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This textbook is a systematic and straightforward introduction to the interdisciplinary study of creativity. Each chapter is written by one or more of the world's experts and features the latest research developments, alongside foundational knowledge. Each chapter also includes an introduction, key terms, and critical thought questions to promote active learning. Topics and authors have been selected to represent a comprehensive and balanced overview. Any reader will come away with a deeper understanding of how creativity is studied – and how they can improve their own creativity.
Adaptive Intelligence is a dramatic reappraisal and reframing of the concept of human intelligence. In a sweeping analysis, Robert J. Sternberg argues that we are using a fatally-flawed, outdated conception of intelligence; one which may promote technological advancement, but which has also accelerated climate change, pollution, the use of weaponry, and inequality. Instead of focusing on the narrow academic skills measured by standardized tests, societies should teach and assess adaptive intelligence, defined as the use of collective talent in service of the common good. This book describes why the outdated notion of intelligence persists, what adaptive intelligence is, and how it could lead humankind on a more positive path.
Neonatal hematology is a fast-growing field, and the majority of sick neonates will develop hematological problems. This is an essential guide to the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hematologic problems in the neonate. Guidance is practical, including blood test interpretation, advice on transfusions and reference ranges for hematological values. Chapters have been thoroughly revised according to the latest advances in the field for this updated third edition. Topics discussed include erythrocyte disorders, platelet disorders, leukocyte disorders, immunologic disorders and hemostatic disorders. Coverage of oncological issues has been expanded to two separate chapters on leukemia and solid tumors, making information more easily accessible. Approaches to identifying the cause of anemia in a neonate are explained, with detailed algorithms provided to aid clinicians in practice. Covering an important hematologic niche with an ever increasing amount of specialized knowledge, this book is a valuable resource for hematologists, neonatologists and pediatricians.
The species–area relationship (SAR) describes a range of related phenomena that are fundamental to the study of biogeography, macroecology and community ecology. While the subject of ongoing debate for a century, surprisingly, no previous book has focused specifically on the SAR. This volume addresses this shortfall by providing a synthesis of the development of SAR typologies and theory, as well as empirical research and application to biodiversity conservation problems. It also includes a compilation of recent advances in SAR research, comprising novel SAR-related theories and findings from the leading authors in the field. The chapters feature specific knowledge relating to terrestrial, marine and freshwater realms, ensuring a comprehensive volume relevant to a wide range of fields, with a mix of review and novel material and with clear recommendations for further research and application.
This chapter provides empirical analysis of ballot rolloff from 1940-2000. This era featured less partisan conflict than did the eras that came before and after this time period. One result of this is that ballot law changes were less partisan in nature and tended to work to benefit incument politicians. Our data demonstrate that ballot type faciltated growth in the incumbency advantage and produced lawmakers that were more effective at shepherding bills through the legislative process.
This chapter examines ballot formats in the United States from 1888 to 1940. Following the adoption of the Australian secret ballot states still had to decide the particular design of the new secret ballot. We show in this chapter that the decisions had enormous consequences for voter turnout and ballot roll-off at the state level. We provide detailed case studies of California, New York, and Maryland as well as an empirical analysis of voter turnout and ballot roll-off during this period.
This essay argues that social theory, and social science per se, must be reconstructed to address a rapidly emergent planetary crisis characterized by exceptional ecological degradation and extreme economic inequality. The task requires re-envisioning society as part of the interdependent “web of nature,” acknowledging that humans face ecological constraints like all other living things with which we share the planet, grasping the growth imperative for capital accumulation as the primary driver of the socioecological crisis, and coming to terms with the need to radically transform capitalism as we have known it to escape catastrophe.
Robert J. Antonio teaches sociology at the University of Kansas. He specializes in social theory, but also works on globalization, political economy, and the environment. Currently he is working on projects related to capitalism’s crisis tendencies, especially concerning the intersection of increased economic inequality, ecological risk, and democratic and authoritarian responses.
Brett Clark is Professor of Sociology, Environmental Humanities, and Environmental and Sustainability Studies at the University of Utah. His research interests include social theory, political economy, and ecology.
This chapter provides detailed case studies of recent ballot reform efforts in Michigan and North Carolina. These states have detailed data on the level of straight ticket voting by county. These data are used to demonstrate how county characteristics such as race, ethnicity, and poverty interact with straight ticket voting and ballot rolloff. We find a strong connection between straight-ticket voting, minority populations, and ballot rolloff. This chapter concludes with analysis of recent changes in Iowa and West Virginia. The findings for Iowa suggest that the effects of ballot design changes are muted in areas that have lower proportions of non-white residents and that are less densely populated.
Many environmental social scientists have seen our role as only empirically describing what occurs, from public opinion to social movements and risk perception. What is to be the contribution of environmental social sciences to imagining and building new low-carbon societies? This chapter reviews the “history of futuring” and its relation to environmental sociology. The rise of the concept of just transitions in particular and societal transitions more broadly have driven a new wave of envisioning of post-carbon futures, which has forced a set of more propositional approaches. We sketch eight positions, including the dominant “natural capitalism” and “breakthrough” ecomodernism, queer and anti-colonial transition thinking, and Geels’ multi-level perspective to design for transition. We review a number of red/green approaches: from “degrowth” and solidarity economics to red/green productivism and state-centered approaches, including the Green New Deal. Together, these represent significant new directions for environmental social sciences: not only describing social change, but also leading it. We argue this reconstructive turn in the environmental social sciences is much needed.
Optical tracking systems typically trade off between astrometric precision and field of view. In this work, we showcase a networked approach to optical tracking using very wide field-of-view imagers that have relatively low astrometric precision on the scheduled OSIRIS-REx slingshot manoeuvre around Earth on 22 Sep 2017. As part of a trajectory designed to get OSIRIS-REx to NEO 101955 Bennu, this flyby event was viewed from 13 remote sensors spread across Australia and New Zealand to promote triangulatable observations. Each observatory in this portable network was constructed to be as lightweight and portable as possible, with hardware based off the successful design of the Desert Fireball Network. Over a 4-h collection window, we gathered 15 439 images of the night sky in the predicted direction of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Using a specially developed streak detection and orbit determination data pipeline, we detected 2 090 line-of-sight observations. Our fitted orbit was determined to be within about 10 km of orbital telemetry along the observed 109 262 km length of OSIRIS-REx trajectory, and thus demonstrating the impressive capability of a networked approach to Space Surveillance and Tracking.
US federalism grants state legislators the authority to design many aspects of election administration, including ballot features that mediate how citizens understand and engage with the choices available to them when casting their votes. Seemingly innocuous features in the physical design of ballots, such as the option to cast a straight ticket with a single checkmark, can have significant aggregate effects. Drawing on theoretical insights from behavioral economics and extensive data on state ballot laws from 1888 to the present, as well as in-depth case studies, this book shows how strategic politicians use ballot design to influence voting and elections, drawing comparisons across different periods in American history with varying levels of partisanship and contention. Engstrom and Roberts demonstrate the sweeping impact of ballot design on voting, elections, and democratic representation.
This chapter comprises the following sections: names, taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, movements and home range, activity patterns, feeding ecology, reproduction and growth, behavior, parasites and diseases, status in the wild, and status in captivity.