To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The TL1 Team approach aims to train translational investigators capable of tackling complex and multifaceted diseases, such as hypertension, by beginning multidisciplinary, team-based training early in their graduate programs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Leanne Dumeny is a graduate student in Genetics and Genomics studying how pharmacogenomics can be applied to improve clinical care and cardiovascular outcomes. Chu Hsiao is a graduate student in Anthropology studying how sociocultural experiences become biologically embodied. Both are in the Ph.D. phase of M.D.-Ph.D. training. Joining the seemingly disparate but complementary fields of anthropology and genomics facilitates understanding of the intersection between socially driven experiences and genetics on nocturnal blood pressure. Understanding both social determinants, such as racial discrimination, and biological determinants, such as genetics, is important because an interplay of gene-environment interactions influences many complex diseases. Rarely can 1 individual, or 1 discipline, tackle all the perspectives necessary to answer these types of complex questions. The TL1 Team curriculum teaches students to navigate the spectrum of translational research as a team, reflect on disciplinary limitations, and embrace collaborative research. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This team project will investigate the relationship between racial discrimination and genetics using a large epidemiological cohort of African Americans in Mississippi. The data request application is currently under review. By the project’s end, the team anticipates their investigation will reveal novel associations between racial discrimination, genetic polymorphisms, and nocturnal blood pressure measurements. The investigators will have gained experience obtaining and analyzing large external data sets, working in diverse team settings, collaborating across state-lines, and publishing articles. Through this team approach, the students will also understand the barriers to working in multidisciplinary groups, and develop a foundation for approaching future collaborations. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: By joining anthropology with genomics, it becomes possible to understand the intersection between socially driven experiences of racial discrimination and genetics on nocturnal blood pressure. The successful training of this first cohort of team-applicants to the TL1 funding mechanism can impact how graduate education will be structured and could reframe graduate education to emphasize a team-based approach.
The effects of shape and thickness of a tin surface layer and of the energy of a 170 ps neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser pulse on the conversion efficiency (CE) into extreme ultraviolet emission in the 13.5 nm region is investigated. Whereas a CE of up to 1.16% into the 2% reflection band of multilayer Mo/Si optics was measured for a bulk Sn target at a laser energy of 25 mJ, significant CE enhancement up to 1.49% is demonstrated for a 200-nm-thick Sn layer on a microstructured porous alumina substrate.
Impairments in key neuropsychological domains (e.g. working memory, attention) and social cognitive deficits have been implicated as intermediate (endo) phenotypes for bipolar disorder (BD), and should therefore be evident in unaffected relatives.
Neurocognitive and social cognitive ability was examined in 99 young people (age range 16–30 years) with a biological parent or sibling diagnosed with the disorder [thus deemed to be at risk (AR) of developing BD], compared with 78 healthy control (HC) subjects, and 52 people with a confirmed diagnosis of BD.
Only verbal intelligence and affective response inhibition were significantly impaired in AR relative to HC participants; the BD participants showed significant deficits in attention tasks compared with HCs. Neither AR nor BD patients showed impairments in general intellectual ability, working memory, visuospatial or language ability, relative to HC participants. Analysis of BD-I and BD-II cases separately revealed deficits in attention and immediate memory in BD-I patients (only), relative to HCs. Only the BD (but not AR) participants showed impaired emotion recognition, relative to HCs.
Selective cognitive deficits in the capacity to inhibit negative affective information, and general verbal ability may be intermediate markers of risk for BD; however, the extent and severity of impairment in this sample was less pronounced than has been reported in previous studies of older family members and BD cases. These findings highlight distinctions in the cognitive profiles of AR and BD participants, and provide limited support for progressive cognitive decline in association with illness development in BD.
The Austrian scientist Ernst Mach (1838–1916) carried out work of importance in many fields of enquiry, including physics, physiology, psychology and philosophy. Published in this English translation of 1906, these essays examine geometry from three different perspectives. Mach argues that, as our ideas about space are created by the senses and how we experience our environment, researchers must not consider the subject from a mathematical standpoint alone. In the first essay, he explains how humans generate spatial concepts. Next, he discusses the psychology of geometry, its empirical origins, and its development. In the final piece, he writes from the viewpoint of a physicist, outlining how various mathematicians, such as Carl Friedrich Gauss and Bernhard Riemann, have contributed to our geometrical understanding. Also reissued in this series in English translation are Mach's The Science of Mechanics (1893) and Popular Scientific Lectures (1895).