children who both presented in infancy with recurrent severe pulmonary hypertensive crises. Exhaustive clinical work-up failed to identify an underlying aetiology. The patients had no clinical response to steroids, immunoglobulins, or pulmonary vasodilators. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive invasive pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis. There was no evidence of pulmonary venous occlusive disease. Given the lethal nature of this condition, early consideration of referral to a lung transplant centre should be considered in selected patients.
We provide an introduction to enumerating and constructing invariants of group representations via character methods. The problem is contextualized via two case studies, arising from our recent work: entanglement invariants for characterizing the structure of state spaces for composite quantum systems; and Markov invariants, a robust alternative to parameter-estimation intensive methods of statistical inference in molecular phylogenetics.
Efficient emergency and disaster response is challenged by environmental conditions exceeding test reagent storage and operating specifications. We assessed the effectiveness of vial and foil packaging in preserving point-of-care (POC) glucose and lactate test strip performance in humid conditions.
Glucose and lactate test strips in both packaging were exposed to mean relative humidity of 97.0 ± 1.1% in an environmental chamber for up to 168 hours. At defined time points, stressed strips were removed and tested in pairs with unstressed strips using whole blood samples spiked to glucose concentrations of 60, 100, and 250 mg/dL (n = 20 paired measurements per level). A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare stressed and unstressed test strip measurements.
Stressed glucose and lactate test strip measurements differed significantly from unstressed strips, and were inconsistent between experimental trials. Median glucose paired difference was as high as 12.5 mg/dL at the high glucose test concentration. Median lactate bias was −0.2 mmol/L. Stressed strips from vial (3) and foil (7) packaging failed to produce results.
Both packaging designs appeared to protect glucose and lactate test strips for at least 1 week of high humidity stress. Documented strip failures revealed the need for improved manufacturing process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1–7)
Objective: To characterize the performance of glucose meter test strips using simulated dynamic temperature and humidity disaster conditions.
Methods: Glucose oxidase- and glucose dehydrogenase-based test strips were dynamically stressed for up to 680 hours using an environmental chamber to simulate conditions during Hurricane Katrina. Paired measurements vs control were obtained using 3 aqueous reagent levels for GMS1 and 2 for GMS2.
Results: Stress affected the performance of GMS1 at level 1 (P <. 01); and GMS2 at both levels (P <. 001), lowering GMS1 results but elevating GMS2 results. Glucose median-paired differences were elevated at both levels on GMS2 after 72 hours. Median-paired differences (stress minus control) were as much as −10 mg/dL (range, −65 to 33) at level 3 with GMS1, with errors as large as 21.9%. Glucose median-paired differences were as high as 5 mg/dL (range, −1 to 10) for level 1 on GMS2, with absolute errors up to 24.4%.
Conclusions: The duration of dynamic stress affected the performance of both GMS1 and GMS2 glucose test strips. Therefore, proper monitoring, handling, and storage of point-of-care (POC) reagents are needed to ensure their integrity and quality of actionable results, thereby minimizing treatment errors in emergency and disaster settings.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:232–240)