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This article examines a key feature of Denis Bouchard's Sign Theory of Language, namely the Substantive Hypothesis (SH), the idea that “the most explanatory linguistic theory is one that minimizes the elements (ideally to zero) that do not have an external motivation in the prior properties of the perceptual and conceptual substances of language”. The article argues that the strongest form of the SH is challenged by two widespread classes of phenomena: morphosyntactic generalizations that are not sign-based, and non-sign-based external pressures on grammars. It concludes with some speculative remarks on why, to a significant degree, grammatical patterning is not sign-based.
Smallholder livestock systems in Central America are typically based on pastures with traditional grasses and associated management practices, such as pasture burning and extensive grazing. With the rise of the global population and a corresponding increase in demand for meat and milk production, research efforts have focused on the development of improved grasses and the incorporation of legume species that can increase productivity and sustainability of Central American livestock systems. However, farmer adoption remains very limited, in part due to the lack of site-specific evaluation and recommendations by local institutions. Using a multi-site participatory approach, this study examined the potential of five improved grasses and five species of forage legumes as alternatives to the broadly disseminated grass Hyparrhenia rufa (cv. Jaragua) in pasture-based cattle systems in western Honduras and northern El Salvador. Improved grasses (four Brachiaria sp. and Megathyrsus maximus) produced significantly more biomass than H. rufa; also four of the five legume varieties evaluated (Canavalia ensiformis, Canavalia brasiliensis, Vigna unguiculata, and Vigna radiata) demonstrated high adaptability to diverse environmental conditions across sites. Farmer participatory evaluation offers a valuable means to assess performance of forages and will likely contribute to their improved utilization. Future research is needed on more refined management recommendations, pasture system design, costs and environmental benefits associated with the adoption of these forages in local livestock production systems.
We use the upper 81 mof the record of stable isotopes of water from a 122m long ice core from Lomonosovfonna, central Spitsbergen, Svalbard, to construct an ice-core chronology and the annual accumulation rates over the icefield. the isotope cycles are counted in the ice-core record using a model that neglects short-wavelength and low-amplitude cycles. We find approximately the same number of δ18O cycles as years between known reference horizons, and assume these cycles represent annual cycles. Testing the validity of this assumption using cycles in δD shows that both records give similar numbers of cycles. Using the δ18O chronology, and decompressing the accumulation records using the Nye flow model, we calculate the annual accumulation for the ice-core site back to AD 1715. We find that the average accumulation rate from 1715 to 1950 was on average 0.30 mw.e. Accumulation rates increased about 25% during the later part of the 20th century to an average of 0.41 mw.e. for the period 1950–97. the accumulation rates show highly significant 2.1 and 21 year periodicities, which gives credibility to our time-scale.
To generate evidence-based conclusions about the effect of wine consumption on weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation and distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes.
In the 2-year randomized controlled CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, patients following a Mediterranean diet were randomly assigned to drink 150 ml of mineral water, white wine or red wine with dinner for 2 years. Visceral adiposity and abdominal fat distribution were measured in a subgroup of sixty-five participants, using abdominal MRI.
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Soroka-Medical Center and the Nuclear Research Center Negev, Israel.
Alcohol-abstaining adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes.
Forty-eight participants (red wine, n 27; mineral water, n 21) who completed a second MRI measurement were included in the 2-year analysis. Similar weight losses (sd) were observed: red wine 1·3 (3·9) kg; water 1·0 (4·2) kg (P=0·8 between groups). Changes (95 % CI) in abdominal adipose-tissue distribution were similar: red wine, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) −3·0 (−8·0, 2·0) %, deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT) +5·2 (−1·1, 11·6) %, superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) −1·9 (−5·0, 1·2) %; water, VAT −3·2 (−8·9, 2·5) %, DSAT +2·9 (−2·8, 8·6) %, SSAT −0·15 (−3·3, 2·9) %. No changes in antidiabetic medication and no substantial changes in energy intake (+126 (sd 2889) kJ/d (+30·2 (sd 690) kcal/d), P=0·8) were recorded. A 2-year decrease in glycated Hb (β=0·28, P=0·05) was associated with a decrease in VAT.
Moderate wine consumption, as part of a Mediterranean diet, in persons with controlled diabetes did not promote weight gain or abdominal adiposity.
Almost nothing is known about the potential negative effects of Internet-based psychological treatments for depression. This study aims at investigating deterioration and its moderators within randomized trials on Internet-based guided self-help for adult depression, using an individual patient data meta-analyses (IPDMA) approach.
Studies were identified through systematic searches (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library). Deterioration in participants was defined as a significant symptom increase according to the reliable change index (i.e. 7.68 points in the CES-D; 7.63 points in the BDI). Two-step IPDMA procedures, with a random-effects model were used to pool data.
A total of 18 studies (21 comparisons, 2079 participants) contributed data to the analysis. The risk for a reliable deterioration from baseline to post-treatment was significantly lower in the intervention v. control conditions (3.36 v. 7.60; relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.75). Education moderated effects on deterioration, with patients with low education displaying a higher risk for deterioration than patients with higher education. Deterioration rates for patients with low education did not differ statistically significantly between intervention and control groups. The benefit–risk ratio for patients with low education indicated that 9.38 patients achieve a treatment response for each patient experiencing a symptom deterioration.
Internet-based guided self-help is associated with a mean reduced risk for a symptom deterioration compared to controls. Treatment and symptom progress of patients with low education should be closely monitored, as some patients might face an increased risk for symptom deterioration. Future studies should examine predictors of deterioration in patients with low education.
This study describes a sample preparation technique used to isolate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in groundwater for radiocarbon analysis using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The goal of the work is to improve our ability to determine groundwater residence times based on 14C measurements of the DOC fraction in groundwater. Water samples were collected from carbonate and volcanic rock aquifers in southern Nevada. Multiple measurements of total dissolved organic carbon (TDOC) in groundwater from one site are used to demonstrate the reproducibility of the analytical procedure. The reproducibility of the method is about one percent (1σ) for a 0.5 mg sample. The procedural blank for the same size sample contains about 1 percent modern carbon (pMC).
During the past two decades, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has allowed major developments in many areas of geosciences and archaeology. In the near future, AMS should realize a similar potential in the field of biomedical research, leading ultimately to clinical applications. For such applications, the required instrument differs significantly from that presently used in the field of 14C dating. Whereas the needed accuracy and sensitivity is more than an order of magnitude less demanding than that for present state-of-the-art 14C instrumentation, the widespread acceptance of 14C AMS in biomedical research will require AMS spectrometers that are small, simple to operate and capable of handling CO2 samples. In order to satisfy these demands, HVEE has developed a compact 14C AMS spectrometer dedicated to biomedical research. The instrument consists of a compact accelerator with a footprint of 2.25 × 1.25 m and an ion source that features direct CO2 acceptance and optimal user friendliness. Having previously described the layout and design of the accelerator, we here discuss progress on the accelerator and present the design and first results of the CO2 ion source.
Radiocarbon dating of bulk sediment has long been used as a method of last resort when reliable wood, charcoal, or plant macrofossils are not available for analysis. Accurate dating of sediment is complicated by the presence of multiple organic carbon fractions, each with a potentially different 14C activity. Additionally, the presence of carbon bound by clay minerals can significantly reduce the accuracy of a sediment age determination, with the oldest 14C ages seen in samples with the highest clay content (Scharpenseel and Becker-Heidmann 1992).
Supermassive black holes (BHs) live at the heart of essentially all massive galaxies with bulges, power AGN, and are thought to be important agents in the evolution of their hosts. Observations of high-redshift quasars demonstrate that supermassive BHs must start out with masses considerably in excess of normal stellar-mass BHs. However, we do not know how the initial “seed” BHs formed in the early Universe, how massive they were originally, or what types of galaxies they formed in. While direct observations of distant seed BHs and their hosts in the infant Universe are unobtainable with current capabilities, models of BH growth in a cosmological context indicate that present-day dwarf galaxies can place valuable constraints on seed masses and distinguish between various seed formation mechanisms at early times. Using optical spectroscopy from the SDSS, we have systematically assembled the largest sample of dwarf galaxies hosting AGN to date. These dwarf galaxies have stellar masses comparable to the Magellanic Clouds and contain some of the least-massive supermassive BHs known. I will present results from this study and discuss our ongoing efforts to find additional examples of AGN in dwarfs and help constrain theories for the formation of the first seed BHs at high redshift.
Underwater image-based sampling procedures, using SCUBA, are compared using imagery collected from a temperate hard-substratum community. The effectiveness of a low-budget, high-resolution image mosaicing technique is assessed by comparing the relative efficiency of data collection, extraction and analysis among sampling procedures. In addition, a manipulative experiment tested whether the sampling procedures could detect the physical removal of 10% of the reef community. Overall, four factors were explored within the data: data collection media (stills and video), cover and community composition estimation techniques (visual cover estimation, frequency of occurrence and point extraction), change detection (pre- and post-impact) and depth (8, 14, 18 and 22 m). Stills imagery sampled the reef community at a higher image resolution than the video imagery, which enabled identification of more species and less-conspicuous benthic categories. Using the visual cover estimation technique, the stills imagery also had the greatest benefit in terms of efficiency and species identification. However, the experimental impact was detected using only the point extraction technique. The recommendations are that: (1) the image mosaicing technique is applied to fixed-station monitoring; (2) the point extraction technique be used for efficient and cost-effective monitoring at coarse taxonomic resolutions; and (3) survey depths remain constant over the duration of hard-substratum community monitoring.
The development of a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth process for AlxGa1-xN materials with high aluminum composition (x∼0.40-0.60) on sapphire substrates is reported. Room temperature Hall measurements of Si-doped AlGaN epilayers with x∼0.40 show a narrow window for efficient doping with a carrier concentration of ∼1.5x1018 cm-3 and a mobility of ∼35 cm2/V-s obtained under optimum growth conditions. AlxGa1-xN-based solar-blind p-i-n device structures were grown and diode I-V curves were obtained with a high R0A of <2.9×1010 ohm-cm2. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show a sharp transition between regions of high concentration of Mg (2×1020 cm-3) and Si (1×1019 cm-3) in p-GaN and n-AlGaN layers, respectively.
This paper presents UV imaging results for a 256×256 AlGaN Focal Plane Array that uses a back-illuminated AlGaN heterostructure p-i-n photodiode array, with 30×30 μm2 unit cells, operating at zero bias voltage, with a narrow-band UV response between 310 and 325 nm. The 256×256 array was fabricated from a multilayer AlGaN film grown by MOCVD on a sapphire substrate. The UV response operability (>0.4×average) was 94.8%, and the UV response uniformity (σ/μ) was 16.8%. Data are also presented for back-illuminated AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes from other films with cutoff wavelengths ranging between 301 and 364 nm. Data for variable-area diagnostic arrays of p-i-n AlGaN photodiodes with a GaN absorber (cutoff=364 nm) show: (1) high external quantum efficiency (50% at V=0 and 62% at V=-9 V); (2) the dark current is proportional to junction area, not perimeter; (3) the forward and reverse currents are uniform (σ/μ=50% for forty 30×30 μm2 diodes at V=−40 V); (4) the reverse-bias dark current data versus temperature and bias voltage can be fit very well by a hopping conduction model; and (5) capacitance versus voltage data are consistent with nearly full depletion of the unintentionally-doped 0.4 μm thick GaN absorber layer and imply a donor concentration of 3-4×1016 cm−3.
This paper reports recent results on two-layer P-on-n LPE HgCdTe heterojunction photodiodes with cutoff wavelengths beyond 19μm. These results demonstrate the potential of photovoltaic HgCdTe detectors to satisfy the detector requirements of advanced NASA satellite instruments out to wavelengths of 17μm.
Chemical vapor deposition using tetra(allyl) tungsten and molybdenum precursors yielded amorphous tungsten and molybdenum carbide films on pyrex substrates. The films were characterized by Auger, ESCA, SEM, XRD and resistivity measurements. Volatile pyrolysis products consisted primarily of propene, C3H6.
We are developing two-layer LPE P-on-n HgCdTe photovoltaic detector arrays with cutoff wavelengths out to 17 μm for a NASA spaceborne infrared radiometer. These bilinear multiplexed arrays will operate at 60 K, and must achieve sensitivities approaching the background limit for a background photon flux of 2×1015 photons/cm2-sec. The detectors must operate at reverse bias voltage to interface with silicon CMOS multiplexer circuits, and must exhibit low 1/f noise.
This paper reviews progress toward these demanding requirements. The limiting junction current mechanisms for HgCdTe photodiodes at these very long cutoff wavelengths are reviewed. Data are presented for both CdTe-passivated and ZnS-passivated arrays at 60 K with cutoff wavelengths of 15.4−16.9 μm. Average R0A products of 13 ohm-cm2 and quantum efficiencies of 89% have been achieved for cutoff wavelengths of 15.4 μm at 60 K. These array data demonstrate the potential for VLWIR PV HgCdTe to meet the requirements for advanced NASA applications.
Adherent, polycrystalline films containing mixtures of SrRuO3, Sr2gRuO4 and RuO2 were deposited on silicon and alumina substrates by hot wall chemical vapor deposition from bis(2, 4-dimethylpentadienyl) ruthenium and Sr(thd)2 between 650 and 700°C. The as-deposited mixed phase films, which contained polycrystalline phases of RuO2 and amorphous phases of the mixed oxide exhibited resistivities between 6.5 and 20 mΩcm. Rims were annealed at 1000°C under oxygen/argon ambient. The annealed films exhibited higher resistivities than their as-deposited counterparts and a substrate dependence of phases present was observed. The decrease in conductivity upon annealing for films on both substrates is attributed to the formation of volatile ruthenium oxides. The higher conductivity of post-annealed samples on alumina (compared to samples prepared and annealed on Si) is attributed to Sr uptake by the substrate and thus a suppression of Sr2RuO4 formation.
We demonstrate the design of novel sensor particles that display fluorescence in the presence of elastase, an enzyme that is present at elevated levels in chronic (non-healing) wounds. Poly(ethyleneglycol acrylamide) hydrogel particles, approximately 200μm in diameter are used as a polymeric matrix, to which a peptide based sensing element is attached. This sensing element consists of a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair separated by an enzyme cleavable linker. In addition, negatively charged Glutamic acid (Glu) residues are incorporated into the hydrogel structure to facilitate diffusion of the positively charged enzyme into the hydrogel matrix. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the enzyme cleavable linker results in fluorescence of the donor molecule being switched on. We have shown that these particles can detect elastase to a concentration of 100ng/ml, a concentration found in chronic wound fluids. These particles simultaneously detect and address balances in elastase levels and may therefore find applications as smart wound dressings.
The behavior of cells at the material surface is of critical importance in the design of biomaterials. To understand and control cell responses to surfaces, different surface chemistries are commonly compared. In this study we exploit the chemical diversity of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids to make 20 surfaces with different chemical properties. The biological response of osteoblasts to these surfaces was examined. The osteoblast response to the surfaces was found to be dependant on the wettability of the surface with polar amino acid surfaces (Cys<Ser<Thr<Gln<Asn) promoting osteoblast spreading more than hydrophobic aromatic amino acid surfaces (Phe <Tyr <Trp), aliphatic amino acid surfaces (Leu<Ile<Val<Ala<Met<Gly), and Pro. The surface charge also affected the cellular response with positively charged amino acid surfaces (His<Arg<Lys) producing a higher percentage of spreading cells compared to the negatively charged surfaces (Asp<Glu). Amino acid surfaces provide a range of well defined chemical functionalities that are useful in studying the interactions of cells with material surfaces.
Many multi-planet systems have been discovered in recent years. Some of them are in mean-motion resonances (MMR). Planet formation theory was
successful in explaining the formation of 2:1, 3:1 and other low resonances as a result of convergent migration.
However, higher order resonances require high initial orbital eccentricities in order to be formed by this process and these are in general unexpected in a dissipative disk.
We present a way of generating large initial eccentricities using additional planets. This precedure allows us to form high order MMRs and predict new planets using a genetic N-body code.