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Nematodes of the genus Physaloptera are globally distributed and more than 100 species are known. Their life cycle involves insects, including beetles, cockroaches and crickets, as intermediate hosts. This study describes a new species of Physaloptera and reports molecular phylogenetic analyses to determine its relationships within the family Physalopteridae. Physaloptera amazonica n. sp. is described from the stomach of the caviomorph rodent Proechimys gardneri collected in the Amazon rainforest in the state of Acre, Brazil. The species is characterized by the male having the first and second pair of sessile papillae asymmetrically placed, lacking a median papilla-like protuberance between the third pairs of sessile papillae, differentiated by size and shape of the spicules, while females have four uterine branches. For both nuclear 18S rRNA and MT-CO1 gene-based phylogenies, we recovered Turgida sequences forming a clade nested within Physaloptera, thus making Physaloptera paraphyletic to the exclusion of Turgida, suggesting that the latter may have evolved from the former monodelphic ancestral state to a derived polydelphic state, or that some species of Physaloptera may belong to different genera. Relationships between most taxa within Physaloptera were poorly resolved in our phylogenies, producing multifurcations or a star phylogeny. The star-like pattern may be attributed to evolutionary processes where past simultaneous species diversification events took place. Physaloptera amazonica n. sp. formed an independent lineage, separately from the other species of Physaloptera, thus supporting the status of a new species. However, all molecular data suggested a closer relationship with other Neotropical species. In conclusion, we added a new species to this already largely diverse genus Physaloptera, bringing new insights to its phylogenetic relationships. Further analyses, adding more species and markers, should provide a better understanding of the evolutionary history of physalopterids.
The establishment of an invasive species depends on reproductive success and dispersion capability in the new environment. One of the striking examples of invasion in urban environments is the mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 (Culicidae). The success of this species is primarily attributed to its ability to colonize urban environments, and some of the important adaptive strategies associated with this ability is the preference for humans as a blood source and intense occupation of residential (indoor) environments. This study evaluated the effects of location (indoor vs. outdoor) and water nutrient level (% organic matter) on the oviposition preference of A. aegypti in an urban environment. We used oviposition choice experiments to evaluate mosquito oviposition in containers holding 1:1 vs 1:0 ratios of water: organic matter placed indoors and outdoors. Eggs were sampled once per week for nine weeks. Our results revealed a strong oviposition preference for outdoor containers, with a significant preference for containers with higher concentrations of organic matter during the fifth to ninth weeks. However, mosquitoes occupying indoor environments did not prefer to lay eggs in containers with lower levels of organic matter. A better understanding of the preferences of A. aegypti regarding the nutrient level and location of oviposition containers can increase our understanding of the behavioral factors allowing mosquitoes to utilize anthropogenic environments.
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected parasitic condition endemic in the Americas caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Patients present an acute phase that may or not be symptomatic, followed by lifelong chronic stage, mostly indeterminate, or with cardiac and/or digestive progressive lesions. Benznidazole (BZ) and nifurtimox are the only drugs approved for treatment but not effective in the late chronic phase and many strains of the parasite are naturally resistant. New alternative therapy is required to address this serious public health issue. Repositioning and combination represent faster, and cheaper trial strategies encouraged for neglected diseases. The effect of imatinib (IMB), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed for use in neoplasias, was assessed in vitro on T. cruzi and mammalian host cells. In comparison with BZ, IMB was moderately active against different strains and forms of the parasite. The combination IMB + BZ in fixed-ratio proportions was additive. Novel 14 derivatives of IMB were screened and a 3,2-difluoro-2-phenylacetamide (3e) was as potent as BZ on T. cruzi but had low selectivity index. The results demonstrate the importance of phenotypic assays, encourage the improvement of IMB derivatives to reach selectivity and testify to the use of repurposing and combination in drug screening for CD.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of genetic and environment influences and sex on injury involvement using two sets of Finnish twin data. The younger participants were 955 twins born between 1983 and 1987, aged 20 to 24 years. The older participants were 12,428 twins born between 1930 and 1957, aged 33 to 60 years. Within-twin correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggested that genetic effects play no role in injury involvement among young twins, but do have some effect at older ages. The results indicated that environmental factors have greater importance in injury involvement than genetic factors in the younger twin data set (FT12), whereas in a middle-aged (33–60 years) twin data set, genetic effects explained about quarter of the variance in injury involvement. Sex was a strong contributing factor, with males being generally more prone to injuries than females.
Velocity distribution functions which feature extended tails with power-law dependence have been consistently observed in the solar wind environment and are frequently modelled by the so-called Kappa distributions. Different forms of Kappa distributions are commonly employed in analytical studies, and despite their similarities, they can produce different effects on the dispersion properties that occur in a plasma. We consider two different and widely used forms of Kappa distributions, in both isotropic and anisotropic cases, and systematically discuss their effects on the dispersion relations of Langmuir and ion-sound waves. It is shown that in the case of Langmuir waves, one of the forms leads to the expression for the Bohm–Gross dispersion relation, valid for plasmas with Maxwellian velocity distributions, while the other form of Kappa functions leads to a dispersion relation with significant difference regarding the Maxwellian case, particularly in the case of small values of the kappa index. For ion-sound waves, the dispersion relations obtained with the different forms of Kappa distributions are different among themselves, and also different from the Maxwellian case, with difference which increases for small values of the kappa index. Some results obtained from numerical solution of the dispersion relations are presented, which illustrate the magnitude of the perceived differences. Some results obtained with relativistic particle-in-cell simulations are also presented, which allow the comparison between the dispersion relations obtained from analytical calculations and the frequency–wavelength distribution of wave fluctuations which are observed in numerical experiments.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
Gas injection into a liquid cross-flow is examined for the case where the gas is injected beneath a horizontal flat surface. For moderate Froude numbers, the gas pocket that is formed will rise toward the flow boundary under the action of buoyancy, a condition that is conducive to the formation of gas layers for friction-drag reduction on the surface. At the location of gas injection, a plume whose geometry is related to the mass and momentum flux of the injected gas and liquid cross-flow is formed, and the influence of buoyancy is minimal. However, as the gas pocket convects downstream, buoyancy brings the gas back upward to the flow boundary, and leads to the bifurcation of the pocket into two distinct branches, forming a stable ‘V’-shape. Under some conditions, the flow between the two gas branches is almost entirely liquid, while for others there exists a bubbly flow or a continuous sheet of gas between the branches. The sweep angle and cross-sectional geometry of the gas branches are related to free-stream speed and boundary-layer thickness of the liquid cross-flow, the mass-injection rate of the gas, the diameter of the injection orifice and the gas outlet mean velocity and gas–jet angle. Data for a range of experimental conditions are used to scale the flow and results are compared to numerical computations of the flow, and these data are used to illustrate the underlying flow processes responsible leading to the formation the stable and straight gas branches. A simple model based on the balance of forces around a stable gas branch is presented and used to scale the observed data, and we use the results of this analysis and the computations to discuss how the process of gas injection may interact with the formation of the stable gas pockets farther downstream.
A corrosion product rarely reported in the literature has been found on the copper support of three miniature paintings of the 17th and 18th centuries. This product, which has been identified as dicoppertrihydroxyformate (Cu2(OH)3HCOO), is an unusual basic copper formate found on copper artifacts. The identification and characterization of dicoppertrihydroxyformate was carried out directly over the corroded surface of the objects, using a nondestructive approach, which combines the integrated use of various microanalytical techniques. Using this approach, it was possible to obtain a set of new reference data about the natural form of Cu2(OH)3HCOO, that will enable its unambiguous identification in other similar objects. In this work, the probable causes that may have contributed to its formation are also discussed.
Sarcoma of the head and neck is a rare condition that poses significant challenges in management and often requires radical multimodality treatment.
This study aimed to analyse current clinical presentation, evaluation, management dilemmas and oncological outcomes.
Computer records and case notes were analysed, and 39 patients were identified. Variables were compared using Pearson's chi-square test and the log-rank test, while survival outcomes were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method.
The histopathological diagnosis was Kaposi sarcoma in 20.5 per cent of cases, chondrosarcoma in 15.3 per cent and osteosarcoma in 10.2 per cent. A range of other sarcomas were diagnosed in the remaining patients. The site of disease was most commonly sinonasal, followed by the oral cavity and larynx.
Wide local excision with clear resection margins is essential to achieve local control and long-term survival. There is a need for cross-specialty collaboration in order to accrue the evidence which will be necessary to improve long-term outcomes.
The traditional beef production in the South of Portugal is based on a discontinuous growth (DG) system that requires lower external inputs and could enhance meat quality and financial returns to cattle producers. This system allows farmers to take advantage of the bull’s compensatory growth when the pasture is abundant and finishes the cattle on concentrates for 2 to 3 months before slaughter. The fast gain rate before slaughter could be a valuable strategy to improve tenderness and to reduce its inconsistency in beef production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of production system (continuous growth (CG) v. DG) on longissimus thoracis muscle properties from Alentejana bulls. In total, 40 Alentejana male calves were allocated to two distinct feeding regimes: in the CG system, animals were fed concentrate plus hay and slaughtered at 18 months of age, whereas in the DG system, animals were fed on hay until 15 months of age and then fed the same diet provided to the CG group until 24 months of age. The DG system had a positive impact on meat tenderness (P<0.001) and global acceptability (P<0.001). DG bulls had greater fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) of glycolytic fibres (P<0.05) and relative area of the muscle (RA) occupied by type IIX fibres (P<0.01) and greater levels of α-actinin (P<0.05) and myosin light chain 2 (P<0.01) proteins, and pH24h (P<0.01) than CG bulls. The latter had greater CSA of type I (P<0.05) and type IIA (P<0.01) and greater RA of type IIA (P<0.05) and oxidative (P<0.05) than CG bulls. The compensatory growth production system had a positive impact on meat tenderness and global acceptability, overcoming the negative effects of slaughter of the bulls at a later age. The DG beef system could be a worthwhile strategy of beef production in Mediterranean areas due to the low-quality pasture in summer.
This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. In the absence of high-level evidence base for follow-up practices, the duration and frequency are often at the discretion of local centres. By reviewing the existing literature and collating experience from varying practices across the UK, this paper provides recommendations on the work up and management of lateral skull base cancer based on the existing evidence base for this rare condition.
• Patients should be followed up to a minimum of five years with a prolonged follow-up for selected patients. (G)
• Patients should be followed up at least two monthly in the first two years and three to six monthly in the subsequent years. (G)
• Patients should be seen in dedicated multidisciplinary head and neck oncology clinics. (G)
• Patients should be followed up by dedicated multidisciplinary clinical teams. (G)
• The multidisciplinary follow-up team should include clinical nurse specialists, speech and language therapists, dietitians and other allied health professionals in the role of key workers. (G)
• Clinical assessment should include adequate clinical examination including fibre-optic rigid or flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. (R)
• Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography imaging should be used when recurrence is suspected. (R)
• Narrow band imaging can be used in the follow-up in selected sites. (R)
• Second primary tumours should be part of rationale of follow-up and therefore adequate screening strategies should be used to detect them. (G)
• Patients should be educated with regard to the appearance and detection of recurrences. (G)
• Patients with persistent pain should be investigated to exclude recurrent disease. (R)
• Patients should be offered support with tobacco and alcohol cessation services. (R)
Shape memory alloys (SMA) are metallic attractive engineering materials due to their capacity to store pre-defined shapes through a thermally induced phase transition from a solid state. This paper aims to evaluate the influence of solubilization thermal treatments on a NiTi shape memory alloy originally fabricated by vacuum induction melting and then reprocessed by plasma melting followed by injection molding (Plasma Skull Push Pull process) into different metal molds (steel, aluminum, brass and copper) in order to compare the thermal properties regarding to its raw state. The thermal treatments of solubilization were carried out at 850°C in different times (2n function, n = 0, 1, 2 and 3, in hours). The influence of solubilizing treatments in the NiTi shape memory alloy was analyzed using the following characterization techniques: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Electrical Resistance as a function of Temperature (ERT). The results demonstrate that the solubilization heat treatments applied on the reprocessed NiTi shape memory alloy through the plasma skull push pull process, provides important changes in the phase transformation of the material. Therefore, it was demonstrated that it is necessary to solubilize the material after melting or remelting the NiTi shape memory alloy via this process to obtain mini-actuators products with homogeneous properties.
Ca2MnO4 nanoparticles were prepared by the Pechini method and acid treated to extract Ca2+ ions. Structural, morphological and spectroscopic analyses by XRD, SEM/EDX, TEM/EDS and Raman revealed the formation of an amorphous outer layer at the particles surface with a preserved inner crystalline bulk. Thanks to the outer layer, which is electrochemically active, the acid-treated compounds showed capacity up to 150 Ah/kg. The crystalline bulk improved cycling stability, allowing reaching capacity retention up to 70% after 30 cycles.
We report herein the investigation of a leptospirosis outbreak occurring in triathlon competitors on Réunion Island, Indian Ocean. All participants were contacted by phone or email and answered a questionnaire. Detection and molecular characterization of pathogenic Leptospira was conducted in inpatients and in rodents trapped at the vicinity of the event. Of the 160 athletes competing, 101 (63·1%) agreed to participate in the study. Leptospirosis was biologically confirmed for 9/10 suspected cases either by real-time PCR or serological tests (MAT or ELISA). The total attack rate, children's attack rate, swimmers’ attack rate, and the attack rate in adult swimmers were respectively estimated at 8·1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4·3–14·7], 0%, 12·7% (95% CI 6·8–22·4) and 23·1% (95% CI 12·6–33·8). Leptospirosis cases reported significantly more wounds [risk ratio (RR) 4·5, 95% CI 1·6–13], wore complete neoprene suits less often (RR 4·3, 95% CI 1·3–14·5) and were most frequently unlicensed (RR 6·6, 95% CI 2·9–14·8). The epidemiological investigation supported that some measures such as the use of neoprene suits proved efficient in protecting swimmers against infection. PCR detection in rats revealed high Leptospira infection rates. Partial sequencing of the 16S gene and serology on both human and animal samples strongly suggests that rats were the main contaminators and were likely at the origin of the infection in humans.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat characteristics of eight muscles from bulls with distinct growth paths. A total of 40 Alentejana male calves were allocated to two distinct feeding regimes. In the continuous growth (CG) system, the animals were fed concentrates plus hay and were slaughtered at 18 months of age. On the other hand, in the discontinuous growth (DG) system, the animals were fed hay until 15 months of age; the cattle were then fed the same diet provided to the CG group from 15 to 24 months of age. The DG reduced hot carcass weight, fatness and dressing %, but the proportions of fat, bone and muscle tissues in the leg were not affected. In contrast, there was a positive impact of compensatory growth on supraspinatus, triceps brachii, semitendinosus, biceps femoris muscle tenderness, overcoming the negative effects of age at slaughter. The reasons for such improvement in meat tenderness were not related to intra-muscular fat content or myofibrillar protein degradation values. An association between tenderness and muscle collagen properties was not established. The results indicate that the compensatory growth has a muscle-dependent effect.
With the increasing use of chemoradiotherapy protocols, total laryngectomy carries increasing risks such as pharyngocutaneous fistula. There is little reference to the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in salvage surgery. This study aimed to determine the current practice in antibiotic prophylaxis for total laryngectomy in the UK.
A questionnaire was designed using SurveyMonkey software, and distributed to all ENT-UK registered head and neck surgeons.
The survey revealed that 19 surgeons (51 per cent) follow a protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis in primary total laryngectomy and 17 (46 per cent) follow a protocol in salvage total laryngectomy. Only 11 (30 per cent) use anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus agents in their antibiotic prophylaxis. The duration of prophylaxis varies considerably. Nineteen surgeons (51 per cent) revealed that their choice of antibiotic prophylaxis reflected non-evidence-based practices.
There appears to be little evidence-based guidance on antibiotic prophylaxis in primary and salvage total laryngectomy. The survey highlights the need for more research in order to inform national guidance on antibiotic prophylaxis in primary and salvage total laryngectomy.
Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to ‘scan the horizon’ to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.