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For over 120 years, the shell middens of western Scotland and the series of open-air sites on Oronsay have been the focus of debate in European Mesolithic studies. This paper challenges the significance of Oronsay in light of results from the geophysical survey and test-excavation of a new limpet and periwinkle shell midden dated to the late 5th or start of the 4th millennium cal bc at Port Lobh, Colonsay that offers fresh evidence to re-evaluate critically the role of Oronsay and coastal resources in island settlement models ahead of the Mesolithic–Neolithic transition. Test excavations recovered a marine molluscan assemblage dominated by limpet and periwinkle shells together with crab, sea urchin, a fishbone assemblage composed mainly of Gadidae, some identifiable bird and mammal bone, carbonised macroplant remains, and pumice as well as a bipolar lithic assemblage and coarse stone implements. Novel seasonality studies of saithe otolith thin-sections suggest wintertime tidal fishing practices. At least two activity events may be discerned, dating from the late 5th millennium cal bc. The midden could represent a small number of rapidly deposited assemblages or maybe the result of stocastic events within a more extended timeframe. We argue that alternative research questions are needed to advance long-standing debates about seasonal inter-island mobility versus island sedentism that look beyond Oronsay to better understand later Mesolithic occupation patterns and the formation and date of Oronsay middens. We propose alternative methodological strategies to aid identification of contemporaneous sites using geophysical techniques and lithic technological signatures.
Increased plasma α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) is correlated with reduced growth rates in neonatal swine. The specific physiological mechanisms contributing to this relationship are unknown. This study was performed to determine if AGP can modify muscle metabolism by examining glucose oxidation and protein synthesis in the C2C12 muscle cell line. Cells were used for experiments 4 days post-fusion as myotubes. Myotubes were exposed to AGP for 24 h, with the last 4 h used to monitor 14C-glucose oxidation or to measure protein synthesis by incorporation of 3H-tyrosine. Treatment of C2C12 myotubes with mouse AGP (100 µg/ml) reduced glucose oxidation (P<0.01, n=3 trials), whereas bovine insulin (1 µM) stimulated glucose oxidation (P<0.05, n=3 trials). Treatment with AGP in combination with insulin reduced 14C-glucose oxidation (P<0.05, n=3 trials), similar to the effect of AGP alone. Glucose transport, as measured by 3H-deoxyglucose uptake, was increased by 38% with 1 µM insulin (P<0.05, n=3 trials), whereas AGP alone increased glucose uptake by 36% (P<0.05, n=3 trials). The combination of insulin and AGP in the medium resulted in an 88% increase in glucose uptake (P<0.01, n=3 trials). Protein synthesis was measured by 3H-tyrosine incorporation into C2C12 myotubes. Insulin stimulated a 18% increase in 3H-tyrosine incorporation (P<0.05, n=6 trials). The incorporation of 3H-tyrosine into myotubes was reduced by 20% with AGP incubation (P<0.01, n=6 trials), like the 20% decrease in 3H-tyrosine incorporation in response to the combination of AGP and insulin (P<0.01, n=6 trials). Protein breakdown, as measured by the release of 3H-tyrosine from C2C12 myotubes, was reduced 27% by insulin (P<0.01, n=6 trials). Treatment with AGP had no effect on protein breakdown (P>0.05, n=6 trials), whereas incubation with both AGP and insulin reduced 3H-tyrosine release by 15% (P<0.01, n=6 trials). First, these data indicate that the acute phase protein AGP can interact with the skeletal muscle to reduce glucose oxidation, but this is not the result of an effect on glucose transport. Second, AGP can specifically reduce protein synthesis. Lastly, AGP can inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation, protein synthesis and breakdown.
Selective pressure exerted by the widespread use of antibacterial drugs is accelerating the development of resistant bacterial populations. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarise the range of studies that use dynamic models to analyse the problem of bacterial resistance in relation to antibacterial use in human and animal populations. A comprehensive search of the peer-reviewed literature was performed and non-duplicate articles (n = 1486) were screened in several stages. Charting questions were used to extract information from the articles included in the final subset (n = 81). Most studies (86%) represent the system of interest with an aggregate model; individual-based models are constructed in only seven articles. There are few examples of inter-host models outside of human healthcare (41%) and community settings (38%). Resistance is modelled for a non-specific bacterial organism and/or antibiotic in 40% and 74% of the included articles, respectively. Interventions with implications for antibacterial use were investigated in 67 articles and included changes to total antibiotic consumption, strategies for drug management and shifts in category/class use. The quality of documentation related to model assumptions and uncertainty varies considerably across this subset of articles. There is substantial room to improve the transparency of reporting in the antibacterial resistance modelling literature as is recommended by best practice guidelines.
The 9th meeting of the African Society of Human Genetics, in partnership with the Senegalese Cancer Research and Study Group and the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium, was held in Dakar, Senegal. The theme was Strengthening Human Genetics Research in Africa. The 210 delegates came from 21 African countries and from France, Switzerland, UK, UAE, Canada and the USA. The goal was to highlight genetic and genomic science across the African continent with the ultimate goal of improving the health of Africans and those across the globe, and to promote the careers of young African scientists in the field. A session on the sustainability of genomic research in Africa brought to light innovative and practical approaches to supporting research in resource-limited settings and the importance of promoting genetics in academic, research funding, governmental and private sectors. This meeting led to the formation of the Senegalese Society for Human Genetics.
Fetuin A (also known as α2-Heremans–Schmid glycoprotein) is a protein primarily expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. Previous studies have suggested that plasma concentrations of fetuin A are elevated with impaired growth rate in swine. The present study was designed to examine the relationship of porcine fetuin A with growth rate in the pig and to also elucidate the regulation of fetuin A expression by examining the hormonal and cytokine regulation of fetuin A mRNA abundance in hepatocytes prepared from suckling piglets. Quantitative real-time PCR assay was used to quantify the number of fetuin A mRNA molecules/molecule cyclophilin mRNA. Total RNA was isolated from liver of three different groups of pigs to assess changes in mRNA abundance of fetuin A: normal piglets at day 1, day 7 day 21 or 6 months of age (n=6 for each age); runt and control piglets at day 1 of age (n=4); slow growing and normal growing piglets at 21 days of age (n=8). Following birth, fetuin A gene expression increased from day 1 and 7 of age (P<0.05), and then declined at 21 days of age (P<0.05), with a much greater decline to 6 months of age (P<0.01). Fetuin A mRNA abundance was higher in runt pigs v. their normal birth weight littermates (P<0.05). Similarly, fetuin A gene expression was higher in livers of pigs that were born at a normal weight but that grew much slower than littermates with the same birth weight (P<0.05). Hepatocytes were isolated from preweaned piglets and maintained in serum-free monolayer culture for up to 72 h to permit examination of the influences of hormones, cytokines and redox modifiers on fetuin A mRNA abundance. Fetuin A gene expression was enhanced by glucagon, T3 and resveratrol (P<0.05). Growth hormone, cytokines (interleukin6, tumor necrosis factor-α) and antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine, quercertin) reduced fetuin A mRNA abundance (P<0.05). A role for fetuin A in postnatal development is suggested by the differences in fetuin A mRNA abundance between runt piglets or slow growing piglets and their normal growing sized littermates. The hepatocyte experiments suggest multiple hormones and cytokines may contribute to the regulation of fetuin A during early growth of the pig.
Africa is experiencing a rapid increase in adult obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The H3Africa AWI-Gen Collaborative Centre was established to examine genomic and environmental factors that influence body composition, body fat distribution and CMD risk, with the aim to provide insights towards effective treatment and intervention strategies. It provides a research platform of over 10 500 participants, 40–60 years old, from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. Following a process that involved community engagement, training of project staff and participant informed consent, participants were administered detailed questionnaires, anthropometric measurements were taken and biospecimens collected. This generated a wealth of demographic, health history, environmental, behavioural and biomarker data. The H3Africa SNP array will be used for genome-wide association studies. AWI-Gen is building capacity to perform large epidemiological, genomic and epigenomic studies across several African counties and strives to become a valuable resource for research collaborations in Africa.
Public Health England conducts enhanced national surveillance of tetanus, a potentially life-threatening vaccine-preventable disease. A standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain clinical and demographic details of individuals reported with clinically suspected tetanus. The 96 cases identified between 2001 and 2014 were analysed. The average annual incidence was 0·13/million (95% confidence interval 0·10–0·16) of which 50·0% were male. Where reported, 70·3% of injuries occurred in the home/garden (45/64). Overall, 40·3% (31/77) cases were in people who inject drugs (PWID), including a cluster of 22 cases during 2003–2004. Where known (n = 68), only 8·8% were age-appropriately immunized. The overall case-fatality rate was 11·0% (9/82). All tetanus-associated deaths occurred in adults aged >45 years, none of whom were fully immunized. Due to the success of the childhood immunization programme, tetanus remains a rare disease in England with the majority of cases occurring in older unimmunized or partially immunized adults. Minor injuries in the home/garden were the most commonly reported likely sources of infection, although cases in PWID increased during this period. It is essential that high routine vaccine coverage is maintained and that susceptible individuals, particularly older adults, are protected through vaccination and are offered timely post-exposure management following a tetanus-prone wound.
In solar physics a need exists for filters which have very narrow passbands, ~0.01 nm or less. While Lyot-Öhman birefringent filters have been used particularly for investigations at the Hα line, the limited availability of the raw materials, especially calcite, have usually restricted these filters to passbands of ~ 0.025 nm or more. A possible alternative type of filter consists of a number of Fabry-Perot interferometers mounted one behind the other.
A hydrodynamic formulation for accretion flow channeled by a dipolar magnetic field is constructed using a curvi-linear coordinate system natural to the field structure. We solve the hydrodynamic equations and determine the velocity, density and temperature profiles of the post-shock accretion flow. The results are applied to accretion flows in intermediate polars. We have found that for systems with massive white dwarfs (~ 1 M⊙) the temperature profiles in the flow can differ significantly to those obtained from models in which the accretion column is assumed to be cylindrical.
A basic underlying assumption of the psychological contract is that both parties come to a mutual agreement about the expectations and obligations of a contract of employment. Recent research provides evidence of the potential for employees to develop unrealistic expectations from this contract and this has been described as a sense of entitlement. In this article, we outline two studies. In the first study, we test the internal structure and reliability of a scale we developed and named the Measure of Employee Entitlement. In the second study, we test the predictive validity of the Measure of Employee Entitlement against a measure of reciprocity. The development and validation of the Measure of Employee Entitlement extends our knowledge of sense of entitlement in the workplace and situates entitlement as a factor that may impact on the development of psychological contracts. This research provides a platform from which researchers and practitioners can continue to coherently and consistently investigate the phenomenon of employee entitlement.
Despite national guidance recommending testing and vaccination of household contacts of hepatitis B-infected pregnant women, provision and uptake of this is sub-optimal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of in-home dried blood spot (DBS) testing to increase testing and vaccination of household contacts of hepatitis B-infected pregnant women as an alternative approach to conventional primary-care follow-up. The study was conducted across two London maternity trusts (North Middlesex and Newham). All hepatitis B surface antigen-positive pregnant women identified through these trusts were eligible for inclusion. The intervention of in-home DBS testing for household contacts was introduced at North Middlesex Trust from November 2010 to December 2011. Data on testing and vaccination uptake from GP records across the two trusts were compared between baseline (2009) and intervention (2010–2011) periods. In-home DBS service increased testing uptake for all ages (P < 0·001) with the biggest impact seen in partners, where testing increased from 30·3% during the baseline period to 96·6% during the intervention period in North Middlesex Trust. Although impact on vaccine uptake was less marked, improvements were observed for adults. The provision of nurse-led home-based DBS may be useful in areas of high prevalence.
Serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is elevated during late gestation and at birth in the pig and rapidly declines postnatally. In contrast, the pig is born with minimal lipid stores in the adipose tissue, but rapidly accumulates lipid during the first week. The present study examined if AGP can affect adipose tissue metabolism in the neonatal pig. Isolated cell cultures or tissue explants were prepared from dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue of preweaning piglets. Porcine AGP was used at concentrations of 0, 100, 1000 and 5000 ng/ml medium in 24 h incubations. AGP reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of the lipogenic enzymes, malic enzyme (ME), fatty acid synthase and acetyl coA carboxylase by at least 40% (P<0.001). The activity of ME and citrate lyase were also reduced by AGP (P<0.05). Glucose oxidation was reduced by treatment with 5000 ng AGP/ml medium (P<0.05). The 14C-glucose incorporation into fatty acids was reduced by ~25% by AGP treatment for 24 h with 1000 ng AGP/ml medium (P<0.05). The decrease in glucose metabolism by AGP appears to function through an inhibition in insulin-mediated glucose oxidation and incorporation into fatty acids. This was supported by the analysis of the mRNA abundance for sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), carbohydrate regulatory element-binding protein (ChREBP) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), which all demonstrated reductions of at least 23% in response to AGP treatment (P<0.05). These data demonstrate an overall suppression of lipogenesis due to AGP inhibition of lipogenic gene expression in vitro, which the metabolic data and SREBP, ChREBP and IRS1 gene expression analysis suggest is through an inhibition in insulin-mediated events. Second, these data suggest that AGP may contribute to limiting lipogenesis within adipose tissue during the perinatal period, as AGP levels are highest for any serum protein at birth.
The Culgoora magnetograph (Ramsay et al., 1970) produces simultaneous filtergrams in opposite circular polarizations at a wavelength selected by a filter bandwidth 0.005 nm (Ramsay et al., 1970). In the blue wing of the 610.27 nm line of CaI, regions of magnetic fields in strong or weak plages are very obvious in one or other polarization, depending on polarity, even before subtraction; in one polarization they are bright, but almost invisible in the other. They are more difficult to discern at equal intervals from the line centre in the other wing (Figure 1). When subtractions are carried out to yield magnetograms of the same sense, the two magnetograms from opposite wings give results which appear to be much the same. An example is shown in Figure 2. Similar results are obtained over a wide range of positions in the wings of the 610.27 nm line.
The magnetograph is based on a high-resolution filter which serves in place of a spectrograph, except that a reasonably large field of view (one-quarter of the Sun's diameter) can be observed at the one instant. Observations are made by obtaining filtergrams of opposite circular polarizations simultaneously in the wing of a magnetically sensitive line. Exposure times are about 0.3 s, the angular resolution of the magnetic field is about 2 arc s, closest frame repetition rates about 8 s. The filtergrams are processed subsequently by photographic or television subtraction. Semiautomatic photographic and/or TV subtractions yield magnetograms suitable for cinematographic projection though the subtractions are not yet as perfect as those obtained by individual subtraction.
In the Total Eclipse of 8th August last year, the line of totality began at a point to the north of the Shetlands, passed across the north of Norway, from Bodo on the west to Vadso in the north-east, then traversed Novaya Zemlya, Siberia, and Yesso, the northern island of Japan, ending finally in the North Pacific Ocean. Both Bodö and Vadsö are easily accessible by the Nor-wegian mail-boats, the former being, however, some four days nearer than Vadsö. At the first glance one would naturally inquire:—Why was not Bodö chosen for our station in preference to the more distant Vadsö ? The chief reason was the very important one that at Vadsö the sun, at the time of total eclipse, attained an altitude of 15° above the horizon, while at Bodö the altitude was only some 7°; at Vadsö, too, the duration of totality was 106 seconds, as compared with 101 seconds at Bodö. As regards the chances of a clear sky, there was not much to choose between the two stations; on the west coast the rainfall was reported to be relatively large, while fogs were said to be of frequent occurrence at Vadsö. Vardö, some 40 miles east of Vadsö, was declared unsuitable on account of a still greater likelihood of trouble from sea fogs in the early morning, during summer. We therefore fixed on Vadsö as our observing station, and communicated with Professor Mohn of Christiania, the well-known meteorologist, as to the best steps to be taken for securing a favourable site for our instruments. We are indebted to him for much valuable advice, and to Dr Caspersen of Vadsö for his very material help in securing comfortable rooms for us there.