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A student's t-test was applied in carbon nanospheres synthesis from cis-1,4-polyisoprene considering the green chemical principles. The synthesis was carried out by Chemical Vapor Deposition method with a quartz tube reactor using an AISI 304 steel bar as catalyst. It was possible to obtain two types of different samples, one from the surface of the steel bar (catalyst) and another from the quartz tube surface (without catalyst) in the same experiment. Carbon spheres were observed in both samples by micrographs obtained by FESEM. The Raman and FTIR spectroscopies shown characteristic bands of this carbon structures (G and D). The results obtained by student's t-test proved a statistical significance between spheres means of samples collected from steel bar and quartz tube surface.
We investigate the late-time Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) growth of sinuous perturbations on an air/sulphur hexafluoride interface (Atwood number,
$A \sim 0.67$
) subjected to a Mach 1.2 planar shock wave at Los Alamos National Laboratory's vertical shock tube facility. Interface perturbations are established using a novel membraneless technique where cross-flowing air and SF
separated by an oscillating splitter plate create a perturbed density interface. The interface formed has multi-modal features and residual small perturbations, however, a dominant mode is still noticeable. The late-time perturbation growths scale with
initial conditions (where
is the wavenumber and
is the initial amplitude of the dominant mode) as measured at the pre-shock interface. Past nonlinear models based on potential-flow theory, heuristic/interpolation approaches, Padé approximants and numerical simulations are evaluated against present experimental results. Accounting for an explicit
dependence in Sadot et al.'s (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 80, issue 8, 1998, pp. 1654–1657) model, we propose an empirical rational function that captures the asymptotic behaviour of perturbation growth for a broad range of initial conditions (
$0.30 \leq ka_0 \leq 0.86$
). The onset of mixing transition and its initial condition dependence are investigated with respect to the minimum state criterion (
$Re = 1.6 \times 10^5$
) for unsteady flows by Zhou (Phys. Plasmas, vol. 14, 2007, 082701). Earlier mixing transitions for higher
initial conditions are noted from local and global Reynolds number estimates which are corroborated by the existence of an inertial sub-range and formation of mixing regions indicating the physical significance of the minimum state criterion in RMI flows. The transition is accompanied by the increasing teapot-like appearance of joint probability density functions of
(invariants of the reduced velocity gradient tensor), establishing the technique as a useful tool for turbulence detection in two-dimensional diagnostics.
The Mayan Codex of Mexico (MCM), the only Mayan codex found in the 20th century, was unveiled in 1971 during the Ancient Maya Calligraphy exhibition at Club Grolier. The codex comprises 10 pages of bark paper in accordion format, coated with a layer of plaster on both sides. It illustrates the synodic cycles of Venus, with its four phases. Since its discovery, the MCM has been subject to controversy and discussions about its authenticity. In 2016, a group of specialists led by Baltazar Brito chief of the National Library of Anthropology and History, carried out an exhaustive study of the codex with the purpose of determining its temporality and authenticity. In this work, the pre-Columbian authenticity of the codex is verified by the radiocarbon (14C) technique using AMS. Two cleaning procedures were contrasted: the standard acid-base-acid (ABA) protocol and a second one with Soxhlet plus ABA. Results obtained when samples were prepared following ABA protocol only, placed the age of the bark paper between 991 and 1147 cal AD. The second cleaning method with Soxhlet plus ABA, resulted in younger ages, between 1159 and 1261 cal AD. However, we consider that when Sohxlet is used as part of the cleaning protocol, organic contaminants are reduced to a minimum, and 14C dates are more reliable. These results indicate that the vegetal support of the MCM belongs to Postclassical Mayan period and place it as the oldest known manuscript of America found to date.
In 1990, Latin American countries committed to psychiatric reforms including psychiatric bed removals. Aim of the study was to quantify changes in psychiatric bed numbers and prison population rates after the initiation of psychiatric reforms in Latin America.
We searched primary sources to collect numbers of psychiatric beds and prison population rates across Latin America between the years 1991 and 2017. Changes of psychiatric bed numbers were compared against trends of incarceration rates and tested for associations using fixed-effects regression of panel data. Economic variables were used as covariates. Reliable data were obtained from 17 Latin American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, El Salvador, Uruguay and Venezuela.
The number of psychiatric beds decreased in 15 out of 17 Latin American countries (median −35%) since 1991. Our findings indicate the total removal of 69 415 psychiatric beds. The prison population increased in all countries (median +181%). Panel data regression analyses showed a significant inverse relationship −2.70 (95% CI −4.28 to −1.11; p = 0.002) indicating that prison populations increased more when and where more psychiatric beds were removed. This relationship held up when introducing per capita income and income inequality as covariates −2.37 (95% CI −3.95 to −0.8; p = 0.006).
Important numbers of psychiatric beds have been removed in Latin America. Removals of psychiatric beds were related to increasing incarceration rates. Minimum numbers of psychiatric beds need to be defined and addressed in national policies.
Chapter eight discusses developments in the apportionment of jurisdiction between arbitrators and courts concerning the validity of contracts containing arbitration clauses, as well as developments pertaining to the severability doctrine and its connection to the U.S. common law on adjudicating challenges to the arbitral tribunal’s jurisdiction. The issue of orthodox and U.S. common law arbitrability as a gateway issue also is reviewed.
Eliminating the badges of judicial prejudice and hostility against arbitration has been a gradual doctrinal development, but certainly one that reached fruition with the Supreme Court’s mandate in Mitsubishi. The acceptance of arbitration as an alternative dispute resolution methodology in domestic and international contexts by all stakeholders has advanced the cause of fashioning a dispute resolution framework that helps to meet the contemporary demands of economic globalization. It has mitigated the fissure between an economic order characterized by the development of a transnational monolithic market and a fragmented international legal order.
The fifth chapter consists of a discussion of the International Bar Association (“IBA”) Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration, with reference to the Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce, the Rules of the International Center for Dispute Resolution, and the Rules of the London Court of International Arbitration. This section culminates with a synthesis of international arbitration rules analyzed through the prism of party-autonomy and some of the more salient features comprising the very fabric of the common law. Chapter five as well explores the “Prague Rules.”
Consists of a historical analysis of international commercial arbitration in the United States. It traces the origins of international commercial arbitration to the arbitration agreements that follow the 1687 enactment of the Statute of Fines and Penalties in England, and also references the Act of 1854 in England that vested courts with the discretion to stay a legal proceeding in deference to arbitration agreements. This chapter also documents early U.S. common law authority that was antagonistic to arbitration generally. This introduction in abbreviated manner reviews landmark Supreme Court decisions that most descriptively represent the development of international arbitration and arbitration generally as standing in pari materia with judicial proceedings.
Chapter six primarily focuses on the development and application of the common law doctrine of Manifest Disregard of the Law, and perhaps on its very disappearance. It undertakes this discussion, however, through paradigms exploring methodologies for possibly avoiding 28 U.S.C. §1782.
The third chapter reviews the development and current status of the doctrine of arbitrator immunity-liability. Comparative models between the U.S. common law and civil law jurisdictions are discussed. The role of the Supreme Court’s post-Civil War Reconstruction Era opinions are re-examined as part of the effort of exploring the doctrine’s development. It is asserted that post-U.S. Civil War Supreme Court jurisdiction profoundly has influenced the U.S. common law on arbitrator immunity.